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A bridges abutment is placed on sand soil

0.00

- 3.00
- 4.00

Length of abutment perpendicular the


plane = 8m.
Concrete driven piles ( unit weight
concrete = 24 KN/m3 ) square pile 0.4 x
0.4 m2.
o Depth of pile from soil surface =
22 m
o Allowable capacity on tensile of
pile (Ta) = 250,4 kN/pile
o Allowable capacity on lateral of
pile (Ha) = 7,2 kN/pile

- 8.00

- 12.00
5m

Load and moment:


Total vertical load (V) = 15,850.4 kN
Total moment (M) = 2783.8 kNm
Lateral forces total (H) = 1780.3 kN ()
Sand data
Depth (m)
03
38
8 12
12 15
15 25

N - SPT
9
12
14
10
16

b (kN/m3)
17
17.5

sat (kN/m3)
18.5
19
18.5
20

Design the pile group to resist all loads and moments!


SOLUTION
po constant below the critical depth zc = 20 d = 20 x 0.4 = 8m
as a result, overburden pressure at depth of 8m and the depths below:
po = 3 x 17 + 1 x 17.5 + 4 x 8.5 = 102.5 kN/m2
Conversion N-SPT to friction angle and other parameters
Depth
N-SPT

= 0,75 +10o
03
9
29o
31,75o
o
38
12
30,5
32,875o
8 12
14
31o
33,25o
12 15
10
30o
32,5o
o
15 25
16
32
34o

Kd tg
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3

(1) Ultimate End bearing resistance (Qb)


0.5( '40 o ) 0.5(32 o 40 o ) 36 o

Pile length = 22 12 = 10m


For L/d = 10/0.4 = 25 and = 36o Nq = 60
Ab 0.4 2 0.16m 2

Qb Ab. pb '.Nq 0.16 x102.5 x 60 984 kN

Check for end bearing unit maximum (fb)


fb

Qb 984

6150kN / m 2 10700kN / m 2 .....OK


Ab 0.16

(2) Ultimate Shaft friction (Qs)


Pile round = 4 x 0.4 = 1.6m
Qs

As.Kd .tg . po'

1.6 x (15 12) x 1.2 x 102.5 = 590.4


1.6 x (22 - 15) x 1.3 x 102.5 = 1492.4
Qs
= 2082.8 kN/m2

Check for maximum shaft friction unit (fs):


fs Kd .tg . po' 1.3 x102 x5 133.25kN / m 2 107 kN / m 2 ....

Hence, Qs is recalculated by using


Qs

Kd .tg . po' 107 kN / m 2

As.Kd .tg . po'

1.6 x (15 12) x 107 = 513.6


1.6 x (22 - 15) x 107 = 1198.4
Qs
= 1712 kN/m2

(3) Ultimate bearing capacity (Qa)


Weight of pile W 24 x0.4 2 x10 38.4kN
Qa

Qb
Qs
984 1712

38.4 1430.9 kN/pile


SF1 SF 2
3
1.5

(4) Pile design

not OK !!!!

Ta = 250.4 kN/pile
Ha = 7.2 kN/pile
V = 15,850.4 kN
M = 2,783.8 kNm
H = 1,780.3 kN
Number of piles needed
n

V
Qa

15850.4
11.1 12 piles
1430.9

Let use 20 piles


Spacing minimum 2.5 d 3 d
Distance from pile to end of pile cap 0.5 0.75m
II

III

IV
0.75

1.625

1.625
8m
1.625

1.625
0.75

0.7

1.2

1.2
5m

Row

I
II

= - 1,8 m
= - 0,6 m

1.2

0.7

III
IV
2

= 0,6 m
= 1,8 m

5 x ( 1.8) 2 5 x ( 0.6) 2 5 x(0.6) 2 5 x(18) 2 36m 2

Check against vertical load


row I
V 1 P1

V
n

M .x1 15850.4 2783.8 x(1.8)


20
36
x
2

= 653.3 kN/pile < Qa (1430.9 kN/pile) ...........OK


row II
V 2 P2

V
n

M .x 2 15850.4 2783.8 x(0.6)


20
36
x
2

= 746.1 kN/pile < Qa (1430,9 kN/pile) ...........OK


row III
V 3 P3

V
n

M .x3 15850.4 2783.8 x(0.6)


20
36
x
2

= 838.9 kN/pile < Qa (1430.9 kN/pile) ...........OK


row IV
V 4 P4

V
n

M .x 4 15850.4 2783.8 x(1.8)


20
36
x
2

= 913.7 kN/pile < Qa (1430.9 kN/pile) ...........OK


Check against lateral load

H = 1780.3 kN
Each vertical pile resist horizontal load:
Ht

H
n

1780.3
89.0 kN/pile > Ha (7.2 kN/pile) need batter piles
20

Let use batter piles with slope of m = 3, due to the direction of horizontal load moves to
right, let 5 piles on row IV and 1 pile on row III are driven battered.

V4

V3

H4

H3

V 3 838.9

279.6 N
m
3
V 4 931.7
H4

310.6kN
m
3
H3

H remain

H 5 xH 4 1xH 3

1780.3 5 x310.6 1x 279.6


52.2kN

Ht

H remain
52.2

3.7 kN Ha (7.2kN ) ........OK


n remain
14

ARRANGEMENT OF PILE GROUP