People everywhere enjoy talking about the weather, “Isn’t the weather nice today?” or “Hasn’t the weather been awful lately?” are excellent beginnings for informal conversations. Weather conditions across Romania are varied but generally speaking it is a temperate continental climate. The year is divided into four seasons: spring which begins officially with the equinox in mid March and then summer, autumn and winter. Temperatures in Romania are measured according to Centigrade not like in England and in the United States where they are measured according to the Fahrenheit scale, on which 32 degrees is the freezing point of water and 212 degrees the boiling point. Fahrenheit temperatures can be converted to Centigrade, and vice versa by the use of simple formulas that may be found in any general reference book. Winter weather varies widely: with severe conditions in the northern parts of the country and milder conditions in the southern areas. In the mountains, sub-zero temperatures are common and there is much snow. In the south there are fewer days with freezing temperatures. Spring is a delightful season. The temperatures are moderate, and the blooming trees and flowers make the city and the countryside bright with colour. Everyone longs to get outside and enjoy the new season. Many students find it hard to concentrate on their work and we jokingly refer to this condition as “spring fever”. Summer is longer and hotter in the southern part than in the northern one. The mountains and the sea coast generally enjoy moderate temperatures. Summer is the great season for all sports in the open air. Most people take their vacations during summer, and the highways are crowded. Autumn, like spring, has many mild days and comfortable temperatures. Nature puts on its second display of colour, with the red and yellow of the leaves and the bright fall flowers. Toward the end of autumn, there is abundant rain, as the weather gradually gets colder and winter sets in. Scientific weather forecasting is a serious matter and the concern of the Romanian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The weather reports and prediction are printed in most newspapers and are read regularly over the radio and TV. *** A: Do you think we’ll be able to go to the beach tomorrow? B: Why not? Have the plans changed? A: No, but I’m worried about the weather. It might rain. B: It certainly seems fine now. There’s not a cloud in the sky. A: Yes, but you know how quickly the weather can change around here.

B: Not a chance. The Weather Institute has announced fine weather. A: What time shall we be on the beach? B: Any time after day-break. Would seven o’clock do? Or perhaps you want to make it even earlier? A: Seven o’clock is all right with me. VOCABULARY awful – groaznic climate – climă equinox – echinox solstice – solstiţiu degree – grad to freeze – a îngheţa to convert – a transforma mild – blând delightful – încântător lately – în ultimul timp informal – neoficial accuracy – exactitate flood – inundaţie high wind – vânt puternic boiling point – punct de fierbere to be converted – a fi transformat reference book – carte de referinţă weather forecasting – timpul probabil according to – în conformitate cu to long – a năzui din tot sufletul, a dori fierbinte / cu pasiune, a tânji display – expunere, expoziţie, prezentare, etalare GRAMMAR THE PAST TENSE (Timpul trecut) Affirmative I visited You visited He, she, it visited We visited You visited They visited Negative I did not visit You did not visit He,she,it did not visit We did not visit You did not visit They did not visit Interrogative Did I visit? Did you visit? Did he,she,it visit? Did we visit? Did you visit? Did they visit? InterrogativeNegative Did I not visit? Did you not visit? Did he,she,it not visit? Did we not visit? Did you not visit? Did they not visit?

The use of the Past Tense

Rules 1. Past Tense exprimă o acţiune trecută terminată care nu are legătură cu prezentul. 2. Exprimă o acţiune care are loc într-un moment precis în trecut. 3. Exprimă o acţiune care are loc în cursul unei perioade terminate, exprimată prin adverbe de timp definit ca: yesterday, last night, last week etc. 4. După „when” se foloseşte întotdeauna Past Tense când acţiunea are loc în trecut 5. Pentru a exprima o acţiune repetată în trecut folosim used + infinitiv, would + infinitivul scurt

Examples They asked me to come earlier. I met him at a concert two weeks ago. We spent our vacation at the seaside last year. When did they graduate from the institute? He used to come and see us every week end. She would walk about the garden for hours.

ADJECTIVES – DEGREES OF COMPARISON ( Adjectivele – gradele de comparaţie) Comparaţia sintetică pozitiv comparativ superlativ 1. Adjective monosilabice tall taller the tallest 2. Adjective bisilabice terminate în: the prettiest prettier pretty -y the narrowest narrower narrow -ow the cleverest cleverer clever -er the ablest abler able -ble Adjective plurisilabice interesting Comparativul a) de superioritate b) de egalitate c) de inferioritate Superlativul a) absolut b) relativ c) de inferioritate Când se compară două lucruri sau fiinţe se foloseşte în general comparativul precedat de articolul hotărât, iar când se compară trei sau mai multe lucruri sau fiinţe se foloseşte superlativul. Comparaţia analitică more interesting the most interesting

taller than, more interesting than as tall as, as interesting as not so tall as, less tall than, not so interesting as, less interesting than very tall, very interesting the tallest, the most interesting the least tall, the least interesting John is the taller of the two brothers. John is the tallest of his classmates.

În limba engleză există comparative duble care denotă o intensificare ce se redă prin: a) repetare (din ce în ce mai, tot mai) b) cu ajutorul unor astfel de cuvinte sau expresii ca: far, still, ever, much, a great deal etc. Pentru a reda „cu cât mai...cu atât mai” se folosesc două comparative precedate de „the” Superlativul absolut se mai poate forma cu ajutorul următoarelor adverbe: extremely, terribly, exceedingly, quite. Most se foloseşte numai în cazul adjectivelor cu comparaţie analitică. Superlativul relativ al tuturor adjectivelor poate fi accentuat prin far şi by far.

The days are getting shorter and shorter. The problems to solve are more and more interesting. His exercise is far better than hers. We attach ever greater significance to this work. The longer the days the shorter the nights. The more you study the better you know your lesson. This is an extremely attractive book. They lived in a terribly noisy street. It was a most beautiful day. This homework is far more difficult than the previous one. Yesterday’s trip was less enjoyable than we expected by far.

EXERCISES I. Enlarge on: a) The weather conditions in Romania. b) The four seasons and their main characteristic. c) Your favourite season. II. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives: Sad, grey, dry, lovely, heavy, simple, mild, few, bright, hard, hot, yellow, abundant, serious, dangerous, dull, fresh, thick, cool, severe. III. Change the following sentences into the past: 1. Weather conditions change quite often. 2. The day is rainy and we can’t go on the trip. 3. I like to watch the snowflakes fall from the grey sky. 4. The streets are slippery and we have to be careful. 5. Towards the end of autumn the temperature grows colder. 6. Snow begins to melt under the bright sunrays. 7. Everything looks fresh, new and joyous. 8. We listen to the weather forecast on the radio. IV. Use the adjectives in brackets in the proper degrees of comparison: 1. Winters are (mild) in the southern areas of our country. 2. In the south there are (few) days with freezing temperatures. 3. Last year we had (heavy) snowfalls than usual. 4. In September we may have some of (lovely) autumn days. 5. The sky is cloudless and if the heat wave lasts, we might have (hot) month. 6. I feel (good) in spring than in any other

season. 7. Yesterday we had a very cold day but today it is much (cold). 8. It isn’t any (warm) today than it was yesterday, is it? 9. Which is the part of our country with (abundant) rainfall? 10. In spring flowers have (bright) colours. 11. In winter we have (low) temperatures with few days above the freezing point. 12. Summer is (good) season for outdoor sports. 13. Today it is (little) windy than yesterday. 14. I am sure my exercise is as (good) as yours. V. Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the adjectives or adverbs in brackets: 1. (soon, good) The…the rain stops the…2. (strong) The wind gets…and…3. (much, good) The…he worked the…results he obtained. 4. (early, good) The…we start the…5. (little) He seemed to get…and…interested in the subject. 6. (high, cold) The…we climbed the…it became. 7. (much, rich) The…you read the…becomes your vocabulary. 8. (fine, much) The…the weather the... agreeable our stay in the mountains. 9. (few) There are…and…mistakes in your exercises. VI. Translate into English: 1. Anul trecut am avut o iarnă aspră. 2. Noaptea trecută vântul a suflat foarte puternic. 3. Când a început să plouă? 4. Încercau să se concentreze asupra subiectului. 5. Merge la munte în fiecare vacanţă de iarnă. 6. Buletinul meteorologic a anunţat timp frumos. 7. A plecat ieri cu trenul şi se întoarce peste două săptămâni. 8. Nu am urmărit explicaţia. 9. Am hotărât să-mi schimb proiectele de vacanţă. 10. Luna trecută am făcut o excursie foarte frumoasă în nordul ţării. 11. Nu i-am recunoscut după atâţia ani. 12. În fiecare an merge în Deltă pentru câteva zile. 13. Când aţi vizitat Nordul Moldovei? 14. S-au hotărât în legătură cu data plecării. 15 Clima unei ţări depinde de poziţia sa geografică. 16. În România găsim o climă temperat-continentală caracterizată de existenţa a patru anotimpuri. 17. Vremea se schimbă odată cu schimbarea anotimpurilor. 18. În ţara noastră avem ceaţă destul de rar, dar în Marea Britanie sunt multe zile cu ceaţă.

As a rule we have three meals a day: breakfast in the morning, lunch in the middle of the day, and dinner in the evening. Breakfast is a frugal meal; nevertheless it means laying the table, boiling eggs, preparing tea and coffee to be served with rolls, toast, butter, marmalade, cheese, ham and some dairy products. Lunch usually begins with some appetizers such as a glass of plum brandy, some olives, then, comes a cold or warm hors-d’oeuvre followed by a soup. We, Romanians, are fond of clear soups, consommés, bouillons, meat ball soups, dumpling soups and chicken borsch. For the main course we may usually have some grilled, roast, boiled or fried fish or meat with plenty of vegetables or rice, some fruit, fresh or stewed, a cake, some icecream, a pie and a cup of black coffee to finish with. We generally have water or mineral water for lunch, but on special occasions we may have wine or beer. The Romanian dinner may be a light meal consisting of a glass of tea or milk and some sandwiches or it may be a big meal with cold meat or roast poultry, an omelette, a salad, and a pudding followed by some sweets. In England, meal-times differ from ours. The English have their breakfast between seven and nine in the morning, lunch between twelve and two in the afternoon, tea between four and five o’clock and dinner at seven in the evening. They may also have supper, a light meal at about 10 or 11, at home or at the restaurant. English breakfast is generally a more substantial meal than in our country. It consists of fruit juice, corn flakes with milk, cream and sugar or porridge, followed by fried bacon and eggs. Some marmalade made of oranges maybe spread on the toast. Sometimes they may have a boiled egg, cold ham and black or white coffee. English food is rather plain compared to ours. They are not very fond of soups and they prefer warm consommés, beef, chicken, oxtail soups or cream soups. Fish, meat or poultry which comes next is generally fried or roasted. The favourite meal with the British is mutton and lamb with a mint sauce and all sorts of sautéed vegetables and mixed salads. As for supper they may have fish, cold veal, pork or a steak and chips with some vegetables. Before having a meal we lay the table, we spread the table cloth and put on glasses, napkins, the salt cellar, the pepper box, the mustard pot, the bread basket. If it is breakfast we take the sugar-basin, cups, saucers, teaspoons, forks and knives out of the side-board. We cut the bread, the ham, the sausages and the cheese into slices and put them on a dish. For dinner we put soup plates and dinner plates before each person. The soup is brought in a soup-tureen and the other courses on dishes and plates.

When the meal is over, we clear the table. We clear away the plates, dishes and cutlery and wash them up in the kitchen. *** Alice: What are we going to have for lunch today? Mother: Well, we have soup, beef steak and chips and an apple-pie. But are you already hungry? It’s rather early for lunch. I was just baking the pie. Alice: All right. I’ll wash my hands and set the table until everything is ready. Mother: Lunch is ready now. You may go and call the others. John: Steak and chips! That’s my favourite meal! Mother: Help yourself until they are still hot, but remember we have apple-pie for dessert. VOCABULARY frugal – frugal, cumpătat roll – chiflă, corn appetizer – aperitiv hors-d’oeuvre – gustare înaintea mesei propriu-zise consommé – supă bouillon – ciorbă ţărănească, bulion course – fel de mâncare (ca ordine) to grill – a frige la grătar to broil – a frige la grătar to boil – a fierbe to roast – a (se) frige, a (se) prăji to fry – a (se) prăji pickles – murături poultry – carne de pasăre, păsări de curte pudding – budincă porridge – griş de ovăz fiert în lapte (terci de ovăz) plain – fad, fără gust mutton – carne de oaie lamb – carne de miel steak – friptură la grătar sideboard – bufet (cu veselă) soup-tureen – supieră dish – 1. platou de servit, farfurie; 2. fel de mâncare; pl. vase (de bucătărie) cutlery – tacâmuri helping – porţie dairy products – produse lactate plum brandy – ţuică meat ball soup – ciorbă de perişoare dumpling soup – supă cu găluşte stewed fruit – compot

oxtail soup – supă de coadă de vită to lay the table – a pune masa to set the table – a pune masa to spread the table cloth – a întinde faţa de masă to clear the table – a strânge masa help yourself to… - serviţi-vă cu …

GRAMMAR THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (Trecutul Continuu) Affirmative I was coming You were coming / You’re coming He, she, it was coming We were coming You were coming They were coming Interrogative Was I coming? Were you coming? Was he, she, it coming? Were we coming? Were you coming? Were they coming? Negative I was not (wasn’t) coming You were not (weren’t) coming He, she, it was not coming We were not coming You were not coming They were not coming Interrogative – Negative Was I not coming? / Wasn’t I coming? Were you not coming? Was he, she, it, not coming? Were we not coming?/Weren’t coming? Were you not coming? Were they not coming? we

Se formează din verbul TO BE la timpul trecut şi participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: WERE / WAS + Ving The use of the Past Continuous Tense Rules Examples 1. Trecutul continuu exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare la un moment dat în trecut. This time yesterday I was preparing lunch. Acest moment poate fi indicat de: a) o expresie adverbială: at...o’clock, at that time, this time yesterday I was just having breakfast when you b) o altă acţiune: came.

2. Pentru acţiuni paralele în trecut, forma continuă se poate folosi atât în propoziţia principală, cât şi în cea secundară. De obicei, se evită folosirea formei continue în ambele propoziţii.

While we were having dinner we watched TV. sau While we had dinner we were watching TV. 3. În vorbirea indirectă în locul prezentului Vorbire directă: She said: ”I am cooking continuu. lunch just now”. Vorbire indirectă: She said she was cooking lunch just then. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS (Pronumele reflexive şi de întărire) myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves oneself Pronume reflexive I cut myself (m-am tăiat) He enjoys himself (se distrează) She came by herself (a venit singură) See for yourselves (convingeţi-vă singuri) To be by oneself ( a fi singur) Pronume de întărire I did it myself (eu însumi am făcut-o) He himself cooked the meal (el însuşi a gătit mâncarea) We prepared everything ourselves (am pregătit totul singuri)

Rules Pronumele reflexiv, se aşează după verb şi se foloseşte: 1. când acţiunea verbului se răsfrânge asupra subiectului. Tendinţa actuală este de eliminare a pronumelui. 2. în diateza reflexivă. 3. în expresii idiomatice precedat de „by”, „of”, „for” (cu sensul de singur)

Examples I cut myself while I was preparing soup. You wash (yourself) in the morning.

He enjoyed himself at the party. I was all by myself when it happened. The plate fell of itself. You must see for yourself. 4. în comparaţii după „like”, „than”, „as” în He is a better cook than herself. locul pronumelui personal. Pronumele de întărire se aşează în general He himself has made the layer cake. după substantivul sau pronumele pe care îl He has made the layer cake himself. întăreşte sau la sfârşitul propoziţiei. EXERCISES I. Translate the following questions and answer them: a) 1. What does your breakfast usually consist of? 2. Is there any difference between Romanian and English breakfast? 3. Do you generally have lunch at home or at a canteen? 4. What is your favourite sweet dish? 5. Why do the English pour milk in their

coffee? 6. What are the English meals? 7. What are their favourite dishes? 8. How do you lay the table for two? b) 1. Care sunt principalele mese ale zilei? 2. Obişnuiţi să luaţi o masă copioasă seara? 3. Preferaţi apă minerală sau vin la masa de prânz? 4. Ajutaţi vreodată pe părinţi la strânsul mesei? 5. Vă place cafeaua neagră sau o preferaţi cu lapte? 6. Vă place mâncarea mai gustoasă sau mai fadă? II. Answer the question using the Past Tense Continuous of the underlined verbs in your answers: Model: Why did you put salt in your coffee? (to read at breakfast time) I put salt in my coffee because I was reading at breakfast time. 1. Why didn’t you buy anything for lunch? (to rain when I wanted to go out). 2. When did you learn that wonderful recipe? (to live with my aunt). 3. Why did the coffee boil over? (not to watch it). 4. When did you get the bad news? (to have lunch). 5. Why is your cake burned? (to do several things at a time). 6. When did you break the plate? (to try to dry it). 7. When did you cut yourself? (to sharpen the knife). 8. Why didn’t you help the guests to some cake? (just to bake it). III. Fill in the blanks with the suitable reflexive or emphatic pronouns: 1. Don’t eat too much or you’ll make…ill. 2. I tried to cook the meal…3. Make…at home and tell me what’s all about. 4. I can only speak for…5. he is a much better cook than…6. Go and see for…7. Help…to some more ice-cream. 8. We enjoyed…at the party last night. IV. Link the sentences in each pair using the words in brackets; make all the necessary changes. Model: (While) The phone rang. We had breakfast. The phone rang while we were having breakfast. 1. (while) I prepared dinner. The children laid the table. 2. (just as) The lights went off. The guests arrived. 3. (as) I remembered I was short of flour. I prepared the vegetables for the pudding. 4. (while) I dropped too much salt in the salad. I dress it. 5. (while) I dropped a plate and broke it. I cleared the table.

A library is a building with a large collection of books where you can borrow books free of charge. You have only to know your way around a library and you can easily find any fact or idea you are looking for. There are all kinds of books: novels, short stories, plays, books of reference such as dictionaries, biographies, then scientific books, historical books, collection of poems, periodicals, magazines, etc. The library has a system: each book that the library owns is listed on an index card catalogue. The card catalogue can tell you immediately whether the library owns a copy of the book you want. The librarian, on the other hand, will tell you whether the book is in the library or has been lent. For each book in the library the card catalogue contains an author card, a title card and a subject card. On the upper left hand corner of each of these cards is the call number by which you can find the book. If you want a book or a magazine you need an admission card issued by a member of the staff of the library. Then, you pick up an application slip, you look up the title of the book in the alphabetic or subject catalogue, you fill in the slip by entering the title of the book, the shelf mark and the author’s name. The book will be delivered to you by a member of the staff. Moat public libraries have reading rooms provided with tables at which you may sit and read. If you want to take books for home reading you may do so by going to the lending department which runs a loan service. You may borrow one or two books at a time and you may keep them for a week or more. If by the end of this period you have not finished reading the book, you may renew it. While reading a book, make note of your thoughts and feelings as you go along. Reading is not only a pastime and a mean of education, it can lead you to a richer understanding of yourself as well as of the life around you. *** Jane: I say Allan, can you give me some advice about reading, please? Allan: As you well know, reading is an essential part of your university life. Since all knowledge cannot be obtained in the classroom alone much of it must come from reading textbooks, reference books and other materials. The library of our Academy is well provided with a large stock of books, both in Romanian and in foreign languages. Jane: So, do you think I could find there some specialized books recommended in the bibliographies to our courses? Allan: Of course you could, there are latest editions published in our country and abroad.

Jane: And what can you recommend me for my spare time, I mean something to improve my English? Allan: Try things that don’t make difficult reading: short-stories, novels, plays, some modern authors who write in a simple straightforward style. So, start with Oscar Wilde, then G. Green, S. Maugham. Jane: Thank you very much. I shall follow your advice. VOCABULARY to borrow – a lua cu împrumut to look for – a căuta novel – roman short-story – nuvelă periodical – publicaţie periodică abroad – în străinătate to lend, lent, lent – a da cu împrumut to issue – a emite, a publica, (aici) a elibera o legitimaţie textbook – manual index card – fişă de cartotecă card catalogue – cartotecă, fişier author card – fişier pe autori title card – fişier pe titluri subject card – fişier tematic call number – cota (cărţii) admission card – legitimaţie de intrare shelf mark – fişier pe rafturi lending department – secţie de împrumut well provided – bine aprovizionat spare time – timp liber straightforward style – stil direct book of reference – îndreptar, carte de consultat to fill in a slip – a completa un formular statistical year book – anuar statistic the book is sold out – cartea este epuizată GRAMMAR 1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ( Mai mult ca perfectul) Mai mult ca perfectul se formează din forma de Past Tense a verbului TO HAVE şi participiul trecut (forma a treia) a verbului de conjugat: HAD + V3 Affirmative I had stopped / I’d stopped You had stopped Negative I had not stopped / I hadn’t stopped You had not stopped

He, she, it had stopped / He’d stopped We had stopped You had stopped / You’d stopped They had stopped Interrogative Had I stopped? Had you stopped? Had he, she, it stopped? Had we stopped? Had you stopped? Had they stopped? Rules - Exprimă o acţiune trecută, terminată înaintea unui moment dat din trecut. - Exprimă o acţiune trecută, terminată, anterioară altei acţiuni trecute. - Se foloseşte în propoziţii secundare temporale pentru a exprima o acţiune anterioară unui moment viitor (sau viitor faţă de trecut). - Exprimă o acţiune începută înaintea unui moment trecut şi care se continuă până în acel moment.

He, she, it had not stopped We had not stopped You had not stopped They had not stopped Interrogative-Negative Had I not stopped? / Hadn’t I stopped? Had you not stopped? Had he, she, it not stopped? Had we not stopped?/ stopped? Had you not stopped? Had they not stopped? Examples By seven o’clock I had translated the article. When she had finished the book, she returned it to the librarian. I shall lend you the book after I had read it. He promised he would lend me the book when he had read it himself. She told me that she had been busy since she came back from school. Hadn’t we

2. THE GENITIVE CASE (Cazul Genitiv) Rules Genitivul prepoziţional: -se foloseşte cu substantivele care denumesc lucruri sau noţiuni abstracte. Genitivul Saxon: - se foloseşte cu substantivele care denumesc fiinţe, persoane. Examples the colour of the wall. the city of London. the 23rd of May. the pupil’s room the student’s library Peter’s mother Burns’(s) poems - cu substantivele care denumesc noţiuni de timp, de distanţă sau greutate (şi cu a minute’s silence substantive care denumesc zile, a two miles’ walk


today’s program

- cu substantivele care denumesc fenomene the night’s coolness the ocean’s roar naturale, aspecte din natură. London’s parks - cu substantive care denumesc continente, Romania’s economy ţări, oraşe şi cu substantivele: city, country, our country’s natural wealth town. the car’s performance - cu anumite substantive ca: the sun, the the sun’s rays moon, the earth, car, ship, boat, vessel, the ship’s crew body, mind, science. for goodness’ sake - cu câteva substantive comune urmate de for mercy’s sake sake. - în expresii consecrate. at her heart’s desire at one’s fingers’ ends - substantivele house, shop, store, office, St. Paul’s (cathedral) was rebuilt by Sir cathedral sunt adesea omise după Christopher Wren. substantive aflate la genitivul sintetic. We buy bread at the baker’s (shop).

EXERCISES I. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the library meant for? 2. What is a card catalogue? 3. What does a card catalogue contain? 4. What do you have to do if you want to read a book in a library? 5. Can we take books for home reading? 6. How long can you keep them? 7. Describe a reading room in the Faculty of Economic Studies. II. Supply the Past Perfect of the verbs in brackets: 1. Undergraduates could use the library after they (to register) as readers and (to get) an admission card. 2. He (to finish) just the books borrowed from the library when he went to take some new. 3. I read the book after I (to finish) my work. 4. My friend (not to read) an English book for years. 5. There were plenty of books that (to be rewritten) in simple language. 6. He told me he preferred to read a more difficult book that one which (to be made) simpler. 7. I (to finish) reading the story when he promised me an amusing novel. 8. By that time I already (to go through) half of the play. III. Change the following sentences so as to use a negative Past Perfect instead of the Past Tense. Make all the necessary changes:

Model: I read a very interesting novel last year. I had never read such an interesting novel before. 1. It was the first time I read an English book. 2. There were many people in the reading room that day. 3. I often borrowed books from the library as a student. 4. This was the first dictionary I consulted. 5. While reading, I looked up the unknown words in the dictionary. 6. The book was first published in 1980. 7. I renewed the book for another week. 8. The writer signed the book with a pseudonym. IV. Substitute synthetic genitive forms for prepositional genitive forms: 1. He arrived at the library with a delay of a few minutes. 2. There is nothing like a holiday of a week in the company of a good book. 3. He promised to leave the place within a time of six weeks. 4. What is the point of view of the author? 5. Here is the news in the newspaper of yesterday. 6. You may find him I the office of the editor-in-chief. 7. I had to borrow the dictionary of Jane to look up some unknown words. 8. The book dealt with the economic development of Romania. V. Translate into English: a) 1. Care este programul zilei? 2. Performanţele maşinii lui sunt într-adevăr neobişnuite. 3. Cumpăr pâine la brutărie şi carne la măcelărie sau îmi fac toate cumpărăturile la supermarket. 4. Orice student de limbă engleză ar trebui să aibă dicţionarul de pronunţie al lui Daniel Jones. 5. L-ai cunoscut pe bunicul Anei şi al lui Paul, cel care era pasionat după romanele ştiinţifico-fantastice? 6. Sala de lectură a bibliotecii noastre este o încăpere mare şi luminoasă. b) 1. Învăţasem deja câte ceva despre felul de viaţă al englezilor când m-am dus la Londra. 2. Săptămâna trecută am împrumutat o carte de la bibliotecă; nu am mai împrumutat niciodată o carte până atunci. 3. Când am ajuns în sala de lectură toate locurile erau deja ocupate. 4. Bibliotecara mi-a spus că împrumutase cartea cu câteva zile în urmă. 5. Până la începutul anului universitar a făcut rezumatele tuturor cărţilor citite în timpul vacanţei. 6. La librărie am aflat că manualul fusese retipărit. 7. Mi-am amintit că am mai citit această carte cu ani în urmă. 8. Cartea fusese deja tradusă în mai multe limbi când am cumpărat-o.

Maggie: Jenny, this is my friend Liz Taylor. She’s my next door neighbour … Jenny: Is this Taylor or Gaylor? Liz: Taylor. T A Y L O R. Hello! Nice to meet you. Jenny: Hello! Pleased to meet you, too. Where are you from? Liz: I’m from Scotland. From Edinburgh. What’s your nationality? Are you British, too? Jenny: No, I „m from Canada, from Toronto. What’s your job? Liz: I’m an art student, a sophomore, but I’m a sales-assistant in the holidays. What about you? Are you a student in the University, too? If not, what’s your occupation? Jenny: I’m studying in London University College. I’m a fresher. Liz: I’m glad to have you as a neighbour. But isn’t this flat too expensive? Jenny: Oh, yes, it is. I’m moving to a hotel. Liz: I’m sorry. I like it here. I’m used to living in a house. In Edinburgh I live in a small house with my family, in a suburb, at 10 Cherry Tree Lane. Jenny: What’s Edinburgh like? Liz: It is the capital of Scotland, which is part of Great Britain. With half a million inhabitants, it is situated on the Firth of Forth, in the south-east of the country, but it is not very big. You can see green hills from its centre. There are thousands of tourists in Edinburgh every summer, especially during the International Festival of Music, Drama and the Arts, in August and September. It is a beautiful and historic city, with large avenues, like Paris. There are lots of interesting buildings: the Edinburgh Castle is in the centre of the city on a high hill. From the Castle to Holyrood House (the former residence of Scottish Kings) there’s a very old street, the Royal Mile. There are also beautiful parks and Botanical Gardens. It is also an industrial city and a busy port. EXPLANATORY NOTES fresher – student în primul an sophomore – student în anul doi junior – student în anul trei senior – student în anul partru (terminal) Ei sunt numiţi în general “undergraduates” sau “undergraduettes”. După absolvire ei sunt “Bachelor of Arts (or Science)” – BA sau BS/BSc. Următorul grad este cel de “Master of Arts (or Science)” – MA/MSc. Cel mai înalt grad este cel de “Doctor in Philosophy” – PhD, or “Doctor of Science” – DSc.

Other jobs are: architect – architect air-hostess – stuardeză barber – bărbier, frizer carpenter – tâmplar clerk – funcţionar doctor – medic, doctor dress-maker – croitoreasă electrician – electrician hairdresser – coafeză, frizer journalist – journalist, ziarist mechanic – mechanic model – model pilot – pilot postman – poştaş photographer – fotograf secretary – secretară shop-keeper – negustor taxi-driver – taximetrist, şofer de taxi teacher – învăţător, professor (în învăţământul preuniversitar) vet – veterinar waitress – chelnăriţă waiter - chelner GRAMMAR THE PAST PERFECT TENSE (Continuous Aspect) Mai mult ca perfectul (Aspectul continuu) Este alcătuit din forma de Present Perfect a verbului TO BE urmată de participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAD BEEN + Ving Affirmative Form I had been working / I’d been working You had been working He, she, it had been working We had been working You had been working They had been working Interrogative Form Had I been working? Had you been working? Had he, she, it been working? Had we been working? Negative Form I had not been working/I hadn’t been You had not been working He, she, it had not been working We had not been working You had not been working They had not been working Interrogative-Negative Form Had I not been working? Hadn’t I been ...? Had you not been working? Had he, she, it not been working? Had we not been working? Had you not been working?

Had you been working? Had they been working? Rules 1. Timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspectul continuu arată o acţiune începută înaintea unui moment trecut care continuă şi în acel moment. 2. O acţiune repetată exprimată prin timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect comun, poate fi uneori exprimată şi prin timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect continuu.

Had they not been working? Examples When you came, I had been writing letters for an hour. He had tried five times to get her on the phone. He had been trying to get her on the phone.

EXERCISES I. Complete the answers to the following questions about your job: 1. What’s your job? / I’m a(n) … (office-worker / engineer / economist / lawyer / doctor /secretary /nurse /worker / research worker) 2. Where do you work? / I work in a(n) … (office / factory / research centre / hospital) 3. How far is it from your house? / It is a … from my house. (20-minute walk / car drive / bus ride). 4. How long have you had this job? / I’ve had this job for…years. 5. What are the working hours? / I work from…a.m. to…p.m. every day. 6. How many weeks’ holiday do you have? / I have a…holiday every year. (two-week / three-week / four-week). 7. What training do you have? / I went to the… (Polytechnic / University / Vocational school). 8. What are your prospects? / I can become a…in…years’ time. (senior clerk/ deputy manager / top executive / general foreman /(chief) supervisor) II. Now, you formulate the questions necessary to interview someone about his/her job. Refer to his/her: job, workplace, distance from home, working hours, holiday, seniority in the job, training, prospects. III. Read this passage: My Job My name is Sandra Vlad, I’m 29, I’m married and have two children. I work in an office in a big shoe factory, as a secretary to the deputy factory manager. It is a half-hour bus ride from my house in the suburbs to the factory which is situated in the industrial district of the town. I have worked here for the past five years. My working hours are 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., five days a week. A ten-hour day is not unusual when there are important management meetings. Every day I open the manager’s letters, take them to him, write down the answers and then type and send them.

I also answer incoming phone calls, dial some outgoing ones – to other shoe manufacturers, to raw material suppliers or to important customers - , take messages when the manager is away and handle routine enquiries. I greet the visitors and take down notes in shorthand at important executive meetings. I earn quite a good salary and have a two-week holiday every year, as I have not worked long enough to be entitled to a longer holiday. I finished a secondary school ten years ago. There I learned shothand and typing as part of the school’s programme of vocational training. After graduation I became a telephonist and did several months’ training with the Central Post-Office for which I worked for three years. Then I had a two-year break for children. I returned to work five years ago, and took the job I’m still having. I enjoy my job, although it may be very tiring sometimes. I feel I play a responsible part in the factory’s life, I am the first contact anyone has with the management. I like to be friendly and to meet lots of people. IV. Write about: Sandra Vlad’s job; the ideal job. V. Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few, a few, much, many: 1. I have…pens; I can give you one. 2. I have…pens. I need them. 3. There are…sheets of carbon paper there; you may take two or three. 4. There are…sheets of carbon paper there; you may not take any. 5. There isn’t…time left before office-hours are over. 6. There are…clerks in our office. 7. …care should be taken when writing a report. 8. There are…mistakes in this typed letter; please, re-type it. VI. Use the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous Tense: 1. When I met him he (work) in the enterprise for 10 years. 2. When I finished writing the minutes, I realized I (make) some mistakes. 3. When I passed by the office-building under construction, a man told me they (work) on it for three months. 4. When he finally arrived at the office, his colleague (wait) for him for an hour. 5. When you entered my office, I (prepare) my speech for 2 hours. 6. When the head of the department came in, I (file) papers for an hour. 7. When the office-hours were over, I (work) for 8 hours. 8. When he finished his speech, we (listen to) him for half an hour. VII. Translate into English: a) 1. Ştiam să bat la maşină şi să stenografiez de 10 ani când am venit în acest birou. 2. Scriam un referat de 2 ore când a intrat directorul şi mi-a cerut să adaug o nouă problemă. 3. El lucra de 20 de ani în industrie cân a devenit şeful secţiei. 4. Am încercat să te găsesc la telefon toată dimineaţa înainte ca în sfârşit să-mi răspunzi. 5. Negocierile au durat 2 săptămâni înainte să se semneze contractul. 6. Eram obosită când ai venit, pentru că făcusem 4 ore de traducere simultană în sala de conferinţe. 7. Scrisorile au putut fi expediate pentru că le bătusem la maşină în ziua aceea. b) – Cu ce te ocupi Jane? - Sunt stenodactilografă la o intreprindere de comerţ exterior din Bucureşti.

- Îţi place meseria ta? - Da, foarte mult. De aceea am urmat cursurile şcolii de stenodactilografie. Acum, după 5 ani de experienţă, redactez 50 de cuvinte pe minut şi stenografiez 100 de cuvinte pe minut. - Care este partea cea mai interesantă a muncii tale? - Faptul că tot ce fac îmi oferă sentimentul răspunderii. Atunci când redactez o scrisoare comercială, ştiu că orice greşeală poate face o impresie proastă asupra partenerului străin şi, în consecinţă, fac toate eforturile ca scrisoarea să arate ireproşabil. Acest lucru este valabil şi pentru celelalte activităţi ale mele: imaginează-ţi ce s-ar întâmpla dacă aş îndosaria greşit documentele! - Întrucât eşti atât de conştiincioasă, bănuiesc că eşti apreciată în întreprinderea unde lucrezi. - Sper că da!

There are different kinds of public meetings. Members of parliaments and other similar national assemblies are summoned to sessions and sittings. Delegates of the political party gather for their regular conferences or congresses. Meetings and conventions are held also by trade unions, women’s organizations, artists, journalists, businessmen, etc. Sometimes men and women come to spontaneous rallies to protest against armaments drive, deployment of missiles, race barriers, etc, or to express their solidarity with the peoples fighting colonialism, for peace in the world. Scientists are convened to national and international symposia. The meeting can be ruled by its own “standing orders”, unwritten regulations and customs. These “rules of procedure” have been designed to enable any official gathering to be effective and legally correct. Any meeting is presided over by the chair (or the chairman), whose main duty is to conduct the meeting taking decisions on particular problems of the proceedings. He announces what the business is, gives members permission to speak, calls for a vote on a motion, announces the results of a vote and generally preserves order. All speeches or remarks of those present are addressed to the chair. The relator (raporteur)’s duty is to give the required explanation. The secretary’s duty is taking minutes. As soon as a person takes up chairmanship he calls the meeting to order and asks the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting. When they have been read, he asks “Are there any omissions or errors?” If the minutes are correct, a member moves that they should be adopted. This is seconded by another member. The chairman puts the motion to a vote. If there is an error or an omission, a member moves that a correction be made. After the minutes have been discussed and approved the meeting proceeds then to “Business Arising From the Minutes”. Members may ask for explanations why certain steps have not been taken or taken in the wrong way. The purpose of any public meeting consists in exchanging opinions and views on the matter discussed and adopting a certain decision. Most resolutions are voted by a mere show of hands and considered adopted if a bare majority of members are in favour of it. For more important decisions the so-called “constitutional majority” is necessary, amounting to two-third of the members of the assembly. Speakers are to keep to the point and they must confine themselves to the time limit established by the meeting at the beginning of its work. Some members neglect these rules, they take the floor on every item on the agenda and speak endlessly. In any public meeting system and order are required. The regulations and rules must be observed. Otherwise there is more confusion than accomplishment. ***

A: What day is the opening of the Annual Scientific Conference scheduled for? B: I haven’t seen the notice yet, but I think they won’t be able to convene the participants earlier than tomorrow fortnight. A: They say the whole conference will be held in plenary sessions. B: No, I don’t think so. It would be impossible with so many papers put for discussion. Besides plenary meetings there will be sittings of two or three specialized committees. A: I hear that the papers outlines and summaries have already been published. B: Yes, they can be consulted next week. I hope that every participant will be provided with a full set of paper outlines before the proceedings start. A: I’m looking forward to this scientific conference, there are so many interesting topics to be discussed and debated. VOCABULARY to summon – a convoca convention – convenţie trade-union – sindicat to convene – a convoca, a întruni effective – efficient to preside – a prezida chair – (aici) preşedintele unei adunări (amer.); prezidiu chairman – preşedinte relator – prezentator; povestitor; narator proceedings – lucrările unei conferinţe motion – moţiune, propunere to move – (aici) a propune to confine – a se limita agenda – ordinea de zi outline – plan, (aici) rezumat armaments drive – cursa înarmărilor deployment of missiles – amplasarea de proiectile standing order – ordine permanentă standing regulations – regulament în vigoare to call for a vote – a cere votarea to take minutes – a face un proces verbal to call the meeting to order – a chema la ordine; a începe şedinţa a bare majority – o majoritate neînsemnată, slabă to take the floor – a lua cuvântul sitting – şedinţa committee – comitet auditing committee – comisia de cenzori item of the agenda – punct la ordinea de zi draft resolution – proiect de rezoluţie to keep the minutes – a păstra protocolul

GRAMMAR THE MODAL VERBS (Verbele modale) Verbele modale can – could; may – might; must; ought to – nu primesc s la persoana IIIa singular; sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt, formează negativul cu not iar interogativul ca şi verbele auxiliare. Formele contrase ale acestor verbe sunt: can’t, couldn’t; mightn’t; mustn’t. May şi ought se folosesc mai rar în forma contrasă. CAN - COULD Exprimă capacitate fizică, intelectuală, morală, etc şi este echivalentul lui to be able to: Exprimă îndoială, nesiguranţă (în interogativ sau negativ), posibilitate. MAY - MIGHT Pentru toate celelalte timpuri se înlocuieşte cu to be allowed to, to be permitted to Exprimă permisiunea: La forma negativă exprimă interzicerea: Exprimă posibilitatea: Exprimă admonestare, sfat, caz în care se foloseşte might: Exprimă presupunere, nesiguranţă; se foloseşte atât may cât şi might. Might exprimă mai multă nesiguranţă şi este echivalent cu perhaps sau maybe. EXAMPLES You can read this page right now. Until a short time ago she could read without eyeglasses. It cannot be true. Can this be your paper? EXAMPLES She will be allowed to leave at 12:30. He had been permitted to wear the new coat. You may take the floor. You may not switch off the light. You may catch the bus.

She might leave by 9 o’clock train. They might write the application now. It may rain. She might play the violin. He might abstain from voting. MUST EXAMPLES Pentru formarea celorlalte timpuri în afară We shall have to learn this poem. de prezent, se folosesc to have to, to be We had to finish writing our papers. obliged to, to be compelled to; He must go to school. Exprimă datoria, obligaţia, necesitatea: Absenţa necesităţii se redă prin needn’t: Must he buy the book? – No, he needn’t. Exprimă prohibiţia (la negativ): They must not smoke in the meeting hall.

Exprimă probabilitatea, fiind echivalent cu He must be at the sea-side. probably, evidently: The gloves must be your size. OUGHT TO EXAMPLES Exprimă o obligaţie, o datorie morală, un They ought to be on time. sfat (cu referire la prezent, trecut sau viitor) He ought to have brought the book he took He ought to be in the session by now. Exprimă o presupunere, o probabilitate. SHALL (ca verb modal) EXAMPLES Exprimă o necesitate, o constrângere sau o He shall leave by 9 o’clock train. obligativitate; se foloseşte cu persoana a II- They shall not go to the mountains because

a şi a III-a: Exprimă cererea unui sfat, a unei sugestii (în propoziţii interogative la toate persoanele): Exprimă o promisiune: WILL ( ca verb modal) Exprimă o dorinţă (voinţă), o promisiune sau o hotărâre (este folosit la toate persoanele singular şi plural): Exprimă o incitaţie, o rugăminte (în interogativ, în general la persoana a II-a): Exprimă ceva inevitabil: Exprimă o acţiune obişnuită, repetată: Exprimă o supoziţie:

it was decided like that. Shall we open the meeting? Shall I ask the floor? He shall get the questions written in time. EXAMPLES I will buy the book tomorrow. We will do whatever you say. Will you write the minutes, please? Will you take the floor, please? Parents will be parents. I will have my coffee in the morning. He will be about fifty.

EXERCISES I. Enlarge upon: 1. The duties of the chair (chairman); 2. The kinds of committees elected at large conferences; 3. Kinds of public meetings; 4. Regulations of procedures adopted at meetings. II. Change the following sentences using modal auxiliaries: Model: Mister B has permission to leave the room. Mister B may leave the room. 1. It is advisable for him to go to the meeting. 2. She promises to go this afternoon to the exhibition. 3. Teachers are obliged to help their students. 4. He told George that it was possible for him to write the minutes. 5. It is necessary for all students to have I.D. cards. 6. He asked, “Do you want me to help you with the report?” 7. I guess she will leave at 3:30. 8. The students are obliged to study carefully their courses. 9. Perhaps they don’t always know how to study. 10. Evidently she is in the hospital. III. Use the following statements in the past tense and past perfect tense: 1. We must speak for ourselves at the sitting. 2. They must improve the agenda. 3. She can take the floor and address the chair. 4. George can have the meeting postponed. 5. They may be elected in the chair. 6. She may leave the chair when the session is adjourned. IV. Fill in the blanks with can, may, must, have to, will, shall. 1….I borrow your note-book? I am afraid you… 2. He…smoke now, the children have left the room. 3. …you wait till next week? 4. You…read this report louder. 5. She…attend the meeting this afternoon. 6. I…to be at the station at 5 o’clock as my friend is arriving. 7. Accidents…happen. 8. …he turn on the TV set? 9. …the chairman read the agenda? 10. You…have the book tomorrow. 11. I promise it…not happen again. 12. Participants in the meeting…enter their names in the list of the session. V. Translate into English:

a) 1. Vei fi anunţat de îndată ce vei intra. 2. Să ridic problema în cadrul unei şedinţe? 3. Să începem discuţiile? 4. Ce să fac după ce voi da citire propunerii? 5. Să supun propunerea la vot? 6. Vei fi acasă când vom veni? 7. Data viitoare când vom pleca la munte, o să vii cu noi. 8. E foarte întuneric aici, o să aprind lumina. 9. Trebuie să vezi piesa, e foarte interesantă. 10. Ar trebui să vorbeşti englezeşte la seminarul de limba engleză. 11. Poate au schimbat programul, trebuia să fie aici la această oră. 12. Putem fuma aici? 13. S-ar fi putut să plece mai devreme. 14. Trebuie să fie cartea ei. 15. Am auzit că e bolnav. 16. Ar trebui să stea în pat. 17. De obicei mă plimb sâmbătă după masă. b) 1. Sunt surprins să aflu că George a fost ales membru în comisia de cenzori. 2. Regret că am lipsit de la şedinţa de lucru. 3. Alegerile s-au făcut prin vot secret şi s-a procedat în conformitate cu regulamentul în vigoare. 4. George putea fi contestat pe motivul ineficienţei în rezolvarea problemelor publice. 5. Am aflat că John a fost recuzat. 6. Luarea lui de cuvânt a creat o impresie bună.