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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources (18, including pictures and interview)

Secondary Sources (13-14, including picture)
Anti-Apartheid Hero. Digital image. BBC News. 05 Dec. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2016.
Digital image. The DarkRoom. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Free South Africa. Digital image. Old News - Ann Arbor, Michigan. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Johannesburg - Nelson Mandela, South Africa's Peacemaker. Digital image. Voz Iz
Neias? Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Jones, Ros W. Imprisoned But Never Broken. Digital image. Mirror. 07 Dec. 2013. Web.
15 Dec. 2016.
"Mandela For President" Poster. Digital image. The Nelson Mandela Foundation. Web.
02 Dec. 2016
Mandela Memorial. Digital image. CTV News. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Martin, Paul. South African Leader Was Inspired By Sport in Freedom Struggle. Digital
image. Independent. 06 Dec. 2013. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.
Nelson Mandela Boxing. Digital image. PhotoBucket. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Nelson Mandela. Digital image. Global Research. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Nelson Mandela's childhood home. Digital image. HubPages. 06 Dec. 2013. Web. 17
Dec. 2016.
Nelson Mandela's Childhood Home. Digital image. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
Nelson Mandela & Winnie. Digital image. Bella Naija. 08 May 2014. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
Presidential Inauguration Speech; 1994. Digital image. BBC News. 06 Dec. 2016. Web.
09 Dec. 2016
South African Flag Wallpaper. Digital image. Parmida Tours. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.
The Soweto Youth Uprising in South Africa. Digital image. Original People. 16 June
1976. Web. 19 Dec. 2016.
The 1976 Soweto Uprising. Digital image. Huffington Post. 29 Oct. 2016. Web. 22 Dec.
Umtata, 1937. Digital image. Wikipedia. Web. 20 Dec. 2016.
We Won't Move. Digital image. Wild About Travel. Web. 18 Dec. 2016.


Apartheid Explained. Youtube. A.J., 17 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2016.

Doeden, Matt. Nelson Mandela: World Leader for Human Rights. Minneapolis: Lerner
Publications, 2015. Print.
Matt Doeden is a writer and editor from Minnesota who spent nearly ten years
working for Capstone Press before becoming a freelance writer. Specializing in
high-interest nonfiction, he has experience writing informativeand
understandablebooks for a variety of ages. In this book, Doeden provides the
reader with a nice amount of background information before he dives into
developing his argument. The author argues that Mandela had a vital role in the
abolishment of racial inequality in South Africa. Overall, this book connects to the
theme of taking a stand because it gives information on how Nelson Mandela
became a significant leader of anti-apartheid movements. A lot of the book was
dedicated to explaining the incarceration of Mandela, which outlined how he stood
up for equality and the effects this had in the given setting.
Gormley, Beatrice. Nelson Mandela: South African Revolutionary. New York: Aladdin,
2015. Print.
Beatrice Gormley is an American author from California that writes historical
nonfiction for children. Prior to writing books, Gormley worked as an editor and has
therefore had experience in different parts of the writing world. In this book,
Gormley discusses apartheid in South Africa and how Nelson Mandela fought
against it. She argues that Mandela refused to let [his negative experiences] break
him. This book relates to the theme of taking a stand because it describes the
methods Mandela used to make his anti-apartheid campaign effective.
Pollack, Pam, Meg Belviso, and Stephen Marchesi. Who Was Nelson Mandela? New
York: Grosset & Dunlap, 2014. Print.
Grosset & Dunlap, a publishing company founded in 1898, was bought by G. P.
Putnams Sons in 1982. However, it is now an extension of the Penguin Random
House Publishers. The Who was? series of books were created to spread
biographical knowledge regarding important historical figures. Who Was Nelson

Mandela? contains light details about the South African government. The authors
main argument is that Nelson Mandela was responsible for the end of apartheid in
South Africa. Taking a stand is an important theme highlighted throughout the
book. The authors detail the ways in which Mandela participated in the antiapartheid movement to stand up against the South African government.
Schechter, Danny. Madiba A to Z: The Many Faces of Nelson Mandela. Auckland Park,
South Africa: Jacana, 2013. Print.
Danny Schechter was an American television producer, independent filmmaker,
blogger, writer, and media critic. During his lifetime, Schechter wrote about civil
rights movements, foreign policy, and economics, along with many other worldly
issues. In his book Madiba A to Z: The Many Faces of Nelson Mandela, Schechter
describes Nelson Mandelas life from a unique point of view. According to critics,
Schechter gives insights.. we havent heard before in this book. He argues that the
many parts of Mandelas personality are what enabled him to be a successful leader.
Overall, the way the book is written outlines the ways in which Mandelas
personality helped him take a stand and lead successful anti-apartheid movements.
"A History of Apartheid in South Africa." South African History Online. 17 June
2016. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
Established in 2000, South African History Online (SAHO), a nonprofit
organization, was established as an unbiased database of history in South Africa.
Originally, the site strove to address the biased way in which South Africas
history and represented in our educational and cultural institutions. In
this article from SAHO, the concept of apartheid is explained eloquently. There are
ample amounts of detail, from dates and laws to people and places. The site
contains many primary source photos that allow the organization to argue the
extent of the power of discrimination in South Africa. The information SAHO
provides regarding historical context contains great details without being overly
dry. More importantly, however, the article connects to the theme of taking a
stand as it describes the significant role Nelson Mandela played in the resistance
by outlining the acts of rebellion he organized.

Dixon, Robyn. "Nelson Mandela's Legacy." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 06
Dec. 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2016.
The Los Angeles Times is the largest metropolitan daily newspaper in the United
States. The newspapers online website won a Pulitzer Prize an award given by
Columbia University in New York. Pulitzer Prizes are a way to recognize
excellence in the world of newspaper journalism. Although parts of the article give
background information about apartheid, the majority gives theories as to why
Nelson Mandela condoned the use of violence and how acts Mandelas acts of
rebellion turned violent. Robyn Dixon argues that even though it is wrong for
society to condone of violence, Nelson Mandela effectively resorted to this on
more than one occasion. Dixon proves how the use of violence helped Mandela
combat the inequality of apartheid. This article is historically significant because it
provides a window into the lives of blacks fighting apartheid. The information
Dixon provides in the Los Angeles Times also connects to the theme of taking a
stand against apartheid because it describes what types of rebellion Nelson
Mandela stood for.
Dixon, Robyn. "Nelson Mandela Wore the Mantle of Saint Reluctantly." Los Angeles
Times. Los Angeles Times, 05 Dec. 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2016.
The Los Angeles Times is the largest metropolitan daily newspaper in the United
States. The newspapers online website won a Pulitzer Prize an award given by
Columbia University in New York. Pulitzer Prizes are a way to recognize
excellence in the world of newspaper journalism. For the majority of this article,
Dixon highlights Nelson Mandelas flaws in order to argue that although Mandela
was not perfect, he used his imperfections in a way that improved his overall
leadership skills. Here, Dixon outlines specific historical context/background
information about Mandela because she spends time writing about his personality.
She does this by providing evidence that proves Mandela was not the saint people
made him out to be. The information Dixon provides in this article of the Los
Angeles Times connects to the theme of taking a stand because it describes what
types of leadership skills Mandela successfully used to make his voice heard.
"The History of Apartheid in South Africa." Stanford University. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.

Monal Chokshi, Cale Carter, Deepak Gupta, Tove Martin, and Robert Allen
students with their PhD from Stanford University created this source as their
final assignment. Because this website as a whole focuses on computer science
and the development of computers, the project was about the relationship between
computers and apartheid. However, in this particular part of the project, the
students explained important background information surrounding apartheid by
arguing that laws established by the white South African government did not
protect the rights of blacks. The article establishes the historical context of
apartheid by explaining the extent of discrimination in South Africa. It gives the
reader an understanding of the political context because the authors overview
various laws that Nelson Mandela ultimately fought against.
I Am Prepared to Die. South Africa, Pretoria. 17 Nov. 2016. The Two Way - NPR.
Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
NPR is a multimedia news organization and producer of radio programs. The
organization has dozens of bureaus across the globe with hundreds of employees
responsible for reporting breaking news and analyzing major events. NPR claims
to provide the public with fact-based, independent updates. This article argues
that Nelson Mandelas I Am Prepared to Die speech given in 1964 changed the
course of history and solidified his legacy as an admirable leader. Embedded on
the site is a recordingroughly ten minutes long of the speech that acts as a
primary source. The author discuss Nelson Mandelas legacy in the commentary
regarding the speech. A huge part of Mandelas legacy is about how he stood up
for a change and sacrificed everything he had to advocate for quality. The
historical significance of Mandelas speech lies in his word choice and emotion
because it allows the listener to hear how passionate he was. For this reason, the
speech provides a window into the time period by displaying the extent of power
of the resistance.
"Mandela Remembered by Historian Teresa Barnes." Teresa Barnes on Mandela. Feb.
2014. Web. 22 Dec. 2016.
Teresa Barnes is a professor at the University of Illinois. After college, Barnes
lived abroad in Zimbabwe and South Africa, where she became interested in
African history. This source is a transcript of an interview with Teresa Barnes that
can be found on the University of Illinois News Bureau. Rather than only giving
facts, Barnes assesses how and why Nelson Mandela became a successful leader.

She also speculates on how Mandelas philosophies have remained relevant even
after his death. Barnes argues that Mandelas leadership was a collective project.
Teresa Barnes spends a significant amount of time talking about how Mandela
took a stand by leading the biggest anti-apartheid movement. She frequently
discusses his role as a leader, which also emphasizes how Mandela advocated for
racial equality.
Pearson, Michael, and Tom Cohen. "Life Under Apartheid." CNN. Cable News
Network, 06 Dec. 2013. Web. 02 Nov. 2016.
CNN is one of the most popular news networks worldwide. They have news
broadcasts on national television and also publishes their posts their news online.
Michael Pearson and Tom Cohen are journalists that write on behalf of CNN. This
article describes what life was like day to day during apartheid in South Africa.
Here, Pearson and Cohen also argue that living as a black South African
surprising facts about Nelson Mandela that provide insights regarding his life
and legacy. Although historical context is provided, this source mainly connects to
the theme of History Fair. The article gives information on how Nelson Mandela
played a significant role in history because it walks the reader through a number of
Mandelas brave acts of defiance.
Williams, Ray. "Why Nelson Mandela Was A Great Leader." Psychology Today. Dec.
2013. Web. 19 Dec. 2016.
Ray Williams, the author of How Mindful Leaders Transform Chaotic Workplaces,
is a psychologist who has written for publications such as Psychology Today and
The Washington Post. Williamss work mainly focuses on motivation and
leadership. This article describes the different approaches and tactics used by
Nelson Mandela to influence his followers and become an international symbol of
racial equality. Williams also argues that Mandela is more successful than most
leaders today because his traits such as compassion and empathy were
amplified to the same extreme as those of Gandhi. Taking a stand is an important
theme highlighted throughout this source. The author details the ways in which
Mandela engaged South Africans in the anti-apartheid movement. This ultimately
allowed them to stand up against the South African government and fight for

McGregor, Carol-Ann. "Apartheid in South Africa." Telephone interview. 26 Dec. 2016.

Carol-Ann McGregor is from Parkhurst, Gauteng, South Africa. To keep her
family safe, she moved to the United States after having her youngest son (who is
now seventeen).Today, McGregor lives in Essex Junction, Vermont with her
husband and son. During the interview, a lot of time is spent discussing the violent
components of Nelson Mandelas anti-apartheid movement including both
personal and national repercussions. Although no main argument is made, CarolAnn McGregor provides countless insightful comments on how living in South
Africa during apartheid was for her and her family. Most of the information shared
during this interview has a strong connection to the time periods historical
context. The interviewee establishes the historical context of apartheid by
explaining the extent of destruction the anti-apartheid movements left behind.
McGregor has a deep understanding of the political and social context in South
Africa during apartheid.