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University of Management and Technology, Lahore Pakistan

Abstract

Electricity demand is increasing daily, due to the rapid growth of electrical and electronics

products in market. The main objective has now shifted to improve the performance, lower

the cost of solution and to make reliable power system. To meet the increasing demand of

electrical load, new conventional and nonconventional generations systems are needed to

install. Due to the rapid changes in modern world, energy shortage is a big issue. Due to

depleting conventional sources with time, energy experts are interested in renewable

energy sources. In order to ensure the stability of power system, demand and generation

must be balanced. Hence, the economical load dispatch technique is applied to define the

optimal solution for generation units, power output, and to minimize the operating fuel

costs of these units.

Economic load dispatch problem is complex, when Renewable energy units are also

considered with thermal power plant. So it is challenging to find the optimal solution at

lower fuel cost, such that generated power meets the active power load demand. There are

different techniques available to solve the economical dispatch problem. This thesis is

mainly aimed to design Economic load dispatch model for thermal and wind power plants.

Due to the varying nature of Wind, probabilistic approach is used to solve the economic

load dispatch problems. In this thesis, the purposed optimization method is Genetic

algorithm (GA). The main idea behind Genetic algorithm is that, all generators will

optimally supply the required electricity load demand at minimum fuel cost, while

satisfying the system constraints. Through GA, we will find the feasible range of optimal

solution, and restrict the output power of thermal units. The simulations were

performed on various test systems, one with six thermal generators and the other with six

thermal generators and wind power unit. The proposed problem will be simulated using

MATLAB.

Back ground

Engineers are always concerned with the cost of the product, and services at optimum planning

of the electric power generation. Main purpose of power electric companies is that they provide

the electricity to the consumers at the lowest cost. Under the normal conditions the capacity of

generation plants are more than the demand and losses. So for this purpose economical load

dispatch is an important and fundamental issue in power system to optimize generators operating

capacity at minimum fuel cost. It is important to solve the economic load dispatch problem

efficiently. Cost function is an important function in Power system. In the traditional ELD

problem, the cost function is used as a linear function which can be solving using simple linear

mathematical programming. But today we take cost function as a quadratic function that is

nonlinear function. Different optimization methods are used to solve nonlinear economic load

dispatch problem and find out the optimal solution.

There are different approaches to solve the ELD problems, some of them are mathematical

programming approaches and some of them are optimization techniques used. Most common

techniques are Lambda iteration technique, the gradient method and Newton raphson method.

However these traditional approaches are fast and solve the economic load dispatch problem

effectively, if and only if the fuel cost curve of the grating units are piece-wise linear and

monotonically increasing. So these programming techniques are not applicable for real practical

world. These all techniques are linear technique and these methods have some issues that these

method contained assumptions which increase the operation cost of generator.

Practically the input to output characteristic of the generator are highly non linear and nonsmooth. To solve that non linear cost curve there are several different optimization techniques

that are applied to solve the practical applicable in real world economic load dispatch problem

like genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization solve nonconvex optimization problems efficiently and often achieve a fast and near global optimal

solution.

Fig 1 shows the operating curve cost of the fuel generator. It shows that if the nonlinearity of cost

function is increasing, this cost curve shows that the increase the demand of also increase the

operating cost f curve. So to minimize the operating cost, programming techniques are used.

Fig-1

Problem

Over a last decade the demand of electricity is increasing. The behaviors of the thermal power

plants are nonlinear, so increase in demand is the main reason for increasing prices. Now the

problem is to determine the optimal solution of different plants such that the total operating cost

of generating unit is reduced. The main important problem is that each generator has different

cost curve some of generator output is high at low fuel cost and some of generator ouput is low

at high fuel cost. This problem is more critical when wind power is also attached with these

thermal power units in parallel. Wind is varying in nature. So its more difficult to find out the

optimal solution when wind is parallel attached with those power units.

The main objectives of this study are:

1

2

To find out the optimal solution of load dispatch problem and the cost of function

Reduce the operating or running cost of generators.

In economic load dispatch problem constrains are important factor. So Constrains are

also consider to write a code and simulation.

To study the Thermal and wind power plant and its function

Generators have different fuel cost, its important to get the maximum power from low

cost generator and also satisfy the constraint of system.

Identify the weakness and effectiveness of previous algorithm of economic load dispatch

Strategy

Economical load dispatch research has achieved the considerable progress in last decade. The

main aim of optimal algorithm application is to make economical load dispatch that the system

should be constrained, and to minimize the cost so that the power generation is equal to the

power demand or within limits of maximize to minimum power. To solve Economic load

dispatch problem lot of algorithms have been proposed. Most of the Algorithm not work for real

practical world.. So its a big challenge to propose algorithm or Economic load dispatch models

which will also work in real practical life. In this paper proposed method is genetic Algorithm.

GA algorithm is the best evolutionary technique. Evolution treated as optimization process. GA

is used for finding the global minimas or global maxima. Due to nonlinear characteristics of

generating unit and varying natures of wind the past simplealgorithm method cant find the

minimum or best solution for optima and these methods are not acceptable in real world. The

beauty of GA is that it would work on practical cases. So our strategy in this paper is that to

solve the economical load dispatch problem through the genetic algorithm.

References

[1] Sicong Tan, Jian-Xin Xu, and Sanjib Kumar Panda, Optimization of Distribution Network Incorporating

Distributed Generators: An Integrated Approach IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 28, NO.

3, AUGUST 2013

[2] Samir Sayah * , Abdellatif Hamouda Nonsmooth Economic Power Dispatch through an

Enhanced Differential Evolution Approach 2012 IEEE

[3] C.-L. Chiang, "Genetic-based algorithm for power economic load dispatch", IET Gen., Transm., Distrib., vol. 1,

no. 2, pp.261 -269, 2007

[4] J. S. Al-Sumait, A. K. Al-Othman, and J. K. Sykulski, "Application of pattern search method to power system

valve-point economic load dispatch,"

International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 29, pp. 720-730, 2007.

[5] J.B.Park, K.S.Lee, K.Y.Lee, A Particle Swarm

Optimization for Economic Dispatch with Non-smooth Cost Function IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol 20, Feb

2005

.

[6] .. Mr.G.Loganathan1 Mr.D.Rajkumar2 Mr.M.Vigneshwaran3 Mr.R.Senthilkumar4 An Enhanced Time Effective

Particle Swarm

Intelligence for the Practical Economic Load Dispatch 2014 IEEE

[7] K. Y. Lee and M. A. El-Sharkawi, Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques: Theory and Applications to

Power Systems, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008

[8 M. Anuj Gargeya1, Sai Praneeth Pabba2 International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics

and Instrumentation Engineering

Vol. 2, Issue 4, April 2013.

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