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Unit 1 Friends and Family (Page 3)

3) verbs followed by gerunds.
B) Pair work, how do you feel about these things?

I avoid telling people that Im angry with them.

I intend to tell people that Im angry with them.
Sara enjoys helping with chores around the house.
Sara continues to help with chores around the house.
Sardar admitted listening to peoples personal problems. Sara loves to listen to peoples personal problems.
I dislike staying out late the night before an interview.
I dont need to stay out late the night before an interview.
I reject starting conversations with people I dont know. I refused to start conversations with people I dont know.
I dont mind going to places where I have to use my English. I agree to go to places where I have to use my English.

3) Noun Clauses after be. (Page 7)


B) Combine the sentences. Then compare answers with a partner.


The nice thing about being the youngest in the family is that I get a lot of attention.
The trouble with having a younger sister is she always wants to borrow my clothes.
The bad part about being away at college is that I miss my family.
The worst thing about working at night is that I cant have dinner with my family.
One bad thing about being the oldest in the family is that I always have to baby-sit.

C) compete the sentences with your own ideas. Then compare answer with a partner.

An advantage of being a twin is that you always have someone to hang out with.
A problem with being an only child is that I have to depend on myself in everything.
A big disadvantage of having an older sibling is that you have obey their order and serve them.
The best thing about having a big family is that you always have someone to talk to them and get help.

B) Read the article and answer the questions. Then compare answers with a partner. (Page 9)
1- After Anne watched the musical Oliver, she wanted to adopt orphans.
2- They have special needs. This includes emotional and physical problems, as well as problems learning.
3- Over $27,000 a month.
C) Group Work, Discuss these questions. Then share your answers with the class.
1- Having support from people live in similar situation.

2- yes , I would like to live in family if I have to.

3- I suppose to have shared with my family and not to eat the whole fish alone.
4-I suppose to have asked for the senders name to thank the person who sent it.
5- The service provider must have cancelled my phone services.
6- He should have done what he promised to do it.

2) Modals with multiple uses. (Page 15)


B) look at the starting point on page 14 again. What does each modal express? Which ones are used in the passive.
1- He might have been busy at work. But he should have called to say he couldnt meet.
2- She might have not cashed her pay cheque.

B) Group work (Page 16) Use the verbs of belief to discuss these questions.
1- I guess because they feed on leaves growing high on trees.
2- I am suppose that number thirteenth is unlucky number.
3- I doubt about exiting of intelligent life on other planet.
4- I am not certain about what to do.
5-I am sure it is not red.
6-because there is no never cells in the end of the hair.

Unit 3 Exploring new Cities. (Page 19)

C) Join the sentences using non-defining relative clauses. Then compare answers.
1- Gaudi also designed Barcelonas Park Guell, where you can see fabulous sculptures.
2- Seouls name comes from the ancient word Seorabeal, which means capital.
3- the center of Beijing is Tiananmen Square, which is the world s largest public square.
4- A great time to visit Seoul is in the fall, when Korean people celebrate the Chuseok festival.
1- Japanese restaurant , which have started appearing in recent years, are now popular in Barcelona.
2- Australias first European settlers, who were originally from Great Britain, came to Sydney in 1700s.

Unit 4 Early birds and night owls. (Page 29)


B) Pair work Complete the sentences with information about yourself. Then discuss your answer with a partner.
1- While working on a really difficult task, I always keep focused until the job is done.

I become really frustrated whenever a friend talks loudly without giving chance to other.
I dont feel awake in the morning until I have my coffee.
Whenever I have trouble sleeping I drink a cup of milk to relax my never system.
I can never concentrate after staying for long hours without sleeping.
From the moment I wake up in the morning I go for a walk before having breakfast.
After Ive stayed out too late I went to bed right away.
I take a nap whenever I have chance at work.

C) complete the sentences with information about yourself. Then compare answer with a partner.
1- Unless I have enough sleep at night, I cant think very clearly in the morning.
2- I usually wake up on time, as long as I have no work to do.
3- I fall asleep pretty quickly at night, considering that I have to work in the early morning.
4- I always have a boring book on my night table just in case I need to read at night.
5- Even if Im extremely stressed out, I never get angry and mad at my coworkers.
6- I only leave a light on if have to sleep early.

6) To sleep or not to sleep. (Page 35)

B) Read the article again and answer the questions below.
1- scientists and pharmaceutical research are searching for chemicals and drugs to keep us awake longer. Another group
of researchers is studying a gene, and a third group is working on an electric switch that can instantly wake up a
sleeping brain.
2- It varies from three to eleven hours a night.
3- We would need less and less sleep and could do more.

Unit 5 Communication (Page37)


B) Rewrite the sentences using infinitive or gerund phrases. Then compare answers with a partner.
1- Talking about politics at work or school is inappropriate.

It is impolite in some foreign countries to use certain gestures.

It is often considered rude to ask someones age.
Addressing a professor by his or her first name is not unusual in the US.
It is customary in many cultures to hug friends when you greet them.
It is inappropriate in some countries to ask strangers if they are married.

B) Rewrite the sentences using reported speech. Then compare answers with a partner.
1- She told me that she wasnt surprised at all.


He asked me if I had heard the news.

She said that there was a bank down the street.
She asked me why I wasnt talking.
He told me to give him a call.
She told me that they were getting married.
The children asked me if the movie was scary.
They told me that they didnt take the 8:00 train. They hadnt taken the 8:00 train.

C) Pair work Imagine that you have overheard this conversation. Take turns reporting each line of the
Ryan told Lara that he had heard some interesting news today. He asked Lara if she knew Amanda Jenkins.
Lara said that she knew what she looked like but she had never met her.
Ryan said that she was going to study for a year in Australia.
Lara asked how she could afford that.
Ryan said that she had gotten a scholarship that would take care of all the expenses.
Lara said that she thought that was great. She asked Ryan when she was leaving.
Ryan said he didnt know.

Unit 6 what is the real story. (Page 50)


5) Creating a story. Vocabulary and speaking (Page 50)

Beginning a story
Ill never forget the time when..
It all started when
That remind me of when..
Ive got to tell you about

Continuing a story
What happened was
The next thing we
So later on

Going back in a story

The thing you have to know is.
I forgot to mention that..
The other thing is

Unit 7 the information age (Page 54)

2) Technology Buzzwords,
1. Download transfer files to your computer.
2. Chat room a website where people have discussions.
3. Hot spot.. a place that has wireless internet access.
4. Blog an online journal of personal opinions.
5. Freeware software available for free.
6. Webcam a camera that sends live video over the internet.
7. Podcast radio or TV shows for your MP3 players.
8. Spyware.. software that secretly records your online activity.
9. Instant message short message that are faster than e-mail.
10. Computer virus a harmful software that attacks computer.

Ending a story
And in the end ..
To make a long
story short..
So finally

3) Passive of present continuous , present perfect, future (Page 55)

B) complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

Thousands of computer already have been infected by spyware.

More freeware will be released/ is going to be released soon for all kinds of applications.
Thousands of blogs are being started on all sorts of topics every day.
Recently, more hot spots have been set up in small towns.
Nowadays, teen chat rooms are being monitored by concerned parents.
These days, podcasts are being downloaded by people of all age.
Soon viruses will be created/ are going to be created that no security software can detect.
Webcams will be used/ are going to be used in the future to broadcast college classes.

5) Connecting ideas formally (Page 56)


A) These expression connect ideas in different ways. Put them in the column below. Sometimes more than one answer is
Add information

Compare or contrast
nevertheless, on the
other hand

furthermore, indeed,
in fact

Give an example
Additionally, for
example, for instance,

Show result
As a result, therefore

2) Forms of communication (Page 58)

A) Where do you find these forms of communication? Put them in the columns below. Then add another expression to
each category.
On television
Crawls, infomercials

On the internet
Banner, ads, pop-up, ads,

On the telephone
Telemarketers, voicemail,

On streets or highways
Billboards, bus wraps, flier,
neon signs

3) Negative and tag questions for giving opinions. (Page 59)

B) Pair Work, Turn the statements into negative or ta questions. Then ask and answer the questions. Discuss your
1- Isnt sad now so many trees are being cut down to create junk mail? It s sad how so many trees are being cut
down to create junk mail, isnt it?
2- Shouldnt they get rid of those banner ads on the internet? They should get rid of those banner ads on the internet,
shouldnt they?
3- Wouldnt it be great if there were fewer billboards? It would be great if there were fewer billboards, wouldnt it?
4- Shouldnt teachers ban text messaging during exams? Teachers should ban text messaging during exams,
shouldnt they?
5- Isnt it is scary that opening a spam email could expose your computer to a virus? Its scary that opening a spam
email could expose your computer to a virus, isnt it?
6- Arent there too many channels on TV these days? There are too many channels on TV these days, arent there?

5) Health and technology (Page 60)

Eye strain

Eyes become red, watery, itchy

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Gadget addiction

Pain in the hands and arm

Using gadgets all day long, a deep
sense of loneliness

Look at beautiful scenery for a few
day with no computers
Stretching and strengthening exercise
Learn to disconnect from the wired

Unit 8 Putting the mind to work (Page 62)


2) Creative qualities
A) What qualities do creative people usually have? Complete the chart with the correct nouns or adjectives.






3) Reduce Relative Clauses (Page 63)

B) Rewrite these sentences with reduced relative clauses. Then compare with a partner.

Someone hoping to be a chef should get the proper training.

Anyone wanting to be an actor needs both talent and luck.
A person working as a comedian is always looking for new ways to make people laugh.
People clever enough to get inside the mind of a criminal would make good detectives.
Anyone dreaming of becoming a champion athlete has to be prepared to do a lot of hard work.
Someone interested in the latest music trends might be a good DJ.
A person responsible for a large staff has to be able to creative with scheduling.


C) Complete these sentences using your own ideas.


Anyone wanting to work as a paparazzo should keep up with current events.

A person wants to work as a host should speak English as much as possible.
Anyone dreams to be a musician needs to take voice lessons.
A person likes to work as a technical experts doesnt need to have a good speaking voice.
Anyone hopes to work as a fashion designer should pursue his or her trends in clothing.
A person desire to work in veterinary hospital has to study the animals behavior.
Anyone wants to work in the food industry usually has a great love of food and eating.
People dreaming of being models will find that the field is extremely competitive.

2) Combine the Verbs with the nouns to make a common expression.


Analyze a situation, analyze a problem, analyze information, analyze a situation, analyze a mistake.
Explore possibilities, explore alternatives, explore information.
Find a solution, find alternatives, find information, find a mistake.
Make a mistake, make an alternative,
Organize information
Solve a problem, solve a mistake

3) Clauses and phrases showing contrast and exception. (Page71)

B) Here is some information about customs. How are they different in other places? Write sentences showing
contrasts and indicating exceptions.
1. Unlike people in the USA, most people where I live on time for parties.
2. In contrast to most people in Canada, French people eat chees and eggs for breakfast.
3. Unlike most people in Korea, People where I live who study a foreign language choose French.
4. In contrast to the UK people, Kurdish never split the bill at restaurant.
5. Unlike to people in Italy, dinner is the main meal of the day for Canadian.
6. In contrast to women in Spain, Kurdish women kiss three times on the both cheeks when they meet.


Are you typical? Complete these sentences and compare with a partner.
Unlike most women where I live, I dont wear makeup.
In contrast to most of my friends, I dont drink alcohol in a party.
While a lot of the people where I live exercise and walk, I dont do the both.
I am similar to many of my friends, except that I always ask a permission before I enter a room.

5) Should I just do with the flow (Page 72)



Pair work compete these sentences with your own opinions. Then discuss then with a partner.
Something that bothers me about my friends is when they dont return my calls.
One thing that irks me about my neighbors is that they always keep the TV sound so high at late time.
If I am riding a car, something that irritates me is when a driver stares at me at the traffic light.
The thing that aggravates me most is a friend when thinks driving fast is fun.
The thing that annoys me about people talking on cellphones is their loud laughing sound.
Leaving the tap running for longtime is one thing that bothers me at home.

4) That drives me up the wall. (Page 81)

A) Combine the verbs with the phrases. How many combinations can you make? How are their meaning different?

Drive someone crazy, drive someone mad, drive someone up the wall. Drive someone sick.
Get someone down, get someone mad, get someones goat, get under someones skin, get on
someones nerves, get someone sick.
Make someone mad, make someone sick, make someones blood boil, Make someone crazy, make
someone down.

4) I am totally baffled (Page 85)

Vocabulary and speaking
A) Look at these words that describe feelings. Put them in the columns below.
Confused feelings
Baffled , Confused, Mystified,

Angry feelings
Annoyed, Enraged, Frustrated,
infuriated, insulted, irritated

Sad feelings
Demoralized, pressed, discouraged,
humiliated, saddened

4) it is little unethical (Page 89)


Vocabulary and speaking.

A) These words describe peoples ethics and attitudes. Which prefixes give them the opposite meaning? Put the
words in the columns below.
Acceptable, agreeable, approving, ethical, fair, honest, legal, logical, rational, responsible, scrupulous, trustworthy
Disagreeable, disapproving,


Irrational, irresponsible

3) Ethical dilemmas, (Page 90)

Unacceptable, unethical, unfair,
unscrupulous, untrustworthy.


A) Read these situations. What would you do?

What would you do?

1- You have had plans for several weeks to visit your aunt. The day before, your friend invites you to a
really great party the same night.
a- Would you cancel your original plans?
b- If so, would you tell the truth or a white lie about why you were canceling?
c- Would you cancel your plans even if you knew your aunt were looking forward to it.

You are at a convenience store, and you see someone shoplifting a can of soup.
Would you tell the clerk?
What if the shoplifter were a woman with a small child?
Would it make a difference if the shoplifter looked dangerous?

3- You are taking an evening course, so you have a student ID card. Businesses all over town giving
discounts to students. You work fulltime during the day.
a- Would you use the card to get the cheaper prices?
b- What if you earned a high salary at your job?

c- Would it make a difference if you were buying form a major chain store or a small mom-and-pop
7) Thesis statements (Page 91)
Writing A) Read the composition and choose the best thesis statement from the choices below. Then, write a T
where you think the thesis statement should appear.
1- I have made some bad decisions.
2- We learn a lot from the decisions we make. True.
3- I have good and bad memories of old friendships.

2) Wishes and regrets (Page 93)


B) Rewrite these statements using the words in parentheses. Compare answers with a partner. Are any of the sentence true
for you.

I wish I could find the time to exercise. True

If only my grades had been better last semester. True.
I wish I knew how to dance well.
I wish had applied for that interesting job at work. False
I wish I werent feeling so stressed these days. True
If only I had learned how to swim when I was a child. True
If only I hadnt given away all my old CDs and DVDs last summer. False
If only I hadnt watched so much television and had read more when I was a kid. True.

C)Complete these sentences with your own wishes or regrets and add extra information. Then compare answers with a
if only I had enough money to buy a motorcycle! Then I wouldnt have to take the bus to class.
I wish I could find the time to study harder! If I could, I would take more courses to upgrade my degree.
I wish I had learned how to manage my time when I was a kid. If I had, I would had learned English.
If only I knew how to cook better. Then I could have run a good restaurant.
I wish my friends would come to my birthday party so that I would have a bigger hall to celebrate.
If only I had listened to my parents when they told me save money when I was young because I would have the
money to buy a better house.
7- I wish they pass a law that says speeding is a crime. If they did not too many accident would have happened.

3) Personal values (Page94) Vocabulary and Speaking


A) What words describe peoples values? Complete the chart with the correct noun or adjective.






Read the article again. Are these statements true or false? Check the correct answer. Correct the false statements.
False. He and two women had already helped him when he had convulsions and collapsed.
False. He said, I dont feel like I did anything spectacular; I just saw someone who needed help. I did what I felt
was right

Unit 12 moving around (Page 96)

2) Complete these phrasal verbs with a preposition from the box
About , in, of, to , with
1- Adjust to
5- become aware of

2- be excited about

3- be scared of

4- be familiar with

6- get accustomed to

7- look forward to

8- participate in

9- Take advantage of
3) future perfect and future perfect continuous (Page 97)
A) look at the starting point on page 96 again. Find three examples of the future perfect and the future perfect continuous
Future perfect:
Which will have changed the way view the world. Your self-confidence will have increased. Your commitment to
language study will have gotten stronger. You will have made many fascinating new friends!
Future perfect continuous:
You will have been studying your chosen language for 12 months. You will have been interacting with people from
other cultures. You will have been living in a fascinating foreign land.
B) These sentences about Joons year abroad all have mistakes. Correct the mistakes using the future with will, the future
perfect, or the future perfect continuous. Then compare answers with a partner.

By this time tomorrow, Joon will have been travelling for 24 hours.
By the end of next week , they will have installed his hone. Then we can call him!
He will be gong out more after a few weeks because he will be more familiar with the city.
After studying English for a few months he will feel more confident about speaking to people.
By this time next year, he probably will not have written us many letters, but we will continue to write to him

6- I am sure he will have changed a lot by the time he comes back to Korea.
7- His family will be surprised when he gets back because he will have changed so much.
8- And just think- the next time we see him., he will have turned 22 already, and he will have been away for a year.


C) Use these time expression to write sentences using the future perfect or future perfect continuous . Then share
them with a partner.
1- Before this class ends, Sam will have been studying in this university two English courses this year.
2- By the end of the day, I will have been working for 8 hours with no stop.
3- By the end of the week, our teacher will have given our class 2 more exams.
4- At the end of the semester, we have done 6 exercises on how to use future and future perfect.
5- In two years time, Kurdistan will have been fighting ISIS in all frontiers.
6- By the year 2020, Duhok International airport will have put into action for 3 years.

5) One word or two? (Page 102)

A) Combine the items from the boxes to make compound adjectives.
Culturally aware, culturally sensitive.
Nonconforming, nonjudgmental
Openhearted, open-minded
Self-assured, self-motivated, self- reliant, self-starter.

6) Planning a trip


Role Play A) imagine you are planning a vacation. Discuss these questions. Write notes about what your group
decide for each question.

I want to go to Paris.
I want to stay there for 45 days.
I would prefer to go with a tour group.
I prefer to stay in tourist village.
I would like to see ancient traces and historical places.
I would like to cultural events.
It might cost between $2000 to 2500.
I am planning to use public transportation.

C)Write a composition about living or traveling abroad. Choose one of these topics or one of your own. Your
conclusion should contain at least one of the methods described above and some liking words or phrases.
In the recent years many youths have been planning to live abroad and forgetting of coming back to their own country
after being adapted to the new home in the foreign country. Youth in most middle eastern countries have always
dreamed of fleeing their country for various reasons. Living abroad is not easy as many people thinks

2) Id like to try (Page 104)

A) Look at these questions and write answers that are true for you.
1- Living in a foreign country by myself.
2- Revealing my best friends secret .
3- Going to Paris in France.

1B) Noun Clauses after be. (Page 107)


2) Rewrite the sentences. Change the noun phrases in boldface to gerun phrases.

The trouble with having a big family is it is expensive to feed everyone.

The trick to living in a two income family is you have to schedule family time together.
The hard part about having a big house is there is so much work to do.
The upside of living in a big house is no one has to share a room.
The only bad thing about having little brothers is I always have to baby-sit them.
One good thing about living with little sisters is they look up to you.
One problem with being an extended family is we had to get a bigger car.
The greatest thing about having a small house is the bills are a lot lower.

2) Rewrite the sentences using reduced time clauses. (Page 112)


I usually read the newspapers while having breakfast.

My sister wont drink orange juice after brushing her teeth.
She does a lot of housework before leaving for work in the morning.
Power nappers work better after sleeping for short time during the day.
It is not a good idea to eat anything heavy before exercising.
If I listen to soft music while studying, I can concentrate better.
After being in an argument, I need to be by myself for an hour or two. After having been in an argument, ..
Before chilling out at night, I make sure everything is ready for the morning.

5A) infinitive and gerund phrases. (Page 114)


2) Write sentences with infinitive phrases using the words below.

1- Tom is always happy to loan money to his friends.
2- It is unusual for Wendy to arrive late to class.
3- It is encouraging for struggling students to receive good grades in school.
4- Min is always glad to help a friend in need.
5- Many tourists are surprised to learn about some American customs.
6- It is inappropriate for students to interrupt a teacher.
7- New employees are often afraid to ask their bosses for help.
8- It is customary for dinner guests to thank their hosts.

9- It is important for businesspeople to be punctual for appointments.

10- Eun Mi is never shocked to see people eating on the subways.
5B) Change the conversations to reported speech. (Page 115)
1- Ryan told Emma he was thinking of applying for a promotion at work.
Emma wanted to know what kind of promotion it was.
Ryan explained that his department needed a new manager.
Emma encouraged Ryan to apply.
Ryan said he was a little nervous because there was a big interview.
Emma told Ryan he just had to practice. She said she could help him.
2- Karl asked if they had to sign up for their after school club that day.
Mrs Chu said he could sign up until noon tomorrow.
Ava warned Karl not to wait too long. She said the good ones were filling up fast.
Karl said he would do it after he ate his lunch.


7B) Negative and tag questions for giving opinions. (Page 119)
1) Turn the statements into negative questions.
1- It would be great if telemarketers didnt call at dinnertime, wouldnt it?
Would nt it be great if telemartkers didnt call at dinnertime?
2- It is awful how so much paper is wasted on fliers that nobody reads, isnt it?
Isnt it awful how so much paper is wasted on fliers that nobody reads?
3- That infomercial we watched was ridiculous, wasnt it?
Wasnt that infomercial we watched was ridiculous?
4- Office towers should have to turn out all their lights at night, shouldnt it?
Should nt office towers have to turn out all their light at night?
5- There used to be pay phones on almost every corner downtown, didnt they?
Didnt there use to be pay phones on almost every corner downtown?
6- He had been thinking of getting a new computer, hadnt he?
Hadnt he been thinking of getting a new computer?
7- Kids should spend less time playing video games, shouldnt they?
Shouldnt they spend less time playing video games?
8- Some people get really addicted to computer games, dont they?
Dont some people get really addicted to computer games?

8A) Reduced relative clauses (Page 120)


Now write the sentences of exercise (1 Page 120) with reduced relative clauses.
A person working as a fashion designer should be aware of trends and familiar with different styles.
A person working as an accountant hast to good with numbers and very accurate.
A person working as a forest ranger has to be knowledgeable about plants and animals and physically fit.
A person working as a taxi driver must be a good driver and familiar with city streets.

10) Simple and complex indirect questions. (Page 125)


1) Rewrite these sentences using the words in parentheses.

1- I dont understand why the city cant add more street lights.
2- Do you know if the city is going to improve the rush hour bus service?
3- Why prices are going up so fast is something that baffles me!
4- I have no idea how I finish the work before the deadline.
5- Would you mind telling me if you have saved money for school?
6- Why there arent any bike paths in the city is beyond me.
7- My main problem is how I am going to pay the rent this month.
8- Do you have any idea when they are going to build a new hospital?
9- Dont you wonder who decided to close the swimming pool in the park?
10I have to find out if tuition is going up again next year.

11 B) Wishes and regrets. (Page 127)

2) Rewrite these sentences using the words in parentheses.
1- I wish I had been more obedient in elementary school.
2- If only I hadnt refused to take piano lessons when I was young, I would have been a good musician.
3- I wish I hadnt fallen asleep at the computer last night. Then my essay wouldnt be late for submission.
4- If only I had exercised less yesterday. Then I would not feel so tried now and leave my work behind.
5- Bob wishes he wasnt shy and made friends more easily when he was at high-school.
6- If only I was a better cook I would cook for my family.