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FACIAL RECOGNITION

A project report

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for

The award of the degree of

Bachelors of Engineering

In

COMPUTER SCIENCE

BY-

PROJECT GUIDE-

Prateek Saraogi

(BE/10249/2013)

Shubham Pandey

(BE/10241/2013)

Shubhanshoo Agarwal

(BE/10173/2013)

DECLARATION CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the content of the project entitled FACIAL

RECOGNITON is a bona fide work carried out by Prateek Saraogi,

Shubham Pandey, Shubhanshoo Agarwal under my supervision and

guidance in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science of Birla Institute of

Technology, Mesra, Ranchi.

The contents of this project report have not been submitted earlier for the

award of any other degree or certificate. I hereby commend this work.

Date:

Associate Professor

Dept. of CSE

Birla Institute of Technology

Mesra, Ranchi-835215

Head

Dean

Department of CSE

(Undergraduate Studies)

BIT Mesra

BIT Mesra

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is understood

that by this approval, the undersigned do not necessarily endorse any

conclusion drawn or opinion expressed therein, but approved the project

report for the purpose for which it is submitted.

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

Head of Department

Computer Science and Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra

Ranchi 835215

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank all the people who helped and supported us in

writing the research project.

We would like to express our gratitude to our project guide, Dr. K. Sridhar

Patnaik, for constant motivation for working on this project. We are

grateful to have shared his experience in this field.

We would also want to thank all the other faculties, who have been our

lectures on various fields crucial to this project.

CONTENT

1. Introduction

1.1 Digital Image Processing

1.2 Image Recognition

1.3 IMED

1.4 Expression Detection

2. Literature Review

2.1 Euclidean Distance

2.2 IMage Euclidean Distance

2.3 Standardizing Transform

3. Research Background

3.1 Principle Component Analysis

3.2 Bayesian Similarities

3.3 Artificial Neural Network

4. Research Methodology

4.1 Block Diagram

4.2 Steps

4.2.1 Using Bayesian Similarity

4.2.2 Using Principal Component Analysis

5. Implementation

5.1 Demonstration with Images

5.2 Code Snippet

6. Future Works

7. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION

Digital Image Processing

Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to

perform image processing on digital images. As a subcategory or field

of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many

advantages over analog image processing. It allows a much wider range

of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such

as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. Since

images are defined over two dimensions (perhaps more) digital image

processing may be modeled in the form of multidimensional systems.

Facial Recognition

A facial recognition system is a computer application capable of

identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame

from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected

facial features from the image and a facial database. It is typically used in

security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as

fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. Recently, it has also become

popular as a commercial identification and marketing tool.

Unlike the traditional Euclidean distance, IMED (IMage Euclidean

Distance) takes into account the spatial relationships of pixels. Therefore,

it is robust to small perturbation of images. We argue that IMED is the

only intuitively reasonable Euclidean distance for images. IMED is then

applied to image recognition. The key advantage of this distance measure

is that it can be embedded in most image classification techniques such as

transformation referred to as Standardizing Transform (ST). We show that

ST is a transform domain smoothing. Using the Face Recognition

Technology (FERET) database and two state-of-the-art face identification

algorithms, we demonstrate a consistent performance improvement of the

algorithms embedded with the new metric over their original versions.

Expression Detection

Human facial expression recognition by a machine can be described as an

interpretation of human facial characteristics via mathematical

algorithms. Expressions of the face are read by an input sensing device

such as a web-cam. It reads the movements of the facial muscles and

communicates with computer that uses these gestures as an input. These

gestures are then interpreted using algorithm either based on statistical

analysis or artificial intelligence techniques. The primary goal of facial

recognition research is to create a system which can identify specific

human expression and use them to convey information. By observing

face, one can decide whether a man is serious, happy, thinking, sad,

feeling pain and so on.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Euclidean Distance

Among all the image metrics, Euclidean distance is the most commonly

used due to its simplicity. Let x, y be two M by N images, x = (x 1, x2,

., xMN), y = (y1, y2, , yMN), where x kN+l, y kN+l are the gray levels

at location (k, l). The Euclidean distance dE (x, y) is given by:

Euclidean distance defined above does not take into account that x, y are

images, xk, yk are gray levels on pixels. For images, there are spatial

relationships between pixels. The traditional Euclidean distance is only a

summation of the pixel-wise intensity differences and, consequently,

small deformation may result in a large Euclidean distance.

IMED

Generally, we call a Euclidean distance, IMage Euclidean Distance

(IMED) if the metric satisfies three conditions which lead to appealing

properties.

A Euclidean distance d (x, y) = [(x-y)TG(x-y)]1/2 , G = (gij)MN*MN is said

to be an IMED if the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The metric coefficient gij depends on the distance between pixels Pi

and Pj. Let f represent this dependency:

for images of a particular size or resolution.

Condition 1 means that the information about pixel distance must be

considered in the metric. Depending only on |Pi Pj| makes gij (and, hence,

the induced Euclidean distance) invariant to linear transformation of

images. It also implies that all the base vectors have the same length and,

therefore, gij is proportional to cos ij.

Condition 2 says how to merge the pixel distance into the metric

coefficients so that the induced distance is intuitively reasonable. The

continuity of f is a general necessity. The request that gij decreases as

|Pi Pj| increases means that the distance depends on the extent of the

deformation.

Finally, Condition 3 guarantees the universal validity of this distance

measure.

More precisely, Conditions 1-3 imply that IMED is characterized by the

following properties:

1. Small deformation yields small image distance. The stronger the

deformation, the larger the distance. And, the distance is continuous

to the extent of deformation.

2. The distance between two images remains invariant if we perform

the same translation, rotation, and reflection to the images.

3. The metric applies to images of any size and resolution.

Standardizing Transform

In these algorithms, one often needs to compute IMED,

i.e., (xi xj)TG(xi - xj), for all pairs of images. Thus, for large databases,

this evaluation is expensive. However, these computations can be greatly

simplified by introducing a linear transformation.

Consider a decomposition of matrix G, G = ATA. If we transform all

images x, y by A and denote u =Ax, v =Ay, ..., then IMED between

x, y is equal to the traditional Euclidean distance between u, v:

(x y)T G(x y)=(x y)TATA(x y)= (u v)T (u v)

utilizing the transformed images u, v, as inputs to the image recognition

algorithms. The decomposition can be written in another way by

G = G1/2G1/2;

where the symmetric matrix G1/2 is uniquely defined as

G1/2 = QA1/2QT

Here, A is a diagonal matrix whose elements are eigen values of G

(remember that G is positive definite, so the diagonal entries of A1/2 are

positive real numbers) and Q is an orthogonal matrix whose column

vectors are eigen vectors of G. Thus, applying the transformation G1/2 to

the images x, y

u=G1/2x, v=G1/2y

We call the transformation G1/2(.) Standardizing transform (ST). Hence,

feeding the transformed images to a recognition algorithm automatically

embeds IMED in it. An interesting result is that ST is a transform domain

smoothing. Note that ST is a composition of three operations

G1/2 = QA1/2QT

RESEARCH BACKGROUND

Principal Component Analysis

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was invented in 1901 by Karl

Pearson. PCA is a variable reduction procedure and useful when obtained

data have some redundancy. This will result into reduction of variables

into smaller number of variables which are called Principal Components

which will account for the most of the variance in the observed variable.

Problems arise when we wish to perform recognition in a highdimensional space. Goal of PCA is to reduce the dimensionality of the

data by retaining as much as variation possible in our original data set. On

the other hand, dimensionality reduction implies information loss. The

best low-dimensional space can be determined by best principal

components.

The major advantage of PCA is using it in Eigen face approach which

helps in reducing the size of the database for recognition of a test images.

The images are stored as their feature vectors in the database which are

found out projecting each and every trained image to the set of Eigen faces

obtained. PCA is applied on Eigen face approach to reduce the

dimensionality of a large data set.

Eigen Face Approach

It is adequate and efficient method to be used in face recognition due to

its simplicity, speed and learning capability. Eigen faces are a set of Eigen

vectors used in the Computer Vision problem of human face recognition.

They refer to an appearance based approach to face recognition that seeks

to capture the variation in a collection of face images and use this

information to encode and compare images of individual faces in a holistic

manner.

The Eigen faces are Principal Components of a distribution of faces, or

equivalently, the Eigen vectors of the covariance matrix of the set of the

face images, where an image with N by N pixels is considered a point in

images may give information of face images emphasizing the significance

of features. These features may or may not be related to facial features

such as eyes, nose, lips and hairs. We want to extract the relevant

information in a face image, encode it efficiently and compare one face

encoding with a database of faces encoded similarly. A simple approach

to extracting the information content in an image of a face is to somehow

capture the variation in a collection of face images.

We wish to get Principal Components of the distribution of faces, or the

Eigen vectors of the covariance matrix of the set of face images. Each

image location contributes to each Eigen vector, so that we can display

the Eigen vector as a sort of face. Each face image can be represented

exactly in terms of linear combination of the Eigen faces. The number of

possible Eigen faces is equal to the number of face image in the training

set. The faces can also be approximated by using best Eigen face, those

that have the largest Eigen values, and which therefore account for most

variance between the set of face images. The primary reason for using

fewer Eigen faces is computational efficiency.

Bayesian Similarities

The Bayesian approach provides the means to incorporate prior

knowledge in data analysis. Bayesian analysis revolves around the

posterior probability, which summarizes the degree of ones certainty

concerning a given situation. Bayess law states that the posterior

probability is proportional to the product of the likelihood and the prior

probability. The likelihood encompasses the information contained in the

new data. The prior expresses the degree of certainty concerning the

situation before the data are taken. Although the posterior probability

completely described the state of certainty about any possible image, it is

often necessary to select a single image as the result or reconstruction.

A typical choice is that image that maximizes the posterior probability,

which is called the MAP estimate. Other choices for the estimator may be

more desirable, for example, the mean of the posterior density function.

In situations where only very limited data are available, the data alone

may not be sufficient to specify a unique solution to the problem. The

prior introduced with the Bayesian method can help guide the result

toward a preferred solution. As the MAP solution differs from the

maximum likelihood (ML) solution solely because of the prior, choosing

the prior is one of the most critical aspects of Bayesian analysis. I will

discuss a variety of possible priors appropriate to image analysis.

Current approaches to image matching for visual object recognition and

image database retrieval often make use of simple image similarity

metrics such as Euclidean distance or normalized correlation, which

correspond to a standard template-matching approach to recognition. For

example, in its simplest form, the similarity measure S (I1, I2) between

two images I1 and I2 can be set to be inversely proportional to the norm

||I2 I1||. Such a simple formulation suffers from two major drawbacks: it

requires precise alignment of the objects in the image and does not exploit

knowledge of which type of variations are critical (as opposed to

incidental) in expressing similarity. In this paper, we formulate a

probabilistic similarity measure which is based on the probability that the

image-based differences, denoted by d (Il, I2), are characteristic of typical

variations in appearance of the same object. For example, for purposes of

face recognition we can define two classes of facial image variations:

intrapersonal variations 1 (corresponding, for example, to different

facial expressions of the same individual) and extra personal variations

E (corresponding to variations between different individuals). Our

similarity measure is then expressed in terms of the probability

S (I1, I2) = P (d (I1, I2) 1) = P (1|d (I1, I2))

where P (1|d (I1, I2)) is a posteriori probability given by Bayes rule, using

estimates of the likelihoods P (d (I1, I2) |1) and P (d (I1, I2) |E) which

are derived from training data using an efficient subspace method for

density estimation of high-dimensional data.

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing

paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as

the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the

novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a

large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurones)

working in unison to solve specific problems. ANNs, like people, learn by

example. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern

recognition or data classification, through a learning process. Learning in

biological systems involves adjustments to the synaptic connections that

exist between the neurones. This is done in ANN as well.

One special model of ANN is multilayer perceptron (MLP) which is a feed

forward model that maps sets of input data onto a set of appropriate

outputs.

An MLP consists of multiple layers of nodes in a directed graph, with each

layer fully connected to the next one. Except for the input nodes, each

node is a neuron (or processing element) with a nonlinear activation

function.

Backpropagation, an abbreviation for "backward propagation of errors",

is a common method of training artificial neural networks used in

conjunction with an optimization method such as gradient descent.

Two Passes: 1. Forward propagation of a training pattern's input through the neural

network in order to generate the propagation's output activations and

calculating the final output.

2. In Second pass weights are updated using the error signals which are

propagated in reverse direction from output layer to input layer.

REASEARCH METHODOLOGY

Block Diagram

Step 1

Resizing of image

Step 2 Standardzing Transform

Recognition using PCA

Step 3 Recognition using Bayesian Similarity

Step 4

Display of output

Steps

Using Bayesian Similarity

1. Training image acquisition and alignment: Before using the

system for recognizing faces, we have to train the system so that it

is able to identify faces. For this, we used 60 pairs of face images (2

images per individual) from the FERET database and those we have

taken. The training images are aligned into 24 by 24 grayscale

images. The aligned images are then put into a folder called

Training set. The following is a brief graphical description of how

we obtained the aligned training images. After doing that, we read

the images into a large matrix as column vectors. we also read the

images whose file names have 'a' (eg.1a.png) into another matrix

called ImgMatrixA and those with 'b' in the filenames into

ImgMatrixB.

calculate the intrapersonal differences (i.e. the differences between

images of the same individual). To do that we took each of the image

column vectors in ImgMatrixA and subtract it with another one with

the same index in ImgMatrixB. Then we subtracted the vectors the

other way around. This is make sure that the mean of the differences

is zero.

3. Selection of eigen vectors: After getting the zero-meaned

intrapersonal difference vectors, we had to get the eigenvectors that

will reduce the dimensionality of the images so that they are suitable

for feature extraction. For this purpose, we used the Matlab

implementation of eigen space decomposition, which is based on

Turk and Pentland's eigen space decomposition method.

4. Offline whitening translation: This is the crucial step in the

implementation of the system. This is where we performed offline

whitening transformation using the formula as proposed by

Moghaddam et tal in. The reason is to reduce the computational

complexity of iteratively calculating the differences between each

of the training images and the input image

important parts in the implementation of the system is in the

calculation of the normalizing denominator. It should be noted that

any mistake in the calculation of the denominator will result in the

lack of accuracy of the system in recognizing the images. we used

the normalizing formula to calculate the denominator.

6. Implementing the system: My face recognition system can be

described in the following diagram:

version of Ms. Lingyung Zhang's Matlab implementation of face

alignment. The program is modified in such a way that the aligned

image is directly passed as a parameter into the back end of the

system. The back end will treat the aligned image in the same

manner as the training images and then will calculate the Maximum

Likelihood (ML) estimations.

Using PCA

To Train a recognizer using a set of M images: 1. Convert the images into vector form: - N x N images is converted into

N2*1 image and combining all the vector form N2*M vector matrix.

2.Normalization of images: -Normalize of images is done by taking the

differences between the image vector and the average sum of all the

images.

ATA and calculating eigen-vectors corresponding to each facial image.

These correspond to the Eigen faces.

4. Taking K-useful eigenfaces to represent all the images. This eliminates

the noise used to represent the images.

5. Each image in the training set is represented by a weighted linear

combination K-eigen faces and mean sum of the images. We get a weight

vector corresponding to each image and have a weight matrix

corresponding the images.

To recognize an unknown image: 1. Convert the images into vector form.

2. Normalize the image.

3. Projection of input image to eigen faces to get a weight matrix.

4. This weight matrix is compared to all the weight matrix using

Euclidean distance. The minimum distance corresponding to a image will

give the most matching image.

IMPLEMENTATION

Best result from different methods

1.357 s IMED

13.826 s Euclidean

Diagram

Resizing and

converting the

image to

grayscale

Code Snippet

Create Database

Recognition

FUTURE WORKS

A. The Viola-Jones Object Detection Framework: -Viola and Jones

proposed in an object detection framework to detect faces in images.

The algorithm has four stages: the Haar Feature Selection, creating an

Integral Image, the Adaboost Training, and the cascading Classifiers.

Haar Features: -Haar features are digital image features used in object

recognition. Because all human faces share some common properties.

Integral image representation: -The integral image at location (x, y) is the

sum of the pixels above and to the left of (x, y). The integral image can be

calculated in a single pass and only once for each sub window.

The mechanism responsible for features selection is the Adaboost

Algorithm. This algorithm creates a strong classifier as linear combination

of weighted simple weak classifiers. First, the system chooses the most

efficient weak classifier that will be a component of the final strong

classifier. Then the weights will be updated to emphasize the examples

which were incorrectly classified. This procedure will be repeated for n

times. This makes the next weak classifier to focus on harder

examples. The final strong classifier is a weighted combination of the n

weak classifiers.

B. Image Cropping: - Once the face has been detected by the Viola-Jones

algorithm, a simple MATLAB routine was written to crop the face image

by detecting the coordinates of the top-left corner, the height and width of

the face enclosing rectangle.

C. Facial Image Preparation: -In order to recognize the facial expression

in the cropped image of the previous phase, the image has to be resized to

64 64 pixels. Next the RGB image is converted into grayscale

information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological

nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.

An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern

recognition or data classification, through a learning process. One special

model of ANN is multilayer perceptron (MLP) which is a feed forward

model that maps sets of input data onto a set of appropriate outputs. The

MLP consists of three or more layers: an input and an output layer with

one or more hidden layers. Since an MLP is a Fully Connected Network,

each node in one layer connects with a certain weight to every node in the

following layer MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called

backpropagation for training the network

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sources

[1] https://in.mathworks.com/help/images/

For documentation of various matlab image processing tools.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Wikipedia

[3] http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5808434/how-does-the-violajones-face-detection-method-work

cMinor answer for Viola Jones algorithm for face detection

Citations

[1] On the Euclidean Distance of Images, L Wang, Y Zhang, J Feng

http://www.cis.pku.edu.cn/faculty/vision/wangliwei/pdf/IMED.pdf

[2] Eigenfaces for Recognition, M Turk, A Pentland

http://www.face-rec.org/algorithms/PCA/jcn.pdf

[3] A Bayesian Similarity Measure for Direct Image Matching, B

Moghaddam, C Nastar, A Pentland

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=546848

[4] PCA by Victor Lavrenko

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbE0tbjy6JQ&feature=youtu.be&lis

t=PLBv09BD7ez_5_yapAg86Od6JeeypkS4YM

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