A Textile Association (India)-PHC Presentation

An Overview of

Textile Fibres

Definition A broad term referring to any material (fibres, filaments, yarns) capable of being converted into fabrics and the fabric itself.
The word 'textile' is derived from the Latin term textilis, which means 'to weave'.

Hair like substances capable of being converted into yarns and made into fabrics.
Generally, people connected with textile trade define textile fibres, as ‘hair-like materials having length thousand times their diameter or width’, which can be spun into yarn or made into a fabric.

Classification of Textile Fibres

Sources of Textile Fibres

Category of Natural Fibres
Plant Fibres
Seed-Fibres: Cotton, Kapok, and Coir Leaf Fibres: Sisal, Pineapple, and Banana Bast Fibres: Jute, Flax, Ramie, and Hemp

Animal Fibres
Sheep: wool Goat: Mohair, Cashmere, and Pashmina Rabbit: Angora Camel: Alpaca, Llama, Guanaco, and Vicuna Antelope: Shahtoosh Silkworm: Silk

Mineral Fibres

Plant Fibers
Comprises of about one-half of the world fiber production. Most widely used natural fiber.

Jute, Flax & Ramie - are
extracted from stem of the plants Flax fibers are spun to make linen fabric

Animal Fibers
Wool Providing Animals

Comes from silk worms, silkworm to cocoon, one cocoon produces 600- 2000 meters of silk

Sheep (wool) Goat (cashmere, pashmina, mohair) Camel (alpaca llama) Rabbit (angora)

Silk varieties Mulberry silk Tussah silk Eri silk Muga silk

Man-Made Fibres
Cellulosic (Regenerated) Cellulosic: Viscose Cuprammonium Polynosic (Modal), Lyocell Easter Cellulosic: Acetate, Tri-acetate Non-Cellulosic (Synthetic) Polymeric: Polyamide (nylon), Polyester, Polyacronitrile (acrylic), Polypropylene, Elastromeric (spandex)

Cellulosic Fibers
Rayon fibers
First man made fiber Composed of regenerated cellulose (wood pulp)

Lyocell fibers
Trade name ‘Tencel’

Synthetic Fibres
Nylon Polyester Acrylic Spandex Polypropylene Micro-fibres
(fiber or filament) (fiber or filament) (fiber or filament) (filament) (filament) (filament)

Man-Made Fibre Production
Wet Spinning (Spinning Liquid in coagulating
bath)-Viscose Rayon

Melt Spinning (Themo-plastic granule are
melted and forced through the holes of spinneretcooled by stream of air)-Nylon. Polyester

Dry Spinning (Suitable solution of fibre
forming polymer extruded into warm air)

A process by which we modify the surface characteristics of filament yarns
Twist-set-Untwist False twist (Pin-type spindle, Friction twisting) Air Texturising Stuffer Box Edge Crimping Knit-de-knit Gear Crimping

Textured Yarns

Identification of textile fibres

Burning test
Shrink, melt and smell

Solubility Test
Solvents (Acetone, Metacresol, Formic Acid, Sulphuric Acid and Caustic Soda)

Staining test
Shirlastain A (CottonPale, Silk-dark brown)

Required Properties of Fibres
Length (Staple Length or 2.5% Span Length) Fineness (Wt/Unit Length-micron air,denier or
Diametric-inches, microns) Strength (Bundle strength in gms./denier-’Tenacity’)

Other useful properties
Extensibility and elasticity, Softness, Lustre, Abrasion resistance, Moisture absorption, Affinity towards dyes, Resistance to deterioration

Thank You

The End

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