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11/9/16

Chapter 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks

Lecture 15 Wireless Communication


The recorded lecture (requires UCLA login)

6.1 Introduction

w https://echo360.seas.ucla.edu:8443/ess/echo/
presentation/63b95e05-1441-47ca-87d3e647bd1b3e18

6.2 Wireless links


characteristics

Online office hour: 3-4PM Wednesday 11/16


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6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless


LANs (wi-fi)
6.4 Cellular Internet
Access
Wireless: communication
over wireless channel

w mobility: handling the mobile


user who changes point of
attachment to network
w # of wireless (mobile) phone
subscribers far exceeds the #
of wired phone subscribers

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Elements of a wireless network

Wireless host: may be


stationary (non-mobile) or
mobile

w Smart phones anytime


untethered Internet access

Mobility: hosts that


change attachment
point to the network
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wireless link
connecting mobile(s) to
base station
multiaccess protocol:
coordinates link access

network
infrastructure

6.7 Handling mobility in


cellular networks
6.8 Mobility and higherlayer protocols
6.9 Summary

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two important (but different) challenges


w wireless: communication over
wireless link

CDMA

6.5 Principles: addressing


and routing to mobile
users
6.6 Mobile IP

Infrastructure mode:
basestations connect mobiles to wired
networks
mobiles switch basestations after move
for continued Internet access (handoff)

(wire connected)
Wired network
infrastructure

Ad hoc mode:
no basestations;
each node helps
forward packets
to other nodes

Base station (also called AP):


typically connected to wired network
forwarding packets between wired
network and wireless hosts in its area
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Ad Hoc Model of Wireless Networking

Ad Hoc Model of Wireless Networking

w no base station

w no base station

w nodes can only transmit to


other nodes within link
coverage

w nodes can only transmit to


other nodes within link
coverage

w nodes organize themselves


into a network
D

W
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Wireless Link Characteristics

C
D

exchange information about


who can reach whom
Both distance-vector and linkstate approaches have been
tried

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Besides multiple access: other problems

w decreased signal strength: radio signal


attenuates as it propagates through matter

Hidden terminal

Signal attenuation

w B, A hear each other

w B, A hear each other

w Interference signals from other sources

w B, C hear each other

w B, C hear each other

w A, C cant hear each


other

w A, C cannot hear each


other interference at B

standardized wireless network frequencies (e.g.,


2.4 GHz) shared by other devices (e.g., microwave
oven, cordless phone)

w multipath propagation: radio signal reflects off


objects around (e.g. walls), arriving at
destination at slightly different times

w A, C may send to B at
the same time!
C

the above make communication across (even a point


to point) wireless link much more difficult
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A
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C
Cs signal
strength

As signal
strength

B
space
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IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WiFi)


w 802.11b
n

n
n

802.11 LAN architecture

w 802.11a

2.4-5 GHz unlicensed


radio spectrum
up to 11 Mbps data rate
direct sequence spread
spectrum (DSSS) in
physical layer

5-6 GHz radio range

up to 54 Mbps data rate

Internet

w 802.11g

2.4-5 GHz range

up to 54 Mbps

u
u

BSS 1

Administrator chooses frequency for an AP


AP 1

Internet

scan channels, listening for beacon frames

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1
2

AP 2
3

BBS 2

AP 1

2
3

AP 2
4

H1

passive scanning:
(1)beacon frames sent from
APs
(2)association Request frame
sent: H1 to selected AP
(3)association Response frame
sent from selected AP to
H1

switch
or router
AP

Select AP to associate with by initiating


association protocol
Typically use DHCP to get an IP address and
other infor in the APs subnet

BBS 1

BBS 2

H1

Contain SSID, its own MAC address

w Host: must associate with an AP before


transmitting data
n

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BBS 1

w AP sends beacon frame periodically

access point (AP): base


station

802.11: passive/active scanning

w 802.11b: divides 2.4--2.485GHz spectrum


into 11 channels at different frequencies
If neighbor APs use same default channel
interference

wireless hosts

BSS 2

802.11 LAN architecture

BSS: Basic Service Set (aka cell)


SSID: Service Set Identifier
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AP: access point (i.e.


basestation)

w Basic Service Set (BSS)


contains:
n

AP

2.4-5 GHz range


up to 200 Mbps data rate

all use CSMA/CA for multiple access


all have base-station and ad-hoc network versions

switch
or router

AP

w 802.11n: use multiple


antennae
n

w wireless host
communicates with
base station

AP

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Wireless, Mobile Networks

active scanning:
(1)Probe Request frame
broadcast from H1
(2)Probe Response frames
sent from APs
(3)Association Request frame
sent: H1 to selected AP
(4)Association Response
frame sent from selected
AP to H1
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IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA

IEEE 802.11: multiple access


w Like Ethernet, uses CSMA: sense the channel before
transmitting
n

dont collide with ongoing transmission

w Unlike Ethernet:
n

802.11 sender: channel sensing


If sense channel idle for DIFS period then
transmit entire frame
-

Receiver sends acknowledgment sender finds out


whether the transmission collided or succeeded

w Why no collision detection?


n

start random backoff timer


timer counts down while channel idle
transmit when timer expires
if no ACK, increase random backoff
interval, repeat

weak received signals (fading) difficult to receive (sense


collisions) when transmitting

802.11 receiver

cant sense all collisions, e.g. hidden terminal case

if frame received OK then


return ACK after SIFS

w Solution: CSMA / C(ollision)A(voidance)


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data

SIFS

ACK

DIFS: Distributed Inter-Frame Spacing


SIFS: Short Inter-Frame Spacing
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Collision Avoicedance

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange


A

w idea: allow sender to reserve channel: avoid collisions


of long data frames

AP

1. sender first transmits a small request-to-send (RTS)


packet to AP using CSMA
n

receiver

DIFS

Else if sense channel busy then

no collision detection once start, transmit all frames to


completion

sender

reservation collision

RTSs may still collide with each other (but theyre short)

2. AP broadcasts clear-to-send (CTS) in response to RTS


3. CTS heard by all nodes
within AP's range
n
n

DATA (A)

sender transmits its data frame


other stations defer transmissions

Use small packet exchanges to


avoid data frame collision
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defer

time

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802.11 frame: addressing

The combined picture:


2

frame
address address address
duration
control
1
2
3

Address 1: MAC address


of wireless host or AP
to receive this frame

0 - 2312

payload

CRC

seq address
4
control

Address 4: used only


in ad hoc mode
Address 3: MAC address
of router interface to
which AP is attached

Address 2: MAC address


of wireless host or AP
transmitting this frame

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802.11 frame: addressing

R1 router

H1

802.11: mobility within same subnet


w H1 detects weakening
signal from AP1, scans
and finds AP2 to attach
to

Internet

w H1 remains in same IP
subnet: IP address can
remain same

AP

R1 MAC addr H1 MAC addr


dest. address

w Switch: which AP is
associated with H1?

source address

802.3 frame
(Ethernet)

AP MAC addr H1 MAC addr R1 MAC addr

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address 1

address 2

(destination)

(source)

router

address 3

802.11 frame
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self-learning: switch will


see frame from H1 and
remember which
interface can be used to
reach H1

switch

AP 1
AP 2
H1
BBS 1

BBS 2

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spectrum of mobility support


from the network perspective
w Does the moving lead to IP address change?
w Must the communication continue while a hosts
IP address changes?
IP mobility support

no IP mobility support
Mobile device
on the same
AP
wireless device moves
between APs
connected to the same
switch
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mobile device
connecting/
disconnecting from
network using
DHCP.

mobile device passing


through multiple APs and
changing IP addresses.
Mobility support: enable
ongoing communication

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