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AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN UP SYSTEM

11.1

INTRODUCTION
With increase in unit capacity associated with increased capital costs and the steep rise in fuel cost, it is
necessary to maintain the availability of thermal power sets at as high a level as possible. To achieve this
it is essential to reduce the extent of damage, to provide facility for tracking down the faults and their
causes by as good an over view of the process, and shortest possible start up and shut downs.
For start up, acquisition and analysis of a wide variety of information pertainingto various parameters
of steam turbine demand, quick decisions and numerous operations from the operating personnel. In
order to reducethe arduoustaskof monitoringvarious parametersand effect sequentialstart up, minimise
the possible human errors and to achieve start up in minimum time in optimum way Automatic Turbine
Run up System (A.T.R.S.) is introduced.

i I .a

PHILOSOPHY
The ARTS is based on functional group philosophy i.e. the main plant is divided into clearly defined
sections called functional groups such as oil system, vacuum system, turbine system. (Fig. 11.I). Each
functional group is organised and arranged in sub group control (SGC), sub loop control (SLC) and control
interface (CI). Each functional group continues to function automatically all the time demanding enable
criteria based on process requirements and from neighbouring functional groups if required. In the
absence of desired criteria, the system will act in such a manner as to ensure the safety of the main
equipment.
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MANUAL OPERATION

SlGNA L

FUNCTIONAL

SPECnL MODIS
FOLLOW MODE
STEP MODE

CONDITIONING

GROUP

CONTROL

CONTROL INTERFACE

MOTOR

CONTROL

CENTRE

FIG. 11.1 OPERATION OF FUNCTIONAL GROUP CONTROL

'

'

11.3

FUNCTION OF THE SUB-GROUP CONTROL (OIL)


The main task of the sub-group control "Oil" during a start up programme are :
(a) establishing lubricating oil, control oil, and jacking oil supply
(b) putting the turbine on barring gear
(c) taking off the jacking oil pump when.appropriateturbine speed is achieved
(d) taking off the AOP when turbine main oil pump has taken over
(e) leaving the various sub loop control of oil systems in automatic regime so that the logics built up in
this sub-loop control will take care of the requirement of the individual systems.
The sub loop control of any system essentially serves to provide an auto start/ stop command when
certain preset conditions are fulfilled. The feature can be included or excluded by manual push botton
cornmond or by sub-group control. During a shut down programme this sub group control essentially
serves to bring the turbine to a standstill and switch off the oil system,

11.4

FUNCTION OF SGC TURBINE


The main tasks of the sub group control (SGC) "turbine" during a start up programme are :
(a) Warming of the admission pipe lines and stop and controlvalves (carriedout by the warm up controller
in conjunction with the turbine stress evaluator)
(b) Warming up of the turbine at 640 RPM (carriedout by electro hydraulicspeedcontroller,in conjunction
with the turbine stress evaluation)
(c) Acceleration of the turbine to synchronous speed carried out by the turbine stress evaluator,
(d) Synchronise the machine to the grid (carried out by the auto synchroniser) and
(e) block loading of the machine.
In addition, the sub-group control also switches on the sub-loop control drains during the course of
its programme for warming up of casing pipe lines and other valve bodies.
During a shut down programme the sub-group control "Turbine" essentially does the task of :
(a) re-loading the machine and switching on sub-loop control drains
(b) Setting the load controller to its minimum value and lowering the speed reference valve of the speed
controller
(c) Tripping of the machine.
STEP INDICATOR

-m

121

SUBGROUP 3b wnxAnhWE
IN OPERATION
,
OFF
FWD

SUBGROUP

ON/^

131

ON

CRTERIA
INDICATION

SUBGROUP IN WERATITION
START UP PROGRAMME
I
(FLICKER U W T )

..

STARTUP

PUSH ~ V T T O H

LAMP

LABEL

FIG. 11.2 OPERATOR INTERFACE TO SUBGROUP


132

FUNCTION OF SGC CONDENSATE AND EVALUATION*

11.5

The sub-group control for condensate and evacuation system accomplished its task which comprises of
keeping at least one of the two CEPs in operation /evacuatingthe non condensate gasesfrom the system,
maintaining the desired level of condenser pressure when turbine in operation and breaking the vacuum
I
as and when required by Mechanical process.
The combination of the three sub-group control will provide a turbine start up in the following
sequence:
1) Prepare turbine for start-up
2) Start oil supply system and turning gear
3) Start up condensing plant
4) Start seal steam system
5) Warm up main steam line
6) Warm up turbine
-7) Accelerate turbine to rated speed
8) Synchronize and block generator

GROUP CONTROL
WHEN. HOW MANY. WHICH 7

sue GROUP CONTROL

CONTROL

SUB GROUP CONTROL

INTERFACE

r--l

MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE

FIG. 11.3 HIERARCHY OF CONTROL

SHUT-DOWN OPERATION

11.6
T

The shut-down is carried out in the following sequences:


a) Reduce turbine load
b) Ensure bypass operation
c) Reduce turbine load to less than 5% of rated capacity
d) Switch off generator
e) Trip turbine and check if AOP is in operation

f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)

11.7

Shut down steam generator


Close Main Steam Valve of Boiler
Depressurise main steam line
Close drains of main steam line
Shut down condensing plant
Start turning gear

SUB-GROUP CONTROL (S.G.C.)

(FIG.11.4)

A sub group control executes commands, to bring the equipment upto a particular defined state and
contains the start up and shut down programme of the respective group S.G.C. issues commands either
to control interface level on switches on S.L.C. ~esired'numberof criteria act as pre-conditions before
the S.G.C. can take off to execute its defined programme.The programme comprises of steps. For each
step therre is provisionfor monitoring time and waiting time. Waiting time implies that thesubsequent step
could not be executed unless the specified time elapsed. The time between command signal and
appearance of check back signal is known as monitoring time and when it is executed alarm is initiated
and the programme is not proceeding further. In addition execution of any step is also permitted only if
the conditions specified for that particular1 step are completely fulfilled. By-pass conditions are included
at any stage after completing certain task manually if so desired.
to enable switching on after S.G.C.

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a,,,u.cwlItu~
hul, yluul. I

CHECK bACK
SINGAL 6UB,.
GROIJP I N

OPE FIATIO?~

fJlr

ON

..CHECK BACK CRITERIA

FIG. 11.4 SUBGROUP CONTROL STRUCTURE

11.8

MODES OF OPERATION
ATRS can be operated in the following three modes:
a) Automatic : In this mode all the specified operations are carried out in appropriate sequence
automatically.

134

b) Step Mode :This mode has.beenenvisaged to allowthe operatdrto bypass any criteria if the operator
finds that a criteria is not being obtained because of the malfunctioning of any instrument or transducer.
c) Operator Guide Mode : Inthis mode the ATRS does not issue any commands. The command outputs
are blocked and have to be issued only by hand. This mode allows correct fulfilment of the criteria and
satisfactory progress of the sub-group control system to be tested during commissioning and at other
times. This mode can also be used as a training aid for the operators.

11.9

CONTROL INTERFACE (CI)


The control interface module forms the link between the individual commands and the power plant (Fig.
11.5 & 11.6). Each remote controlled drive has a control interface module. The module consists of
command section, monitoringsection, power supply and alarm section. The commandsection provesthe
control actuation signals to the interposing relays in the switch gear. Solenoid valves can be actuated
directly up to certain capacity (36 W). The. monitoring section normally checks the command functions
namely the position of the drive check back signals, protection logic and FGC.
The control interface module type AS 11 is used mainly for ON /OFF motor drives. AS 12 for motor
operated regulating valves, and AS 13 for solenoids. The CI modules monitors status discrepancies,
running time between command output and check back actuation of the torque switches, check back for
non contincidence + 24 V supply voltage for module control circuit MCB in the switch gear and blocking
of command by protective logic. Protection commands are given priority.

Im]

DIONTROL ROOM

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I

- > I ~ I II 1 1 1 1 0 1 ~ ~ L (I~IVLJ
I X
lr111
O l , e r a ~ ~ u ~ lUr
a live.
( %

litart UP 01 additional drive tlel~et~tlent


o f process crettiria.

FIG. 11.5 DRIVE CHARGEOVER AUTOMATIC

When SLC is switched ON, it actuates the connected mechanical equipment to the required operating
condition as per the process condition. No sequence logic is involved. SLC can be switched ON I OFF
manually or through SGC.

11.1 1

CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS


S.G.C. Switching ON/ OFF can be done from desktile (Fig. 11.2). Display of step and criteriaare available
at the control desk. PB-2is for switching ON and OFF. The programme can be executed manually at the
CI level when the SGC is OFF. PB-1 is for start up and 3 for shut down in auto mode. Rapid flickering (8
Hz) light in lamp 4 or 8 indicates that programme is running towards desired status, "Steady" on
completion of programme and also flashing light indicatesthat the programme is in the desired mode but
a programme fault has appeared.

Control

Functional
Control

Protective,
Logic

Checkback
Signal

FIG. 11.6