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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 05 | November 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

A Survey on Congestion Avoidance and Optimal


Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicles
Akhila Thomas
PG Scholar
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Mar Baselios Christian College of Engineering & Technology,
Peermade, Kerala, India

Sneha Thankachan
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Mar Baselios Christian College of Engineering & Technology,
Peermade, Kerala, India

Abstract
Nowadays electric vehicles are widely promoting to improve transport efficiency.one of the disadvantages of the electric
vehicles are its short driving range.so we have to recharge it in the midway in case of longer journeys. Concurrent and frequent
demands for battery recharge will results in the queuing at the charging station and a battery recharge also takes several minutes.
Thus the resulting waiting time at the charging station will increase the entire travelling time. Many approaches are used to
provide optimal charging strategies for electric vehicles at the charging station. This paper provides a comparative study of
different strategies used for the congestion avoidance and optimal charging of electric vehicles at the charging stations.by
considering these aspects entire journey time of electric vehicles can be reduced or optimized to an extent.
Keywords: Battery Recharge, Charging Station, Congestion Avoidance, Electric Vehicles, Optimal Charging Strategy
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

In order to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases into the environment usage of electric vehicles are
widely promoting. Even with the new technologies at the charging station a battery recharge is time consuming and thus it will
result in the high queuing time and congestion at the charging station. Charging requests from multiple vehicles at the same time
will also result in the congestion at the charging station. Entire travelling time of electric vehicles is also increasing as a result.
Many approaches are using to reduce the congestion and to optimize the charging strategies for electric vehicles like the
reservation system for charging of electric vehicles at the charging station [1]. Similarly for routing and load balancing
congestion games models are used [4].using some approaches we can predict the prior blockage probabilities at the charging
station [5] with respect to the intension from the vehicles [2] using the technologies such as wireless communication [7]. There
are options for charging electric vehicles at parking lots also in some approaches [6]. Likely in road transport network signal
settings are optimized with respect to the demand of travel to a congested road [3].here considering electric vehicles only and the
classification is based on the congestion avoidance and optimal charging strategies.
II. CLASSIFICATION OF OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR CONGESTION AVOIDANCE AND CHARGING STRATEGIES
Following are the classification of optimization techniques for congestion avoidance and charging strategies as shown in fig 1.

Fig. 1: classification of optimization techniques for congestion avoidance and charging strategies

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A Survey on Congestion Avoidance and Optimal Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicles
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Caravan-Optimization
CARAVAN is a Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation.it is a multi-agent based approach
[8]. In this approach vehicle agents communicate with each other before the junctions or designated decision points along their
route. Intervehicular communication is to transfer information and to perform processing. Each vehicle agents transfer their
autonomously calculated preferred route to get the initial route allocations. This allocation are further improved using the number
of successive virtual negotiations called deals. Physical communication is not required for deals. This approach is based on
congestion management algorithm.
Advantages
It provides a promising strategy for traffic route allocation problem
Gain in travel time
Provides a low cost solution
Intension Aware Optimization
It proposes an Intension aware routing approach for electric vehicles [2]. If other vehicles choose the same charging station it is
essential to reduce the significant queues at the charging station and it is done by collecting the information about the intensions
that is the planned arrival time of vehicles at the charging station of other vehicle. Charging stations can convey their ability to
allocate new vehicle on the basis of the queue length [9]. Thus the queuing time at the charging stations can be predicted. Known
intensions and historic informations are combining here to predict the congestion. Some other approaches uses dynamic pricing
or similar signalling, price difference between the stations in order to control the congestion through demand response [10] [11].
This framework is more general and any type of graph that supports roadway power vehicles can be used [12]. To achieve bestcase scenario here we use an approach and where the probability of selecting the alternative is directly related to the expected
utility of the same alternative [13].
Advantages
Provide actual charging station location[15]
Time dependent road travel time distributions based on historic information
Orgin-destionation pair distribution for vehicles
Intelligent Scheduling of Electric Vehicles
This approach minimizes the waiting time for charging through an intelligently scheduled activities of charging in large road
network [14].it also takes the advantage of interoperability between electric vehicle and the charging station. A theoretical study
is conducted here. By modelling and analyzing the behaviors of electricity charging and based on this study an efficient practical
scheme is designing and a distributed scheduling protocol that minimizes the waiting time has been proposed. The average
delays or queues can be minimized using decision policies [17] as used in the hetrogenous queue control model.
Advantage
It can achieve performance close to the performance upper bound of various scenarios
Disadvantages
The case of deploying charging station and allocating charging outlets for saving electricity and lower charging costs are
not considering here
Navigation of electric vehicles for minimal waiting time and travelling time are not considering
Optimal Charging Strategies for Unidirectional Vehicles
This approach that is vehicle to grid approach proposes a way to increase the adoption rate of electric vehicles [16].in this work
unidirectional regulation algorithm is developed to use by an aggregator. Several smart charging algorithms are also used to
choose the set point about the rate of varying charge while performing the regulations. An aggregator profit maximization
algorithm is formulated with optional system load and price constraint analogous to the smart charging algorithm.
Advantages
No after-market hardware is required
More customer acceptance
No interconnection issues
No battery degradation
Disadvantages
Decreased power levels
Reduced participation times because of the battery
Co-ordinated Charging Model
Goal of this approach is to co-operate or co-ordinate the valuable services and operation constraints of three actors such as
electric vehicle owner, the fleet operator, and the distribution system operator or market operator [18]. It also considers the

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A Survey on Congestion Avoidance and Optimal Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicles
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driving requirement of individual electric vehicle owners, the thermal limits of the cables and transformers in the framework of
proposed market. Initially a theoretical framework of market describes here. Then within this framework fleet operators represent
their customer requirements that also guarantee the electric vehicle owners requirement for driving and lower cost energy.
Congestion problem is solved here by the co-ordination between the distribution system operators and fleet operators through a
distribution grid market scheme. Mathematical formulation of the market scheme is also presents here. Linear programming is
used for the charging of electric vehicles and to produce an energy schedule of fleet operators.
Advantage
Provide flexibility and scalability
Disadvantage
Voltage control is not considering
Optimal Scheduling Model for Charging and Discharging
This approach describes an optimization model with an aim of minimizing the charging cost, achieving satisfactory state of
energy levels, and optimal power balancing. Two methods can be used to optimize the charge scheduling first one uses a linear
approximation of the battery behaviour and the second one uses a quadratic approximation [19]. Linear approximation is
sufficient for charge scheduling. For electric vehicle charging and discharging local optimal scheduling schemes and global
optimal scheduling schemes are used [20]. By formulating global scheduling optimization problem we can also optimize the
charging powers to minimize the total cost of all electric vehicles. But the global optimal scheduling is impractical. By
formulating local scheduling optimization problem can minimize the total cost in a local group and it is the most appropriate
scheme for the electric vehicle charging and discharging with a large population and dynamic electric vehicle arrivals.
Advantages
Scalable
Resilient to the dynamic electric vehicle arrivals
III. CONCLUSION
This paper provides a survey of different models or techniques used for congestion avoidance and optimal charging strategies for
electric vehicles. For that analyses six techniques namely CARAVAN optimization, Intension aware optimization, Intelligent
scheduling model, Optimal charging strategies for unidirectional vehicles, Co-Ordinated charging model, and Optimal
scheduling model for charging and discharging. From this survey can arrive at a conclusion that by the removal of congestion at
the charging stations and optimal charging strategies used can improve the entire journey time of electric vehicles.
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