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Ergonomics defined

Ergonomics is

Ergonomics and Work System

Healthy work environment

Good Body Mechanics

Right Work Practices

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics defined

Greek words,

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics History

As early as 18th century doctors noted that workers who


required to maintain body positions for long periods of time
developed musculoskeletal problems.

Within last 20 years research has clearly established


connections between certain job tasks and certain health
problems like repetitive stress injuries (RSI) .

Ergon - Nomus
(Work) - (Natural Law)

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics defined
Ergonomics means Fitting the job to the Worker.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics importance
Physical Risk Factors :
1. Repetitions

Ergonomics is the science and practice of designing jobs and


work places to match the capabilities and limitations of human
body.

2. Static loading or sustained Exertions


3. Mechanical Contact Stress
4. Awkward Posture
5. Force
6. Vibration
7. Temperature

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics importance
Specific Risk Factors :
1. High Hand Force

Ergonomics importance
Employees subjected to ergonomic risk factors are at risk of
developing

2. Highly Repetitive Motion

Repetitive Stress Injuries (Pain)

3. Repeated Impact
4. Awkward Posture
5. Heavy, Frequent, Awkward lifting
6. Moderate to High hand arm vibration.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Ergonomics importance

Ergonomics importance
Productivity lost from

The price of pain

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2% - likely to suffer from chronic pain requires


minimum 10 days absence
10% - suffer acute pain requires minimum 2 days lost
of productivity

Sick leaves

Direct cost (Insurance claims)

Indirect cost (hiring temporary employees, training etc.)

Poor employee performance

20% - 1hour productivity is lost due to mild pain and


discomfort

Can be improved through Working Well

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Anthropometry and Design


Primary Guideline

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Anthropometry
and
Design

Design the workplace to accommodate most individuals


with regard to structural size of the human body.

The Science of measuring the human body is


termed Anthropometry.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Anthropometry and Design

Anthropometry and Design

Probability distribution and Percentile

Probability distribution and Percentile

A kth percentile is defined as a value such that k percent of


the data values are at or below this value and 100 k
percent of the data are at or above this value.

Typically, in a statistical approach, the approximately bellshaped curve is normalized by the transformation:

Once normalized, any approximately bell-shaped population


distribution will have the same statistical properties.

This allows the calculation of any percentile value as:


kth percentile = x bar z
where,

z = (x x bar ) /
where,

x bar = Mean

= Standard deviation (measure of dispersion)

kth percentile

10 or 90

5 or 95

2.5 or 97.5 1 or 99

z value

1.28

1.645

1.96

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Anthropometry and Design

Anthropometry and Design

Probability distribution and Percentile


(Example)

2.33

Probability distribution and Percentile

kth percentile

10 or 90

5 or 95

2.5 or 97.5

1 or 99

z value

1.28

1.645

1.96

2.33

(Example)

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

kth percentile

10 or 90

5 or 95

2.5 or 97.5

1 or 99

z value

1.28

1.645

1.96

2.33

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Anthropometry and Design

Anthropometry and Design


Design for Adjustability

Design for Extreme

Implies that a specific design feature is a limiting factor in


determining either the maximum or the minimum value of
a population variable that will be recommended.
Examples:
Doorway or entry opening to storage tank

Maximum (95th)

Spaces in military aircraft/submarine

Minimum (5th)

Reaches for a brake pedal

Minimum

Reaches for a control knob

Minimum (5th)

(5th)

Typically used for equipment or facilities that can be


adjusted to fit a wider range of individuals.

Typically adjusted to accommodate the user population


ranging from 5th percentile females to 95th percentile
males.

The most preferred mode of design, however, in practice,


there is a trade-off with the cost of implementation.

Examples:
Chairs
Tables
Desks
Vehicle seats
Steering columns

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Tool supports DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Anthropometry and Design

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE


Musculoskeletal system as a Lever System

Design for Average

It is the cheapest but least preferred approach.

It may be impractical or too costly to include adjustability


for all features.
Mechanical Advantage
= (Resistance (R) Overcome)/
Force Exerted
= (Force arm)/(Resistance arm)

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE

Musculoskeletal system as a Lever System

Musculoskeletal system as a Lever System

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE

Musculoskeletal system as a Lever System


Provide a Comfortable Chair for the Seated Operator

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE


Provide a Comfortable Chair for the Seated Operator

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE


Provide a Comfortable Chair for the Seated Operator

Six basic seating


postures
Source: From Serber, 1990,
Human Factors and
Ergonomic Society.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE


Locate All Tools and Materials Within the Npormal Working Area

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE


Locate All Tools and Materials Within the Npormal Working Area

Normal and maximum working areas in the vertical plane for women
A K SHARMA,
(forDRman
multiplyIITR
by 1.09)

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

For the employees to perform their job effectively,

General Principles for Workstation Design

TWO Design Factors should be kept in mind


1. There is a large variability in size of people in the work
force population, and
2. To understand the user population; that is,
a) culture,
b) education,
c) training,
d) skills attitude,
e) physical and mental capability etc.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

What must the worker see while on the job ?


This includes

Parts of the workplace that must be visible to the worker;

Numbers, types, and locations of control required to be


operated by he worker and the types of action to operate
them;

Interactions with other workers; necessity to view the job


activities performed by other workers.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

General Principles for Workstation Design

General Principles for Workstation Design

What must the worker hear ?


This includes

The oral communication during job performance;

Auditory signals that must be heard by the worker;

Requirement of hearing mechanical operation of the


equipment used.

What task must the worker perform ?


This includes

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Lifting;

carrying;

Positioning of materials.

The types of tool needed to perform the job must also be


considered.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

Work Design : THE WORKPLACE Design Problems

General Principles for Workstation Design

Ergonomic Principles for Workplace Design

What is the sequence of job activities ?


What clearances are required ?
What storage is required ?

Dimensions of a workplace are determined based on the


following three major factors
1. Anthropometric data,
2. The nature of the job, and
3. Behavioural patterns of employees.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT


The Human-Machine System

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

In a human-machine system, the human operator interacts


with the machine.

The interaction is a closed-loop system.

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Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Display Information Appropriately

Display Information Appropriately

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Display Information Appropriately

Display Information Appropriately


Recommended proportions for letters and numerals:
(H=height of capital letters or numerals, h= height of lower-case letters or numerals)

(Adapted from: Grether and Baker, 1972)


DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Control Display Compatibility

Use Proper Control Size, Displacement and Resistance

Control Response (C/R) Ratio, also called Control-Display (C/D)


ratio, is defined as the amount of movement in a control divided by
the amount of movement in the response.

It applies to continuous controls only, NOT discrete controls.

Low C/R High sensitivity,


High C/R Low sensitivity.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Gain = 1/(C/R) ratio.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT

Use Proper Control Size, Displacement and Resistance

Use Proper Control Size, Displacement and Resistance

for linear control

For controls with significant rotational movement (e.g., ball-lever


control), the C/R is defined as

(C/R) = c/d

= (controls linear displacement)/ (display linear displacement)

For controls with significant rotational movement (e.g., ball-lever


control), the C/R is defined as

C / R 360

C / R 360

2 L
d

2 L
d

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : MACHINES and EQUIPMENT


Use Proper Control Size, Displacement and Resistance

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : SAFETY ISSUES


CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDs)
CTDs (sometimes called repetitive motion injuries) are injuries to
the musculoskeletal system that develop gradually as a result of
repeated microtrauma due to poor design and excessive use of
hand tools and other equipment.
These problems are collection of variety of problems, including
repetitive motion disorders, carpel tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, etc.
According to US data in the year 1997, 15 20% of workers in the
key industries are at the potential risk of CTD; and 61% of all
occupational injuries are associated with repetitive actions.
Manufacturing is the worst affected industry; while butchering is
reported to be the worst affected occupation.
OSHA has focused on the reduction of incidence rates.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : SAFETY ISSUES

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : SAFETY ISSUES

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDs)

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDs)

Major work-related factors that lead to CTDs are:

The Most Common symptoms associated with CTDs are :

1. The use of excessive force during normal motions,

1. Pain,

2. Awkward extreme joint motions,

2. Joint movement restrictions, and

3. High repetitions of the same movements, and

3. Soft tissue swelling.

4. The lack of sufficient rest allowing the traumatized joints to recover.


IF LEFT UNTREATED, CTD CAN RESULT IN PERMANENT
DISABILITY.

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

DR A K SHARMA, IITR

Work Design : SAFETY ISSUES


CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDs)

DR A K SHARMA, IITR