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Name:

Muhammad Bin Naseem


Roll Number:
F16-0358
Section:
A
Department:
Department of
Agricultural Sciences
University:
University of Haripur
Email:
muhammadbinnaseem@gma
il.com
Submitted To:Rasheed Akber
Algae, Bacteria, Virus, Fungi
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ALGAE
Algae are the simplest form of oxygen-producing plants and
can grow in both fresh and salt water. Freshwater algae are of
the blue-green and green varieties. Blue-green algae form the
typical dark green scum on polluted or over fertilized water.
Green algae occasionally form blooms on the surface, which
float free or attach themselves to any solid object in the
water. Although algae form the basic building block in the
food chain in the water body, a great number of algae blooms
make the water undesirable for swimming or drinking
because of the discoloration or scum formed by the blooms.
Odor from decomposing algae can also result in aesthetic
problems. Algae control in lakes and ponds can be
accomplished with copper sulphate or piquet. Copper sulfate
has been used as a method of controlling algae.

FUNGI
Fungi (Lat. fungusmushroom) are eukaryotes with a distinct
nucleus and rigid chit nous cell wall and were formerly
regarded as plants without chlorophyll and are now grouped
with protozoa slime molds and most algae as Higher Protista.
Mycoses are infections caused by true fungi.

Eumycetes contains more than 80,000 species and


can be classified morphologically into:
Phycomycetous
Ascomycetes:
Basidiomycetes

Bacteria
Algae, Bacteria, Virus, Fungi
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Bacteria are prokaryotes, which means they are unicellular


and have no nucleus. They come in various shapes: rodlike,
spherical or spiral. Bacteria are very small. A typical one is
only several micrometres in size. 1 billion could fit on 1
square centimeter of space on the human gums, and 1 gram
of digested food has 10 billion bacteria.
Because they are such small organisms, light microscopes
can only let us see their shape, and how they move. Under an
electron microscope, we can see the details of their external
parts and perhaps a blurred center due to their genetic
material not being within a nucleus.
Bacteria have a cell wall that can be either thick or thin. The
chemical test, the Gram Staining technique, can help a
researcher to determine this characteristic for keying out and
idenficaton purposes. A think-walled bacteria will appear to
be purple for a positive Gram-staining, while bacteria will be
pink if they are Gram-negative.
Bacteria can have external locomotive structures called
flagella or pilli. Locomotive structures are those that allow the
organisms to move around in its environment
Bacteria belong to domain Eubacteria

VIRUS
A virus is an obligate cellular parasite that is completely
dependent on the host cell for its replication. The genome of
the virus may consist of single stranded or double stranded
DNA or RNA. The size of viral genomes varies widely and may
encode between one and 250 genes. Of most interest within
Algae, Bacteria, Virus, Fungi
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the study of Botany are viruses that are plant pathogens. The
majority of plant viruses have single-stranded, messengersense RNA genomes and encode only between one and 12
proteins. These proteins function in virus transmission, in
replication, cell-to-cell and systemic movement, in the
structure of the virus, and in the suppression of plant host
defense mechanisms. Virus replication takes place in distinct
virus-induced regions of the cell, the so-called viroplasms,
and induces the synthesis of a pool of virus components
followed by assembly of many virus particles from this pool.

Algae, Bacteria, Virus, Fungi


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