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THEORY OF EVOLUTION (SUMMARY)

First there were some amoebas. Deviant amoebas adapted


better to the environment, thus becoming monkeys. Then came
TQM.
I am leaving out some details, but the theory itself also has a
few holes that are best left unquestioned.
- Scott Adams

Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY MAPPING- EVOLUTION


Beginning of the twentieth century - work brought complex skills to

the job. Business process required specific competencies for the task at
hand.
Era of scientific management Taylors and Fords use of assembly
line shifted focus from competency to time and motion study.
World War II (mid century) enforced management centric views
where officers gave orders to subordinates who obeyed without
questions.
Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY MAPPING- EVOLUTION


1960 David McClellands landmark article in the American
Psychologist asserted that companies should hire people
based upon competencies rather than test scores.
1973 McClelland developed new methods to predict human
performance for US Information Agency. Objective was to
eliminate the potential biases of traditional intelligence and

aptitude testing.

Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY MAPPING- EVOLUTION


The turning point for competency movement Article published in
American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland.

Article presented data supporting that traditional achievement and


intelligence score may not be able to predict job success. need of the hour
was to profile the exact competencies required to perform the given job

effectively.
Equally noteworthy is the pioneering work by Douglas Brey and his
associates at AT&T which gave evidence that the competencies can be

accessed through assessment centers and on the job success can be


predicted to certain extent.

Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY MAPPING- EVOLUTION


Behaviour Event Interviewing (BEI) was developed by McBer to
map the competencies.
Increased recognition of the limitations of performance appraisal in
predicting future performance shifted focus to potential appraisal
and assessment centers in seventies.
Assessment centers were an integral part of the HRD plan given to
L&T in 1975.

Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY

Any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task,


activity or role successfully can be considered as competency.

Dr.Anita Mathew

Competency based HR Strategic Initiative


Why this exercise?
We have ambitious plan to grow
Wanted to reduce subjectivity in people processes
Progressive companies would give thrust on
competency based people development process
Helps clarifying expectation, define future
development needs, more focused hiring and
people development planning
Dr.Anita Mathew

Benefits
Role based competency matrix for all positions
Present level competency can be ascertained and
gap can been seen visibly
TNI can be designed based on the gap identified
and would be individual specific & more focused
Can identify Hi-potential employees for future
roles
Talent Acquisition criteria would be fixed and
would pave the way for objective based hiring

Dr.Anita Mathew

COMPETENCY - DEFINITION
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
(2002)
A competency is a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes
that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an
activity within a specific function or job.
RANKIN (2002)
Competencies are definition of skills and behaviors that
organizations expect their staff to practice in work.
MANSFIELD (1997)
Underlying characteristics of a person that results in effective a
superior performance.
Dr.Anita Mathew

What is Competency?
The key success factor for the job
ASK
Attitude
Skill
Knowledge

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Observable
Behavior

Knowledge

Attitudes

Skills

Motives, Values , Traits, Self Concept

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What is ASK
Attitude

Probing past experience impression vary


Cannot be assessed in interview
Can be assessed through
Psychometric tool

Skill

Past experience
Can be tested empirically
Can be assessed

Knowledge

Education record
Past experience
Can be Seen
Can be assessed
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Competency may take the following forms:


Knowledge
Attitude
Skill
Other characteristics of an individual including
Motives
Values
Traits
Self Concept
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Why Competencies?
Direction
Measurable

Development
Distinct
Integration
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NEED FOR COMPETENCY MAPPING


Training and
Development
Recruitment
and Selection

Replacement
Planning

Competency
Mapping

Career
Planning

Compensation

Succession
Planning

Performance
Appraisal
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Different Interprettions
Gugliemino (1979)

Conceptual Capacity
Capacity to interact with
people
Technical expertise

Siriwaiprpn (2000)
Organizational Competence
Social Competence
Cognitive Competence
Self-competence
Job Competence

Agut & Grau ( 2002)

Technical Competencies
Generic Competencies

DDI , A US Consulting Firm


Individual Performance
Effective Performance
Facilitation of individuals or
teams to achieve Company goals
Outcome orientation

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Categorization of Competencies
Threshold : Essential Characteristics
Differentiating : Superior from average
performance

Gary Hamel and C K Prahlad (1994)Competing for the Future


Organizational Competencies
Job/Role Competencies
Personal Competencies
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ANCHORS OF BEHAVIOUR
COMPETENCY CUSTOMER FOCUS
Knowledge Knowledge of customers, including their
profiles, preferences, buying patterns and so on
Attitude Believe that customer is _____
Skills- Listen well, communicate effectively, handle angry
customers, provides solutions
Habit(s): Do not procrastinate
Values: Respect for people
Abilities: Social Intelligence
Traits: Grounded, practical and high tolerance and ambiguity
Motives(s): Achievement
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Customer Focus

Invest time to identify customer requirements


Focus on meeting the needs and interest of the
customers
Take personal responsibility to resolve customer
concerns
Build good rapport with customers
Understand issues and problems from the
perspectives of the customer
Proactively anticipate and provide solutions to
delight customers
Respond to customers promptly and punctually
Set up efficient system to attend to customers
complaints
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SENIOR MANAGAEMENT COMPETENCY MODEL


TEAM LEADERSHIP
EXECUTION
ENABLING PEOPLE PERFORMANCE

COMMUNICAAATION
DECISION MAKING
CREDIBILITY
STRATEGIC AND SYSTEMS ORIENTAATION
CHANGE MANAGEMENT
COMMERCIAL AACCUMEN
PLANNING AND MONITORING
ABILITY TO MOTIVATAE AND DEVELOP SUBORDINATES
NETWORKING
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Behavioural indicators of Senior Mgmt.


Competencies
SL.
No.

Competency

Behavioral Indicators

Team Leadership

Create a vision
Keep the purpose, goals and approach relevant and
practical
Motivate, inspire, influence and push people to
achieve team goals
Build commitment and confidence within the team
Place team success above individual gain

Execution

Believe execution of projects and deadlines are


crucial
Personally leads execution with robust planning and
prioritizing
Assign appropriate resources and remove obstacles
Get task executed with a sense of urgency
Direct peoples energy towards execution

Enabling Peoples
Performance

Create an enabling work climate


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Demonstrates
faith in peoples capabilities

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Steps involved in the competency mapping


Step 1 * Review, finalize and accept
company wide competency
requirements that are critical for
the company growth
Step 2 * Define observable behavioral
definitions [finalize behavioral
dictionary]
Step 3 * Define generic roles with
definition for the company as a whole
Step 4 * Create Role competency matrix
* Identify Criticality required
* Identify Proficiency level
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Steps involved in the competency mapping


Step 5 * Identify Behavioral & Functional
skills required for the role
Step 6 * Define Functional skills
Step 7 * Identify role holder for each role
Step 8 * Assess role holder behavioral
skill through Echo
Step 9 * Assess Functional skill with
superior/HoD
Step 10 * Match Role holder competency Vs
Role based competency

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Steps involved in the competency mapping


Step 11

* Action Plan
a] Talent Acquisition
b] Performance Management
System
[Talent Management]
c] Learning Management System
[Talent Development]
Step 12 * Employee Feedback
Step 13 * Performance Management :
A Holistic
Approach
The Way Forward

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Step 1 - Review, finalize and accept company wide competency


requirements that are critical for our company's growth

Competencies

Communication
Leadership
Strategic Thinking
Creativity
Teamwork
Sense of Ownership
Customer Orientation
Consumer Orientation

Mandatory/ Non-negotiable
Competencies

Micro planning and


Execution
Differentiation
Quality Orientation

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Step 2 Define observable behavioral definitions [finalize


behavioral dictionary] CK Competencies
1

Leadership

Decisiveness Makes timely decisions, takes risks using


data, facts and futuristic outlook
Change management Understand what change requires,
work with stakeholders to influence change proactively

Creativity

Innovation Think out of the box, veer away from run of the
mill solutions, come up with non-traditional solutions

Strategic Thinking

Strategic thought leadership Show ability to look at the


big picture, draw global or local trends, build scenarios, put
together small pictures to make the big picture

Sense of Ownership

Initiative Delivering results with commitment and


perseverance, sharing information, building long lasting and
transparent relationships, doing the job with attitude (taking
appropriate risks, providing candid observations, influencing
stakeholders), helps share the companys culture
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Step 2 Define observable behavioral definitions [finalize behavioral


dictionary] Mandatory/ Non-negotiable Competencies

1 Micro planning
and Execution

Process orientation and Detailing - translating organizational vision


to action, building knowledge base, creating knowledge platform,
formulating strategies and designing action plans, formulating
measurement and monitoring mechanisms for executing action plans.
Working with speed and timeliness, opportunistic, acting fast wit
accuracy, taking action on both own initiative and implementing others
initiatives.

2 Differentiation

Competitive Advantage - Contributing to the success of the business


by serving the value chain, interpreting socio-economic context,
articulating the value proposition, leveraging business drivers.

3 Quality
Orientation

Adherence to norms, efficiency, and deliver excellence - provide


the highest level of internal and external customer service, translate
customer critical feedback to quality characteristics which then
determines process improvements and process efficiencies, transfer
learning across teams and business for continuous improvement.

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Step 3 Define generic roles with definition for the company as a


whole
S No

Role definition

Sales

Executive task under


supervision

Frontline sales Direct sales, collection & distribution responsibility for


assigned territory, feet on street, field job (Sales Reps, Sales Coordinator)

Executing tasks
independently

Area Responsibility Direct sales, collection & distribution feet on street,


field & supervisory possibility for a large area (Sales/ Sr. Sales specialists
without direct people responsibility)

Executing Leaders

Regional Responsibility Direct sales, collection & distribution


responsibility, supervisory responsibility for targets in Region (more than 1
state) (Sales/ Sr. sales specialist with people and region (more than 1 state)

Section/ Location Head

Division Responsibility Responsibility for division profitability at a


national level, larger supervisory role, responsibility for sales & marketing
(Section chief/ Manager with national responsibility for division)

HOD/ Management Team

Business Responsibility Responsibility for profitability of all Divisions in


the group for CKPL, High focused supervisory role, Responsible for
contribution to top and bottom line of CKPL (Business Group Heads)
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Step 4 Create Role competency matrix


Role

Function

Equivalent Competency Role

PROFICIENCY LEVELS

BASIC AWARENESS

CONTRIBUTORY

EXPERT

LEADING EDG

CRITICAL

IMPORTANT

PREFERRED
CRITICALITY

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Step 4 Identify Criticality required


Detail how critical the competencies are
CRITICAL - An absolute must / essential without which
success on the job is difficult.
IMPORTANT - Need to have, but a lack of it for the current
conditions may not be a deterrent and can be trained.

PREFERRED - Nice to have, one that adds that extra value,


but absence of it for the current conditions not a deterrent
to successful accomplishment of the job

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Step 4 Identify Proficiency level


LEVELS OF COMPETENCIES - A measure of relative
comparison to identify How much of a specific
competence.
BASIC AWARENESS - Understanding at a macro level,
sufficient to know How to do it? - Competence to
understand the book
CONTRIBUTORY - Understanding at a macro level and able
to pass on the How to do? - Competence to understand
and teach the book
EXPERT COACH - Understanding at the detailed level,
contribute, analyze and teach the How to do ?
Competence to understand, teach, and criticize the book
LEADING EDGE - Understand at the Micro level, contribute,
analyze, teach ,and recreate the How to do ?
Competence to understand, teach, criticize and write the
book.
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Step 5 Identify Behavioral skills required for the role


CAVINKARE COMPETENCY MAPPING MATRIX
Role

Function

Equivalent Competency Role

Sales Representative

SD/147/00/01.10.08

Sales

Front line

PROFICIENCY LEVELS

BASIC AWARENESS

CRITICAL

IMPORTANT

Criticality
PREFERRED

CONTIRBUTORY

EXPERT

Retail Perf Std

Selling Skills

Operational RS Management

Distribution Expansion

Product Knowledge

Claims making

Differentiation

consumer orientation

PC skills

Market Knowledge

cavinkomm / RS software

Trade relations

Micro planning/execution

Customer orientation

Analytical skill

Team work

Quality orientation

Communication
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Creativity

LEADING EDGE

Step 5 Identify Functional skills required for the


role: Sales & Distribution
Business
Responsibility

Division
Responsibility

Region
Responsibility

Area
Responsibility

Front Line Sales

Business Plan

Sales planning

Sales targets

Selling skills

Selling skills

Relationship
management

Relationship
management

Expanding
distribution

Distribution
expansion

Distribution
expansion

Benchmarking

Supply chain
management

Collections

RPS

RPS

Supply chain
management

Customer
satisfaction

Inventory
monitoring

RS management

RS management

Team management

Marketing support

Resource
management

Financial
commitment mgt

Financial
commitment mgt

New business
development

Team management

Product knowledge

Product knowledge

Policy/process
compliance

Market knowledge

Market knowledge

Trade marks
protection

Trade relations

Trade relations
Analytical skill

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Claims making

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Step 5 Identify Functional skills required for the


role: Marketing
Leader

Managerial

Execution

Co- ordination

PC skills

PC skills

PC skills

PC skills

Marketing strategy

Profit monitoring skill

Profit monitoring

Marketing plan

Brand management

Marketing plan

Consumer tracking

Consumer tracking

Media management

Tracking competition

Advertising and media


promotions

Competition tracking

Agency management

Product launch and


promotion

Research activities

Trademark management

Build brand identity

Brand related activities

Financial acumen

Agency briefing

Knowledge of product and


packing
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Step 5 Identify Functional skills required for the


role: Human Resources
Leader

Managerial

Execution

Co- ordination

Global HR trends

PC skills

PC skills

PC skills

Financial acumen

Recruitment management

Compensation
management

Statutory knowledge

Labour law know

PMS

HR info system

Know of HR concepts &


process

Compensation
management

Payroll management

Business acumen

IR skill

HR vision

HR info system

Policies & procedures

Payroll management

RAG analysis
Comp & rewards
Talent management
HR info system
Group HR operation

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Step 6 Define Functional skills


SR Role
Functional competencies

F
u
n
ct
io
n
al
/
T
e
c
h
n
ic
al
S
k
ill
s

Definitions

Selling Skills

Steps of sales calls .expand

Distribution expansion

Enhance coverage in a defined budget

RPS

Availability and visibility - merchandising

RS Management

Stock norms, ROI, Mkt Service, Infrastructure, Mkt Credit

Financial commitment Mgt

Handling collection issues, distributor investment, RS funds


management

Product Knowledge

Basic understanding of categories and products vis--vis the


competition

Market Knowledge

Understanding of the geography and relationship with dealers

Trade relations

Relations with the retailers, leverage the sales

Analytical skill

Analysis of territory alignment [coverage and routing]

Claims making

Product returns, subsidy, schemes rejections handling

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Step 7 Identify Role Holder for each role

On line display of individual competency

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Step 8 Assess role holder behavioral skill through


Echo
What is an Echo Tool
Echo
Psychometric Tool
Behavioral questionnaire
20 minutes only
Interpersonal, activity and motivation
10 Dimensions of Personality

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Step 8 Ten Dimensions of Personality


Introversion
Anxiety
Assertion
Receptivity
Rigidity
Intellectual Dynamism
Combativeness
Realization
Belonging
Power

Extroversion
Relaxation
Questioning
Distance
Improvisation
Intellectual Conformism
Conciliation
Facilitation
Independence
Perfection

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Step 9 Assess Functional skill with


superior/HoD
By Experience
Would be empirically done by superior
360 degree Appraisal

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Step 10 Match of role holder Vs Role based


competency

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Step 10 Match of role holder Vs Role based


competency

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Step 10 Match of role holder Vs Role based


competency

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COMPETENCY MAPPING

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Step 11 Action Plan


[a] Talent Acquisition

Fixing a norm for selection


Change in the interview evaluation sheet
Competency based Preliminary interview
Administer Echo and match with competency matrix
Hiring Other post selection procedures would be administered as
is being done by HR

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Step 11 Action Plan


[b] Performance Management System
[Talent Management]
Administer at the time of appraisal
Identify hi-potential future role leaders
Link it with the promotion policies
Succession planning
Career Planning
Under- utilization

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Step 11 Action Plan


[c] Learning Management System
[Talent Development]
Input for the CK university
Gap identified would be the basis for the individual Learning

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Step 12 Employee Feedback


On line system would be made available wherein employees can see

a] what is the competency expected for the role


b] where they are against it
c] 360* appraisal the superiors would give a feedback

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Step 13 Performance Management :


A Holistic Approach
THE WAY FORWARD
* Existing Vs Present
Change in PMS. May happen in future
JC Priority
KRA
Behavioral Competency
Functional Competency
360 degree appraisal

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