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11.

PIPING

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

Table of contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

General system description


Pipe materials
Pipe sizes
Pipe connections
Pipe fittings
Brackets
Optimal piping design
Pipe profile, slope and transport pockets
Branches
Riser pipes for toilets and interface valves
Non-return valves
Shut-off valves
Inspection openings
Deck penetrations examples
Pipe manifold
Tank vent pipe
Standard flange for port discharging
Useful hints

Page
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3
3
4
5
6
6
6
8
9
10
11
12
12
13
14
14
14

Enclosure:
Piping (Doc no. 5:01004) :
Tightness requirement
Tightness test protocol

15
16

Existing rules, regulations and standards must be observed. In case of doubt, check with
the manufacturer. Metric units are used throughout the manual. Dimensions are given in
millimetres (mm), unless otherwise stated.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

1. General system description


In vacuum systems sewage transport is done by vacuum (air) instead of water and gravity. Sewage is transported in
"slugs". Optimal "slug" transport is obtained by following these Design and Installation instructions.
System capacity must be dimensioned considering normal daily variations in use and different operation conditions.
System load (flushings) should be divided evenly between main lines. Ships pitch, a roll and trim shall be considered
in horizontal pipe design to prevent sewage back flow. The best horizontal transport solution is obtained with sloped
pipe, transport pocket at interval of 25 - 30m and/or non-return valve. Piping shall be designed so that possible clogging
or maintenance is not stopping the whole system. System pipe tightness must be tested, documented and maintained
for good system operation and low energy consumption. Piping shall be accessible and divided in sections for easy
maintenance.
Ventilation
Vent pipe

Vacuum interface valve

Urinal

Exhaust-air
pipe

Main line
Non-return valve

Inspection opening
Transport pocket

Vacuum
interface valve

Sloped
min. 1:20

Shore
connection

Vacuum gauge
Pressure
switch

Main line valve


Air inlet valve
Inlet manifold

Over flow pipe

Shut-off valve

Ejector

Discharge valve
Pump

Collecting unit *

Connection to a
sewage treatment
plant or holding tank

*) The collecting unit can be based on Evac ejector system, where the collecting tank
is under atmospheric pressure, or on Evac vacuum tank system, or On-line vacuum
generating system.
EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

2. Pipe materials
Pipe material must be suitable for sewage transport in vacuum conditions (pressure piping). Fire, corrosion and
maintenance aspects must be considered.
Material

HDPE

PVC

Steel

Stainless steel
AISI 316
Use
In accommodation, In
In engine room area In
up to size DN 65
accommodation, and in areas where accommodation,
up to size DN 65
up to size DN 65 the temperature is
higher than average (70)
room temperature,
Sizes above DN 65
PN 10 (PN 6)
PN 10
To be tested and
Minimum PN 10 (PN 6)
approved for
pressure
vacuum
class
applications
Joints Butt welding
Glue joint
Welded joint
Socket
Resistance welding
Flange coupling
Couplings

LORO-VAC
Zinc
coated
orsteel
equal

Cu/Ni

In
Special
accommodation, application
up to size DN 65
(70)

To be tested and
approved for
vacuum
applications
Socket
Couplings

HDPE = High Density Polyethylene


PVC = Polyvinylchloride
When plastic pipes are used, fire protection regulations must be observed. Note the differences between the different
kinds of plastic materials. HDPE may not be allowed by some authorities.
Check carefully aspects relating to safety and industrial hygiene. Vapours released by PVC solvents are harmful.
Plastic piping does not resist temperatures above 40C. ( Check always with the pipe manufacturer. )

3. Pipe sizes
Number of
vacuum
toilets in
cabins *
3
25
100

or Public
toilets*

or
or
or

1
5
25

Minimum pipe size (d x s)


PVC
Steel
Stainless steel Zinc coated
Connection HDPE
DN
d x s (mm) d x s (mm) d x s (mm) d x s (mm)
steel
d x s (mm)
40 (50)
50 x 4.6
50 x 2.4
48.3 x 2.6 50 x 1.0
~53 x 1.5***
50
63 x 5.8
63 x 3
60.3 x 2.9 50 x 1.0
~53 x 1.5
65 (70)
75 x 6.9
75 x 3.6
76.1 x 2.9 75 x 1.0***
~73 x 1.6***

Cu/Ni
d x s (mm)
44.5 x 1.5
57.0 x 2.0
89.0 x 2.5

d = Outside diameter, s = Wall thickness


Pipe sizing is based on the assumption that 2 - 3 persons are using a cabin toilet per peak hour. For public
toilets up to 15 flushes per hour is estimated.
Heavily used public toilets are recommended to be connected to their own individual pipe connected directly
down to manifold.
* Normally maximum number of toilets in one main line is limited to 50 - 60 toilets for easy maintenance.
** When using zinc coated steel pipes, the recommended riser pipe size is DN40 (42 x 1.5).
***Nominal pipe size is DN50 and DN70 respectively.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

4. Pipe connections
Connections have to be tight. Joints must be smooth and must not in any way decrease the cross-section area of
the pipe.
HDPE to HDPE

Chamfer

Mirror welding
HDPE-pipes are joined together either by means of mirror welding or with an electric sleeve. In manual mirror welding,
the interior of the pipe is chamfered prior to welding. Observe heating temperature, compression time and power, given
by manufacturer of the pipe. Mirror welding is mainly used for prefabricated subassemblies.

Electric welding sleeve is used in places where access is


limited, e.g. for joining the prefabricated subassemblies in
the final location.

PVC to PVC
PVC-pipes are joined together by means of solvent sleeve.

STEEL to STEEL

The steel pipes are joined together either by welding or by flange connection.
EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
HDPE to STEEL

PVC to STEEL

5. Pipe fittings
Use fittings with large enough curvature radius or use fittings with 45 bends.
Pipe bends located > 3 m from the toilet or interface valve must have large radius or 2 x 45 elbows.

Plastic

Galvd steel

Steel

2x45
elbows

r >2.5d

Weld

Solvent / Weld /
Rubber Seal

Thread

Toilet and interface valve connections within lenght of max 3 m can be made with short radious bends.
Evac Rubber bend

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

Standard short radius pipe bend

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

6. Brackets
In vacuum piping high "slug" speed temporarily creates strong forces at bends and branches. Pipes must be firmly
secured by using brackets and clamps. For plastic pipes use steel brackets with a resilient liner between bracket and
pipe, or plastic clamps. Ensure that pipes will not be damaged by vibration or thermal expansion / contraction. Brackets
or clamps must be fitted at every change of direction. When connecting a riser pipe to an overhead main line, brackets
or clamps must be secured both behind the toilet and at deckhead. For straight steel pipes, fit brackets at 2.5 m centres
and on plastic pipes at 1.5 m centres, or according to makers recommendation.

Bracket must resist lateral forces.

7. Optimal piping design


Vacuum system gives many benefits and flexibility because the system is not depended on gravity.
Downward piping connection is the best for long term system operation and maintenance although sanitary
equipments (toilets and interface valves) can be connected to riser pipes.

When riser pipes are used, please follow enclosed riser pipe rules in item 10.

8. Pipe profile, slope and transport pockets


Ideal pipe profile: Slope and pocket
Sloped, min. 0.2%

Clean out
Transport pocket

Transport pocket at 25 - 30 m
center to center (C/C)

Clean out
Transport pocket at 25 - 30 m

See detail: Pockets


EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

Allowable pipe profile: Pocket at every lift, horizontal pipes

H2

H3

H1

NOTE: The combined height

H1 + H2 + .... HN shall not exceed 3 meters.

Pockets in long horizontal branch and main lines


A. No need for reforming pocket
If a horizontal branch or main pipe have to route around an obstacle where pipe pocket lenght is < 1m, no
reforming pocket is needed.

L = <1m
B. Reforming pocket needed
When pocket in branch or main pipe is more than 1 m always design and install a reforming pocket.

>1m

Reforming pocket

Example of a pocket with clean plug

Slope 0,2%

D
45

D = outside diameter
C/C 25-30 m horizontally

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

4D

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

Not allowable pipe profiles

Big pocket with big sewage volume


The combined height

H1 + H2 + H3 + H4 ...>3 m

H3

H1

H4

H2
Horizontal pipes

+ 0 With slope (min. 0,2%)


0 Can be used if back flow is prevented.
- 0 Not acceptable

Horizontal pipes shall run either downwards in the direction of the flow or horizontally,never with a steady upward
gradient. Trim, roll and pitch of the ship shall be noticed.
Max lenght for a straight horizontal pipe is 25 - 30 m before a pocket, non-return valve or downward piping.

Pipe diameter cant be reduced in direction of flow.

9. Branches

45

Branch pipes must be connected to the main line


with an angle of 45 in direction of the flow.
Y- or T- branches are not allowed.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

A branch pipe is connected to the main line from above. For


example, when connecting branch pipe to a horizontal main
line, the branch pipe must be connected with a smooth bend
to upper side of the main line with a 45 angle.

d
Mainline
45
Upper
projection

Branch line

10. Riser pipes for toilets and interface valves


Please remember that downward piping design is best for system operation.

Typical 2-3 m (one deck height) riser pipe with a toilet or interface valve.

Connection
from above
>3D
A

45 connection
to main pipe

Smooth long radius bends


or 2 x 45 pieces

Smooth long radius bends or


2 x 45 pieces

Min. 1 m

45 connection to main pipe

Max. 1.5 m

2 ... 3 m

DN40
riser pipe

Max. pipe lenght is 30 m


from downward pipe

Straight riser
pipe without
changes of
direction

Transport pocket
45

A-A

Connections from above and below should


have separate horizontal branch pipes.
Each toilet is provided with its own riser
pipe, and maximum distance between
the downward pipe and end toilet riser
pipe is 30 m.

Max.
1.5 m

Deck

Maximum distance from


downward pipe is 30 m
EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

Riser pipe with lift 3 ... 5 m lift is allowed only immediately after a toilet and back flow must be
prevented by a transport pocket and non-return valve.
Non-return valve
DN50

Max 30m from


downward pipe

DN40
Straight riser pipe

Transport pocket (4 x 45 elbows)


The diameter of the riser pipe must not be enlarged in the rising part.

NO

YES

11. Non return valves


A non-return valve is used where a riser or horizontal part of the piping system might become flooded due to backflow.
If a horizontal collector has connections from both above and below, riser pipes are fitted with non-return valves located
at the highest point of the riser pipe.
Non-return valve

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

10

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
A non-return valve shall always be fitted in a toilet connection with a riser pipe exceeding 3 metres.
Non-return valve

> 3m

NOTE: As mentioned in section 10, it is preferable to provide two horizontal collectors. One for connections from
above, and one for connections from below. The non-return valves may be omitted.

Max 30 m from last


vacuum toilet downward pipe

12. Shut-off valves


Shut-off valves should be straight-channel valves ( slide, membrane or ball). The valves should be located in such a
way that a malfunction or leakage would not stop the whole system. Valves should generally be installed on each
main pipeline.
If possible, the shut-off valve should be located on a vertical part of a pipe. In such position, possible sedimentation
in front of the slide will not cause a stoppage easily.

NOTE: Horizontal valve installation is allowed with ball valves.


EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

11

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

13. Inspection openings ( cleaning plugs )


Inspection openings should be located in such a way that a possible clogging in the piping can be reached at all
points. Maximum distance between openings is 25 - 30 metres.

Locations:
1. At the end of horizontal pipelines
2. At the upper end of vertical main pipelines
3. At intervals of 25 - 30 metres on horizontal pipelines
4. At pockets
5. At 90 bends
2.

1.

4.

3.

5.

14. Deck penetration examples

Simple sleeve

Vacuum pipe

Alternatively

Seal

Deck

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

Deck

12

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

Example of a penetration for fireproof bulkhead

500

500

50

Plastic pipe

Steel pipe

Mineral wool
50

!NOTE: Fire-protection rules and rules about watertight compartments shall be observed.

15. Pipe manifold


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Vacuum gauge (BSP 1/2" connection)


BSP 3/8"
Three-way valve
Vacuum switch (BSP 3/8" connection)
Incoming mainlines from toilets
Shut-off valves
Ejector connection
Shut-off valves
Pipe manifold
Alternate connection closed by a blind
flange (may be used for an incoming
2.
pipelines or for crossconnecting two
collecting units).
DN 40
10. Instrument branch with 5 slope.

BSP 1/2"

3.

DN Y

1.
4.

10.

5.

7.

6.

8.

DN X

9.

DN 65

DN X is usually equal or one size larger than the incoming mainlines DN Y, however, DN X
is at a minimum DN 65.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

13

EVAC

Date: 29 Jul 2008

Doc. 5:01001E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

16. Tank vent pipe


The smallest recommended diameter for a collecting tank vent pipe is DN100. Maximum pressure drop allowed for the
tank vent pipe is 10 cm water column.There must not be pockets or horizontal parts in the vent pipe where possible
condensate water might remain and block the air flow. The vent pipe must be routed to a place where smell of sewage
is not disturbing passengers or crew.

17. Standard flange for port discharding (IMO-flange)


210
170
65

80

100

d5

77.7

90.3

115.9

Pipe external- 76.1

88.9

114.3

d5

DN

16

18

Pipe dimensions

18. Useful hints


Placing a vacuum gauge at the end of
each main pipeline helps to locating a leaking line.

Placing a shut-off valve on each branch pipe makes


cleaning and locating leakages easier.

Placing a valve at the end of the control manifold makes,


checking the functions of vacuum switches and gauges
easier. The air flow also cleans the vacuum switch and
gauge.
The angle of indicating tree remove water and other
particles by gravity and increases significantly operation
realibility and service interval.
EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

14

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 11 Jan 2008

Doc. 5:01004F

PIPING

PIPING
TIGHTNESS REQUIREMENT

Piping inspection and tightness


As sewage transportation is based on pressure difference, there should be minimum leakage in the vacuum sewage
system. Leakage in the system will lower systems operation performance and gives excess wear and tear for
components. Electric consumption will increase due to the fact that the pumps must run more often to obtain
vacuum. Low vacuum decreases the sewage flow speed in pipes and it will increase the risk of clogging.
Pipe installation design and tightness of a vacuum pipeline must be checked in stages during construction, one
section pipeline at a time. Tightness testing can be done by using pressure air, water or preferably with vacuum.
Pipeline tightness testing is to be done before installation of toilets etc. Toilet connections shall be blocked during the
test by rubber plugs or equal.
During the pipe installation, tightness tests shall be done to eliminate possible leaks in pipe joints etc. When the
sewage piping system is ready with all vacuum components connected, the test should be run again to check any
possible leakages in toilets, vacuum interface valves etc.
When toilets and other components are connected to the piping, vacuum pressure in the piping system shall stay
between -55 kPa ...-30 kPa for 10-30 minutes without pump starts to guarantee all different operation conditons.
The tightness of the piping system must always be tested. The test procedure and test results must be documented.
( see enclosed test protocol ).

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 11 Jan 2008

Doc. 5:01004F

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
TIGHTNESS REQUIREMENT

General
All piping must be tightness-tested before toilets, interface valves and vacuum units are connected to the piping
system. Tightness must be checked pipe section by pipe section. Finally the complete vacuum piping must be
checked.

Testing methods and requirements


Testing can be done by:
Vacuum
Pressure air
Pressure water
1. Vacuum Test:
-60 kPa vacuum is created to the pipe, all possible leaks are to be removed until leak is limited to
+2 kPa/h (i.e. 2 kPa drop in pressure from -60 kPa to -58 kPa during 1 hour).
2. Pressure Air Test:
300 kPa (3 bar) overpressure is created to the pipe section to be tested.
All possible leaks are removed until leak is limited to 15 kPa/h (i.e. pressure drop from 300 kPa to 285 kPa
during 1 hour ). NOTE: Consult pipe supplier about pressure test before testing.
3. Pressure Water Test:
Piping is filled with water and pressurized to 300 kPa (3 bar). No water leaks are allowed. NOTE: Consult pipe
supplier about pressure test before testing.

Documentation of results
Always document the results ( use enclosed test protocol ).

Ship Hull No.


Testing Method:

Vacuum

Pressure

Tested by / Date

Water

Approved by / Date

Pipe section No.

Pipe section No.

Pipe section No.

Pipe section No.

Pipe section No.

Pipe section No.

cc.

Yard
Owner
EVAC

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

Ta b le of contents

1.
2.
3.

General
Pipe cleaning
Pipe cleaning examples

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

Page

2
2
3

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

1. General
This document provides information about pipe operation and maintenance and shall be used as advisory only. The
maintenance shall be carried out by qualified and authorized personnel to avoid any risks and misuses. While carrying
out the maintenance, the safety instructions must be followed.
Follow-up of pipe condition
As sewage is an aggressive liquid and can cause corrosion which may lead to leakages in pipes and in system
components, it is recommended that the piping should be inspected 2...4 times per year visually through cleaning plugs
and flanges.
During inspection, also check the cleaness of the pipe. The risk of built-up deposits is most likely in horizontal pipe
lines, near urinals, in places where the sewage flow is slow and in areas, where the temperature is high. If any serious
deposits or build-ups occur, clean the pipe by the following method: Rinse the piping with a lime-removing agent, e.g.
15--30% phosphoric acid or similar. The agent should be poured into the toilets at the end of each main branch of the
piping. The acid should be allowed to work for some hours depending on the amount of solid built-ups. Occasionally
a piping treatment may be necessary where toilets and other components are removed and piping plugged and filled
with circulating chemical for 4...24 hours at regular interval.
! NOTE: Before filling up the piping with chemicals, check pipe tightness by filling the pipes with water. Strong chemicals
may be harmful to the pipes and biological treatment plant.
! HINT: Todays camera technology (camera into vacuum piping) makes it very easy to locate problem section(s) of
piping or how frequently pipe cleaning should be done.
2. Pipe cleaning
Best results will be achieved if regular cleaning procedures are adopted from the very beginning of the vessels delivery
from the yard.
Evac has developed automatic dosing pump set ( P/N 6540390 ) where cleaning chemical can be fed into the piping
automatically.
Pipe cleaning with chemicals
By the time, vacuum sewage piping may exhibit signs of build-up deposit.This problem can in most cases be reduced
or totally eliminated by undertaking relatively simple preventive maintenance measures. It is recommended that ships
experiencing problems with build-up adopt the following maintenance routine:
Install automatic dosing pump set at strategic places in the piping.
Pour suitable chemical (see attached list) in each toilet at the end of each vacuum line with a build-up of deposit
problem and flush the toilets.
Initially, repeat the procedure every week. Once the problem has been brought under control, repeat the treatment
regularly.
In cases of severe problems, it is recommended that an experienced service company is
contacted to solve the problem.
! NOTE: If used excessively, some chemicals may degrade the performance of some biological treatment plants.
Local regulations must be adhered to when handling some of the listed chemicals.
EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LIST OF RECOMMENDED PIPE CLEANING CHEMICALS:


Chemical trade name
Manufactured
Phosphoric Acid (max. 50%)
Commercially available
SAF
Drew Chemicals
Gamazyme TDS or BTC
Unitor
EPC
Maskin Import Ab

Country
Global
USA
Global
Finland

P50

Ab Prols fabrik

Sweden

Uriclean

Uniservice

USA

Contact information
www.ashland.com
www.unitor.com
Tel.: + 358-18-23200
Fax: + 358-18-23066
Tel.: +46-8-556 21050
Fax: +46-8-68802
www.uniserviceamericas.com

PIPE CLEANING COMPANIES WORKING TOGETHER WITH EVAC:


Excelsum International B.V.
Mr. Rogier van der Laan
Dukdalfweg 57
1332 BL Almere
The Netherlands
Tel.: +31-(0)-36 5491530
Mobile: +31 650263133
Fax: +31-(0)-36 5290511
E-mail: Rogier_vanderlaan@excelsum.nl
www.excelsum.nl

Transvac Marine Systems Ltd


Unit G3, 14 Beeding Close
Southern Cross Trading Estate
Bognor Regis
WEST SUSSEX PO22 9TS
Great Britain
Tel.: +44-1243- 840 860
Fax: +44-1243- 840 861
E-mail: sales@transvac-systems.co.uk

Virtus Gmbh
Kleines Wegfhrels 10
D-21756 OSTEN
Germany
Tel: +49-4776-8383
Fax: +49-4776-838484
or 838 485
E-mail:
klaeke@virtus-ship.de

3. Pipe cleaning examples


Best results will be achieved when regular cleaning procedures are adopted from the very beginning of the vessels
delivery from the yard.
The build-ups occur most easily in places such as low bends in the horizontal part of the piping, where the sewage has
a possibility to lie still for longer periods of time or where the flow velocity is low. Heat stimulates the build-up of deposits.

Piping cleaning, dosing method

Automatic
dosing pump

Chemical
tank

1. Pipe cleaning is carried out by automatic dosing unit at the end of pipe line approximately once per week.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

2. It is recommended to dose chemical into the manifold and collecting unit, to keep the pumps and ejectors valves
free from deposits.
Chemical

! NOTE: It is recommended to use the dosing method regularly. In order to prolong the need for using a more complicated
methods.

Piping cleaning, cooking method


! NOTE: Only for toilets with discharge pipes downwards
1. Estimate the volume of the piping system, to be able to fill the piping with correct amount of chemical for the
treatment.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Commercial Marine Equipment

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

2. Isolate the horizontal branch pipe to be treated from vertical main pipe by means of the shut-of valve.

3. Check the piping drawings to be sure that there are no connections to, for instance, the toilets with riser pipes.
Chemical mixture may overflow through the riser toilets.

4. It is always recommended to pressure test the piping with water to ensure that there are no leaks or connections
with overflow possibility before chemicals are fed into the pipe.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 07 Feb 2008

Commercial Marine Equipment

Doc. 5:01002E

PIPING

PIPING
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

5. There can be places in the piping system where a drilled hole has been used to find the location of a pipe blockage.
Occasionally such drill holes may have been plugged inappropriately only to stand vacuum, not pressure or
chemicals. In this case there is a risk the cleaning chemical may penetrate the plugged hole and cause leakage.
Such holes shall be secured properly by ordinary connectors prior the work and pressure tested with water.

A drilled hole
6. To ventilate the piping during chemical filling, open the vacuum piping for instance adjacent to the chemical feeding.
It is important that the open end of the piping system is well ventilated, because chemical cleaning process is creating
toxic gases. Do not have open flames, sparks, or any sources of fire in the vicinity of the open end of piping.
Proper ventilation
Chemical

7. Fill the branch pipe with the cleaning chemical. The reaction between the deposits and the chemical will start
immediately and the "cooking process" begins.
8. During the treatment, the piping can be knocked to remove the deposits from the pipe walls.
9. Normally the treatment time varies from 4 to 24 hours.
10. After the treatment, flush the piping thoroughly with water starting from the toilets nearest the vertical main pipe.
(If the flushing will be started from the end of horizontal main pipe, there is a risk that the removed deposits will block
the pipe). Occasionally a second treatment may be necessary.
Piping cleaning, circulation method
There are speciliazed companies to clean sewage pipes by circulating cleaning chemicals through the piping section.
All components are first disconnected from the section pipe to be cleaned. Piping is filled with water to be sure that
there are no leaks. Chemical circulation hoses are connected to the pipe to be cleaned. Chemical is circulated until
the section pipe is clean. More detailed information is available on request.
When using cleaning chemicals always follow manufacturers instructions for safe use chemical and disposal.

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.

EVAC

Date: 16 Dec 2004

Doc. 1:01136B

TECHNICAL DATA

Commercial Marine Equipment

PIPE CLEANING AND CLEANING CHEMICALS


CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF METAL PIPES USED IN EVAC SYSTEMS

Chemical

Hydrochloric Acid 100%


Hydrochloric Acid 20%
Phosphoric Acid
Chlorine

Pipes
SS 316

Black steel

Galvanized Steel

2
2
2
2

3
3
1
2

3
3
2
2

Epoxy coated,
galvanized steel,
type LORO
4
4
2
2

CuNiFer

3
3
2
2

Scale:
1 = Very good
2 = Good
3 = Moderate
4 = Not recommended

EVAC reserves the right to make alterations to this specification without prior notice.
Copyright Evac Oy. All rights reserved.