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THERMAL ENERGY CONSERVATION OF A

STENTER MACHINE

Final Year Project Report


Group: 39

Batch: 2009-2010

M. Shahzaib Shakaib

ME-09150

Atif Mehmood

ME-09175

Daniyal Riaz

ME-09181

Moiz Khan

ME-09313

Internal Advisor:

Syed Mohammad Rizwan Azeem


Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Reference#: 39/2013

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

CERTIFICATE
It is to certify that the following students have completed their project Thermal Energy
Conservation of a Stenter Machine satisfactorily.

Group: 39

Batch: 2009-2010

Name

Seat No.

M. Shahzaib Shakaib

ME-09150

Atif Mehmood

ME-09175

Daniyal Riaz

ME-09181

Moiz Khan

ME-09313

Internal Advisor

Projects Coordinator

Mr. Syed Mohammad Rizwan Azeem

Dr. Muhammad Shakaib

Associate Professor

Associate Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

NED University of Engg. & Tech.

NED University of Engg. & Tech.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Above and before all we thank Almighty Allah, it is due to His Benevolence that this
project reached completion.

The next most important acknowledgement is to Prof. Sir. Syed Mohammad Rizwan
Azeem, (Associate Professor). His kind advice and generously given support have
made invaluable contribution, to which these few words will hardly do justice.

We want to present our heartiest thanks to the following persons also, who have
contributed in making this project reached completion.

Ms. Asma Adeel


Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department.

Mr. Umair Bin Asim


Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department.

Mr. Muhammad Aqeel


Technical Manager, Afroze Textile Industries.

II

ABSTRACT
The purpose of our project is to study and propose various means for effective
utilization of thermal energy in the operation of a stenter machine commonly used in
textile industries. The stenter machine is mostly used to dry the textile fabric. The heat
required in fabric drying process in the stenter is obtained from combustion of natural
gas. Since stentering is an energy intensive process, this study aims to reduce the energy
requirement either by re-utilization of exhaust gases or by some other means.

One goal of this project is to apply waste heat recovery system to operation of a stenter
machine in a textile mill in order to optimize its energy consumption. The heat recovery
is accomplished by re-utilization of exhaust air from stenter machine by means of a heat
exchanger. Research has been carried out on the theory and design of simple plate heat
exchanger and plate-fin heat exchangers, especially their use for energy recovery and
reduction of air pollution. Comparison between the two designs is also done in order to
select the best heat exchanger that meets our objectives. As a result of this study,
significant thermal energy saving have been achieved since the heat recovery process
reduces the amount of natural gas needed for drying process in stenter machine. Also,
pre-filtering is used in the heat recovery system thereby minimizing the air pollution
caused by the stenter machine.

Usually fabrics are mechanically de-watered up to some extent before going into the
stenter machine for drying process. Energy used in mechanical dewatering is only 1%
of the energy used to evaporate the same quantity of water. Therefore, wherever
possible, mechanical dewatering techniques should be employed. Squeezing mangle,
vacuum slot extraction device and centrifugal extractors are the different dewatering
techniques which have been studied for this project and a comparison is done between
them on the basis of their energy consumption.

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

2.

Introduction to Stenter Machine .................................................................... 1


1.1

Sections of a stenter range .......................................................................... 2

1.2

Types of heat source used in stenter machine ............................................ 3

1.2.1

Steam ................................................................................................... 3

1.2.2

Steam and electrical heating ................................................................ 3

1.2.3

Thermic fluid or hot oil ....................................................................... 3

1.2.4

Direct heating by oil burning ............................................................... 4

1.2.5

Direct gas firing ................................................................................... 4

1.3

Hot air dryer stenter .................................................................................... 4

1.4

Components of hot air dryer stenter & their working ................................ 5

1.4.1

Trough ................................................................................................. 5

1.4.2

Padders ................................................................................................ 5

1.4.3

Entry mahlo unit .................................................................................. 5

1.4.4

Chain drive .......................................................................................... 6

1.4.5

Heating section .................................................................................... 6

1.4.6

Delivery roller ..................................................................................... 6

1.4.7

Exit mahlo unit .................................................................................... 6

1.5

Industrial visits ........................................................................................... 6

1.6

Energy conservation of a stenter machine .................................................. 7

1.6.1

Waste heat recovery system ................................................................ 8

1.6.2

Mechanical dewatering techniques...................................................... 8

Fundamentals of Waste Heat Recovery ......................................................... 9


2.1

Introduction ................................................................................................ 9

2.2

Quality of waste heat .................................................................................. 9

2.3

Sources of waste heat ............................................................................... 10

2.3.1

High temperature heat recovery ........................................................ 10

2.3.2

Medium temperature heat recovery ................................................... 11

2.3.3

Low temperature heat recovery ......................................................... 11

2.4

Benefits of waste heat recovery................................................................ 12


i

2.4.1

Direct benefits ................................................................................... 12

2.4.2

Indirect benefits ................................................................................. 12

2.4.2.1 Reduction in pollution................................................................ 12


2.4.2.2 Reduction in equipment sizes .................................................... 13
2.4.2.3 Reduction in auxiliary energy consumption .............................. 13
2.5

Applications of waste heat recovery ........................................................ 13

2.6

Energy savings in stenters ........................................................................ 14

2.7

Device for waste heat recovery ................................................................ 15

2.8

Classification of heat exchangers ............................................................. 15

2.8.1

Direct contact heat exchanger ........................................................... 15

2.8.2

Indirect contact heat exchanger ......................................................... 16

2.8.3

Recuperators ...................................................................................... 17

2.8.3.1 Radiation recuperators ............................................................... 17


2.8.3.2 Convection recuperators ............................................................ 17
2.8.3.2.1 Shell and tube recuperators ........................................... 17
2.8.3.2.2 Tubular type recuperators .............................................. 17
2.8.3.2.3 Plate type recuperators .................................................. 17
2.8.4

Regenerators ...................................................................................... 18

2.8.4.1 Swing type regenerators ............................................................. 18


2.8.4.1.1 Checker brick regenerators ............................................ 18
2.8.4.1.2 Pebble bed regenerators ................................................. 18
2.8.4.2 Thermal wheel............................................................................ 18
3.

Heat Recovery Device-Selection ................................................................... 19


3.1

Introduction .............................................................................................. 19

3.2

Air to air heat exchanger .......................................................................... 19

3.2.1

Plate-fin recuperator .......................................................................... 20

3.2.2

Heat pipe heat exchanger ................................................................... 21

3.2.3

Thermal wheel ................................................................................... 22

3.2.4

Run-around coil ................................................................................. 23

3.3
4.

Selection criteria ....................................................................................... 24

Properties Evaluation and Design Constraints ........................................... 26


4.1

Properties evaluation ................................................................................ 26


ii

5.

4.1.1

Properties of hot air ........................................................................... 26

4.1.2

Properties of cold air ......................................................................... 28

4.1.3

Properties of aluminum ..................................................................... 29

4.2

Design constraints .................................................................................... 30

4.3

Heat transfer constraints ........................................................................... 30

4.4

Dimensional constraints ........................................................................... 31

4.5

Cost constraints ........................................................................................ 31

Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger ............................................................................. 32


5.1

Introduction .............................................................................................. 32

5.2

Salient features of plate-fin heat exchanger ............................................. 33

5.3

Advantages of plate-fin heat exchanger ................................................... 33

5.4

Limitations of plate-fin heat exchanger .................................................... 34

5.5

Flow arrangement ..................................................................................... 35

5.5.1

Counter flow ...................................................................................... 35

5.5.2

Cross flow .......................................................................................... 35

5.6

6.

Fin geometry............................................................................................. 36

5.6.1

Plain fins ............................................................................................ 36

5.6.2

Louvered fins ..................................................................................... 37

5.6.3

Offset strip fins .................................................................................. 39

5.6.4

Wavy fins........................................................................................... 40

5.7

Relative merits of plate-fin geometries .................................................... 41

5.8

Material of construction ........................................................................... 41

5.9

Relation between heat transfer rate and heat transfer area ....................... 42

5.10

Heat exchanger effectiveness ................................................................... 43

5.11

Number of transfer units........................................................................... 43

5.12

Applications of plate-fin heat exchanger in waste heat recovery ............. 45

5.12.1

Application to air conditioning system.............................................. 45

5.12.2

Application to industrial dryers ......................................................... 45

Qualitative Thermal Design .......................................................................... 46


6.1

Simple plate heat exchanger ..................................................................... 46

6.1.1

Range of no. of gaps between plates - selection ................................ 47

6.1.2

Calculation of dimensions of flow passage ....................................... 47


iii

6.1.3

Calculation of hydraulic diameter of flow passage ........................... 47

6.1.4

Calculation of exterior dimensions of heat exchanger ...................... 48

6.1.5

Calculation of all geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid 49

6.1.6

Calculation of all the dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side
fluid ................................................................................................... 49

6.1.7

Calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient ................................. 50

6.1.8

Calculation of log mean temperature difference ............................... 51

6.1.9

Calculation of height of flow passage ............................................... 51

6.1.10

Calculation of all quantities ............................................................... 51

6.1.11

Calculation of number of transfer units and overall effectiveness .... 52

6.1.12

Calculation of overall pressure drop on both sides ........................... 53

6.1.13

Calculation of cost of heat exchanger ............................................... 54

6.1.14

Selection of heat exchanger ............................................................... 54

6.2

Plate fin heat exchanger ........................................................................... 55

6.2.1

Range of no. of parting sheets - selection.......................................... 55

6.2.2

Geometrical parameters of the fin ..................................................... 56

6.2.3

Calculation of dimensions of flow passage ....................................... 56

6.2.4

Calculation of exterior dimensions of heat exchanger ...................... 56

6.2.5

Calculation of all geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid 58

6.2.6

Calculation of all the dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side
fluid ................................................................................................... 59

6.2.7

Calculation of fin effectiveness ......................................................... 60

6.2.8

Calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient ................................. 61

6.2.9

Calculation of number of transfer units and overall effectiveness .... 61

6.2.10

Calculation

of

effectiveness

of

heat

exchanger

considering

longitudinal wall conduction............................................................. 62


6.2.11

Calculation of amount of heat transferred and the outlet temperatures


for hot and cold side fluids................................................................ 63

7.

6.2.12

Calculation of overall pressure drop on both sides ........................... 64

6.2.13

Calculation of cost of heat exchanger ............................................... 66

6.2.14

Selection of heat exchanger ............................................................... 67

Quantitative Thermal Design........................................................................ 68


7.1

Simple plate heat exchanger ..................................................................... 68


iv

7.1.1

Range of no. of gaps between plates - selection ................................ 68

7.1.2

Dimensions of flow passage .............................................................. 68

7.1.3

Hydraulic diameter of flow passage .................................................. 69

7.1.4

Exterior dimensions of heat exchanger ............................................. 69

7.1.5

All geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid ....................... 69

7.1.6

All dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side fluid ................... 71

7.1.7

Overall heat transfer coefficient ........................................................ 72

7.1.8

Log mean temperature difference ...................................................... 73

7.1.9

Height of flow passage ...................................................................... 73

7.1.10

Calculated values of all quantities ..................................................... 74

7.1.11

Number of transfer units and overall effectiveness ........................... 74

7.1.12

Overall pressure drop on both sides .................................................. 75

7.1.13

Cost of heat exchanger ...................................................................... 76

7.1.14

Selection of heat exchanger ............................................................... 77

7.2

Plate fin heat exchanger ........................................................................... 79

7.2.1

Range of no. of parting sheets - selection.......................................... 79

7.2.2

Geometrical parameters of the fin ..................................................... 79

7.2.3

Dimensions of flow passage .............................................................. 79

7.2.4

Exterior dimensions of heat exchanger ............................................. 80

7.2.5

All geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid ....................... 80

7.2.6

Dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side fluid......................... 82

7.2.7

Fin effectiveness ................................................................................ 84

7.2.8

Overall heat transfer coefficient ........................................................ 85

7.2.9

Number of transfer units and overall effectiveness ........................... 86

7.2.10

Effectiveness of heat exchanger considering longitudinal wall


conduction ......................................................................................... 87

7.2.11

Amount of heat transferred and the outlet temperatures for hot and cold
side fluids .......................................................................................... 89

8.

7.2.12

Overall pressure drop on both sides .................................................. 90

7.2.13

Cost of heat exchanger ...................................................................... 91

7.2.14

Selection of heat exchanger ............................................................... 92

Advantages, Savings & Comparison .......................................................... 113


8.1

Advantages ............................................................................................. 113


v

8.2

Principle of waste heat recovery system ................................................ 113

8.3

Energy requirement and savings ............................................................ 115

8.3.1

Energy requirement without pre-heater ........................................... 115

8.3.2

Energy requirement with pre-heater ................................................ 117

8.3.2.1 Simple plate heat exchanger .................................................... 117


8.3.2.2 Plate fin heat exchanger ........................................................... 120
8.4
9.

Comparison of both heat exchanger designs .......................................... 123

Mechanical Dewatering ............................................................................... 124


9.1

Introduction ............................................................................................ 124

9.2

Squeezing mangle................................................................................... 125

9.3

Vacuum slot extraction device ............................................................... 125

9.3.1

Equipment used for vacuum slot extraction .................................... 125

9.3.2

Mechanism of vacuum extraction ................................................... 126

9.3.3

Importance of airflow in vacuum slot extraction device ................. 127

9.3.4

Applications ..................................................................................... 129

9.4

Centrifugal extractors ............................................................................. 129

9.5

Comparison of dewatering machines ..................................................... 130

Conclusion

Nomenclature

References

Appendix

vi

LIST OF FIGURES
A typical direct gas fired stenter machine ..................................................1
Inside view of heating chamber of a typical stenter machine ....................6
Classification of various heat exchangers ................................................16
Schematic of a stenter with and without air to air heat recovery unit .....19
Flow arrangements of plate-fin recuperator heat exchanger ..................20
Components and mechanism for a heat pipe containing a wick ..............21
Typical arrangement of heat pipe exchanger ...........................................22
Diagrammatic operation of a thermal wheel ...........................................22
Run-around coil installation, serving air handling units on the roof of an
office building ...........................................................................................23
Basic elements and two types of flow arrangements in plate-fin heat
exchanger .................................................................................................32
Different types of plate-fin surfaces .........................................................36
Plain rectangular fins ...............................................................................36
Louvered fins ............................................................................................37
Offset strip fins .........................................................................................39
Wavy fins ..................................................................................................40
Different drawing views of simple plate heat exchanger .........................48
Different drawing views of plate-fin heat exchanger ...............................57
Entrance & exit pressure loss coefficients for a multiple square-tube heat
exchanger core with abrupt- contraction entrance and abrupt-expansion
exit. ...........................................................................................................65
Detailed schematic diagram of waste heat recovery system ..................114
Squeezing mangle ...................................................................................125
Arrangement of a typical vacuum slot extraction device .......................126
Centrifugal extractor ..............................................................................129

vii

LIST OF TABLES
Stenter machine specifications ...................................................................7
Waste heat source & its quality ................................................................10
Waste heat temperatures in high temperature range. ..............................11
Waste heat temperatures in medium temperature range..........................11
Waste heat temperatures in low temperature range ................................12
Weighted decision matrix for heat exchangers ........................................25
Design constraints ....................................................................................30
Relative merits of plate-fin geometries .....................................................41
Design parameters of simple plate heat exchangers for different values of
N ...........................................................................................................78
Design parameters of plain plate fin at each NT ......................................93
Design parameters of louvered plate fin at each NT ................................97
Design parameters of offset strip plate fin at each NT ...........................101
Design parameters of wavy plate fin at each NT ....................................108
Final list of design parameters for each type of fin satisfying all the
constraints at each NT ............................................................................112
Components of waste heat recovery system ...........................................115
Comparison of heat exchanger designs..................................................123
Energy cost of dewatering machine .......................................................130

viii

CHAPTER #1
1. Introduction to Stenter Machine
Textile industry is one of the important and biggest industrial sectors in Pakistan. It
plays a major role in country economy and has steadily grown over years. When
compared with other industrial sectors, the textile industry requires usage of large
amount of water and energy.

The energy used in the textile


industry is generally in forms of
fuel and electricity. Since this
industry is energy-intensive, it
is very important to minimize
the energy consumption. Textile
process consists of wide variety
of production sections such as
spinning,

weaving,

dyeing,

drying, finishing, knitting etc.


Among them, drying process is
often one of the most energyintensive
Furthermore

operations.
this

A typical direct gas fired stenter


machine

process

exhausts large amounts of warm and moist air

Polymeric materials, such as polyester, are thermoplastics, become soft itself when
heated and harden when cooled. During production, the fabrics are subjected to various
deformations which cause shrinkage in the process of wetting and washing. In fabric
made of synthetic fiber deformation can be reversed by heating the fabric, while kept
under dimensional control.

Mostly stenter machines are used for drying process in various textile industries. It is a
machine or apparatus for stretching and stabilizing the fabric by heating while it is in
stretched condition. The purpose of the Stenter machine is to bring the length and width
to pre-determined dimensions. It is also used for heat setting and for applying finishing
chemicals.

1.1 Sections of a stenter range


The main sections of the stentering range can be classified as follows:

1. The entrance zone of the stenter in which the width equalizing and adjusting
take place. It is narrower at the actual entrance and tapers into a wider width till
the end of the section i.e. up to the heating chambers. The fabric is pulled during
the passage of the fabric in this section.
2. The intermediate zone, consisting of the fabric compensating device, weft
correcting system, crease removing and selvedge uncurling devices, fabric
selvedge guiding and introduction zone.
3.

The finishing zone, consisting of the finishing padder and its component parts.
The fabric is introduced into the finishing padder, squeezed to a planned
retention percentage.

4. The drying zone, consisting of the number of drying chambers according to the
drying process planned. Each of the drying chambers consists of suitable
positioned blower fans with fan motors, nozzle sets for blowing the hot air on
the fabric and heating registers which heat the air coming from blower fans and
achieve the desired effect.
5. The delivery zone, consisting of fabric releasing system, cooling device, plaiting
device and the type of batching system which may have been selected. This
zone permits the cooling of the fabric before it is stripped off the pins or clips
at the takeoff point. In some stenters air blower is arranged after the drying
section for adequate cooling of the fabric. Fresh air to bring down the
temperature is blown onto the fabric with the help of suitable ducting and
nozzles.

1.2 Types of heat source used in stenter machine


A variety of heat energy sources are used to heat the drying medium from which the
heat is distributed through heating registers or heat exchangers.

1.2.1 Steam
High pressure steam from the boiler mains is fed to the heat exchangers located in the
drying chambers. The steam pressure is regulated at a point, which is in the vicinity of
the stenter in order to maintain a continuous and consistent supply of steam at the
desired pressure and temperature to the heating registers. The temperature reached by
steam at reasonably high pressures is around 165C, which is adequate for drying,
curing and cross-linking the chemical reactants. Therefore the use of steam is limited
to drying purposes only. Circulation of hot air, which follows the exchange of heat, is
effected by means of suitably designed, motor driven blower fans. Highly superheated
steam is usually not used due to operational difficulties at higher pressures.

1.2.2 Steam and electrical heating


Electrical heating systems for attaining higher temperatures required for heat setting of
fabrics are also used. These systems are used along with pressurized steam for normal
drying purposes. The main problem with this system is cumbersome design features
and maintenance of both type of heating arrangements. However, exclusive electrical
heating arrangements are made in small production houses where boilers could not be
installed. This process is slightly costlier because of high cost of the electrical energy
compared to gas and oil.

1.2.3 Thermic fluid or hot oil


Hot oils or thermic fluids are also circulated through heating registers when higher
temperatures are required. One of the most redeeming features of this system is that the
same thermic fluid can be heated and recirculated through the stenter or any other
drying machines. The whole circulation is effected under normal pressure, with suitable
control valves for each of the drying chambers. After flowing through the hot oil
registers throughout the dry and heating zones, the oil is pumped back to the storage
together with expansion tank. From the expansion tank, it flows to the oil-heating tank,

where it is brought to the required temperature and is then again circulated through the
drying machine.

1.2.4 Direct heating by oil burning


In this system, each stenter chamber has its own oil burner arrangement. The flames are
discharged on one side of the heat exchanger. The oil burner design and position is
arranged in such a manner that the system can impart sufficient heat recovery for one
standard drying chamber, along with necessary oil spray, air mixing device, and igniting
device. Sometimes, oil combustion products are directly fed into the chamber but are
not preferred because of oil spots and soot formation owing to incomplete combustion.

1.2.5 Direct gas firing


Some stenter chambers are designed to be heated by direct gas firing with natural gas
being used as the fuel. The heat in the gas flame is taken up by the air from the blower
fans and passed on to the fabric surfaces. It is possible to control the gas flame in such
a manner that the hot medium temperature is adequate for drying, and when needed, for
the thermo-setting process, as the case may be. Indirect firing though a heat exchanger
can also be used for gas-produced heat but it is usually avoided because the arrangement
is very costly and the drying efficiency goes down by 20 to 30 %.

1.3 Hot air dryer stenter


In this project we are focusing only on direct gas fired hot air dryer stenter. The hot air
stenter is a gas fired oven, with the fabric passing through on a chain drive, held in place
by either clips or pins. Air is circulated above and below the fabric, before being
exhausted to atmosphere. As well as for drying processes, the stenter is used for pulling
fabric to width, chemical finishing and heat setting and curing. It is a very versatile
piece of equipment. It is usually the most expensive, largest and important machine in
finishing section.

Controlling width of the fabric is necessary because practically in all processing stages
the fabric is subjected to longitudinal or warps wise tension to varying degrees. Hence
the fabric shrinks widthwise to varying extent at different sections along its length.

There are a number of heating chambers dedicated to perform drying of the fabric inside
the stenter machine. Each of the heating chambers has a pair of air blowers attached to
a pair of air ducts. Drying of the fabric is achieved while the fabric passes through this
chamber.

By the time the fabric is about to get out of the stenter machine, almost all water in the
fabric has already been absorbed by the air inside the chamber. Thereafter the dried
fabric is rolled or pleated in the fabric receiving system

1.4 Components of hot air dryer stenter & their working


Following are the components of gas fired hot air dryer stenter.

1.4.1 Trough
A trough is installed below the padder. The fabric is first dipped in the trough which
contains chemicals. Chemicals are used to enhance the properties of fabric such as
whitening or stretching strength.

1.4.2 Padders
They are also called squeezers. The fabric then passes through these squeezers which
mechanically removes water from the fabric up-to some extent. The efficiency of these
squeezers plays an important role in removing the moisture from the fabric and can also
reduce the cost of the process.

1.4.3 Entry mahlo unit


This particular unit is installed to straighten the fabric. It controls 75% of bowing and
crossing. It only straightens out the weft of the fabric, not the warp.
In weaving the weft or woof is the term for the yarn which is drawn through
the warp yarns to create cloth. Sensors are installed to measure how much the fabric
should be straightened.

1.4.4 Chain drive


After mahlo unit, the fabric passes through the chain drive in which it is gripped by
rolling chains. The chains were designed in such a way that they can accommodate the
width setting of the fabric.

1.4.5 Heating section


The fabric then passes through the heating section. A number of burners are installed
in this section. This section also contains the blower fans which blows the hot air
through the nozzles onto the fabric.

Inside view of heating chamber of a typical stenter machine

1.4.6 Delivery roller


After heating section, the fabric then passes through the delivery roller.

1.4.7 Exit mahlo unit


This unit controls the remaining 25% of bowing and crossing. The fabric is then
collected in a bucket.

1.5 Industrial visits


A couple of visits have been carried out to get a better understanding of the stentering
range. Afroze Textiles, is the industry which we visited. The textile factory has 4 gas
fired hot air stenter for drying the fabric, each equipped with 8 burners in the heating
section. One of the objectives of the visit is the collection of data necessary for our
calculations. Table 1 lists the parameters of the stenter machine installed at Afroze
Textiles for which we have collected the data during our visits.
6

Serial No.

Parameters

Data

1.

Electrical power of machine

195 kW

2.

Machine roller width

3m

3.

Machine speed

40 m/minute

4.

No. of heating chambers

5.

No. of exhaust duct

6.

Heat source

Natural gas

7.

Maximum temperature of chamber

200 C (473 K)

8.

Temperature of exhaust air

120 C (393 K)

9.

Volume flow rate of intake air

31,000 m3/h

10.

Volume flow rate of exhaust air

31,000 m3/h

11.

Inlet wet fabric

0.75 kgwater / kgfabric

12.

Outlet wet fabric

0.07 kgwater / kgfabric

13.

Holding form

Clips

14.

Chain type

Pin chain horizontal

Stenter machine specifications

1.6 Energy conservation of a stenter machine


In textile industries, the energy used to dry the fabric corresponds to 50% of energy
consumed in the process of finishing the fabric, with 25% of that total going to the
stenters. The reason for this high energy consumption is the need for high air exchange
rates inside the stenter for the elimination of substances released during the process that
may compromise the fabric coloration. It is during this process that the heat losses are
the most. At exhaustion there is a huge waste of thermal energy, due to discharge of hot
gases exhausted. Energy expended in raw, 60 to 80% is lost in this disposal.

In this study, we are focusing ourselves on two alternatives to reduce the thermal load
of the stenter machine. The two alternatives are:

1. Use of Waste heat recovery system


2. Study of mechanical dewatering techniques

1.6.1 Waste heat recovery system


The goal of this study is to apply waste heat recovery system to operation of a stenter
machine in a textile mill in order to optimize its energy consumption.

One of the ways to reduce energy consumption is to reuse waste energy generated
during production processes. In the textile industry, this waste energy can be generally
recovered in the form of heat and be used in other processes of production.

The heat required in fabric drying process in the stenter is obtained from a hot gas
burner. The heat recovery is accomplished by re-utilization of exhaust air from stenter
machine by means of a heat exchanger. As a result of this study, significant thermal
energy savings are to be achieved since the heat recovery process reduces the amount
of energy needed to operate the hot gas burner.

Heat recovery system also involves pre-filtering and therefore air pollution caused by
the stenter machine is also minimized.

1.6.2 Mechanical dewatering techniques


Moisture is introduced to the dryer by the feed, the process air and, in certain instances,
by reaction, such as combustion. Reducing this loading allows the energy to be better
utilized on the drying process. To reduce this loading, mechanical dewatering is often
used because of lower energy requirements. Our goal is limited to the study of
techniques involved in dewatering and their comparison with each other.

CHAPTER #2
2. Fundamentals of Waste Heat Recovery
2.1 Introduction
Waste heat is a necessity generated by machines that do work or by processes which
requires energy. Rejecting heat is fundamental to the laws of thermodynamics for
operational systems. However it has lower utility i.e. higher entropy than the original
energy source. Most operational systems dump this waste heat to the environment even
though it could be recycled for useful and economic purpose.

The temperature of waste heat fluids and the economics involved governs the strategy
of how to recover this heat.

The waste heat can be rejected at almost any temperature depending upon the type of
process. Usually the higher the temperature, higher the quality and more cost effective
is the heat recovery. In any heat recovery situation it is essential to know the amount of
heat recoverable and also how it can be used.

2.2 Quality of waste heat


In considering the potential for heat recovery, it is useful to note all the possibilities,
and grade the waste heat in terms of potential value as shown in Table 2.

Source
Heat in flue gases.

Quality
The higher the temperature, the greater the
potential value for heat recovery

Heat in vapour streams.

As above but when condensed, latent heat also


recoverable.

Convective and radiant heat Low grade if collected may be used for space
lost from exterior of equipment heating or air preheats.
Heat losses in cooling water.

Low grade useful gains if heat is exchanged with


incoming fresh water.
9

Heat losses in providing chilled a) High grade if it can be utilized to reduce demand
water or in the disposal of for refrigeration.
chilled water.

b) Low grade if refrigeration unit used as a form of


heat pump.

Heat stored in products leaving Quality depends upon temperature.


the process
Heat in gaseous and liquid Poor if heavily contaminated and thus requiring
effluents leaving process.

alloy heat exchanger.

Waste heat source & its quality

2.3 Sources of waste heat


The sources of waste heat on the basis of their temperatures can be divided into three
temperature ranges. The high temperature range occurs between 620C to 1650C,
medium temperature range occurs between 230C to 650C and low temperature range
refers to the temperature between 27C to 230C.

2.3.1 High temperature heat recovery


Table 3 lists the temperatures of waste gases from industrial process equipment in the
high temperature range. All of these results are obtained from direct fuel fired
processes.

Source

Temperature, C

Nickel refining furnace

1370 1650

Aluminum refining furnace

650-760

Zinc refining furnace

760-1100

Copper refining furnace

760- 815

Steel heating furnaces

925-1050

Copper reverberatory furnace

900-1100

Open hearth furnace

650-700

Cement kiln (Dry process)

620- 730

Glass melting furnace

1000-1550
10

Hydrogen plants

650-1000

Solid waste incinerators

650-1000

Fume incinerators

650-1450

Waste heat temperatures in high temperature range.

2.3.2 Medium temperature heat recovery


Table 4 lists the temperatures of waste gases from process equipment in the medium
temperature range. Most of the waste heat in this temperature range comes from the
exhaust of directly fired process units.

Source

Temperature, C

Steam boiler exhausts

230-480

Gas turbine exhausts

370-540

Reciprocating engine exhausts

315-600

Reciprocating engine exhausts

230- 370

(turbo charged)
Heat treating furnaces

425 - 650

Drying and baking ovens

230 - 600

Catalytic crackers

425 - 650

Annealing furnace cooling systems

425 - 650

Waste heat temperatures in medium temperature range.

2.3.3 Low temperature heat recovery


Table 5 lists some heat sources in the low temperature range. In this range it is usually
not practical to extract work from the source. Low temperature waste heat may be useful
in a supplementary way for preheating purposes. Waste heat temperatures for our
project lies in low temperature heat recovery.

11

Source

Temperature, C

Process steam condensate

55-88

Cooling water from:


Furnace doors

32-55

Bearings

32-88

Welding machines

32-88

Injection molding machines

32-88

Annealing furnaces

66-230

Forming dies

27-88

Air compressors

27-50

Pumps

27-88

Internal combustion engines

66-120

Air conditioning and refrigeration condensers

3243

Liquid still condensers

32-88

Drying, baking and curing ovens

93-230

Hot processed liquids

32-232

Hot processed solids

93-232

Waste heat temperatures in low temperature range

2.4 Benefits of waste heat recovery


Benefits of waste heat recovery can be broadly classified in two categories:

2.4.1 Direct benefits


Recovery of waste heat has a direct effect on the efficiency of the process. This is
reflected by reduction in the utility consumption & costs, and process cost.

2.4.2 Indirect benefits


2.4.2.1 Reduction in pollution
A number of toxic combustible wastes such as carbon monoxide gas, sour gas, carbon
black off gases, oil sludge, Acrylonitrile and other plastic chemicals etc., releasing into
the atmosphere if/when burnt in the incinerators serves dual purpose i.e. recovers heat
and reduces the environmental pollution levels.
12

2.4.2.2 Reduction in equipment sizes


Waste heat recovery reduces the fuel consumption, which leads to reduction in the flue
gas produced. This results in reduction in equipment sizes of all flue gas handling
equipments such as fans, stacks, ducts, burners, etc.
2.4.2.3 Reduction in auxiliary energy consumption
Reduction in equipment sizes gives additional benefits in the form of reduction in
auxiliary energy consumption like electricity for fans, pumps etc.

2.5 Applications of waste heat recovery


Some applications of waste heat are as follows:

1. Medium to high temperature exhaust gases can be used to preheat the


combustion air for:
a. Boilers using air preheaters
b. Furnaces using recuperators
c. Ovens using recuperators
d. Gas turbine using regenerators
e. Gas fired stenter machines using air preheaters
2. Low to medium temperature exhaust gases can be used to preheat boiler feed
water or boiler make up water using economizers which are simply gas to liquid
water heating devices.
3. Exhaust gases and cooling water from condensers can be used to preheat the
liquid and/or solid feed stocks in industrial processes. Finned tubes and shell &
tube heat exchangers are used.
4. Exhaust gases can be used to generate steam in waste heat boilers to produce
electrical, mechanical power, process steam and any combination of above.
5. Waste heat can be transferred to liquid or gaseous process units directly
through pipes and ducts or indirectly through a secondary fluid such as steam
or oil.
6. Waste heat can be transferred to an intermediate fluid by heat exchangers ot
waste heat boilers, or it can be used by circulating the hot exit gas through pipes

13

or ducts. Waste heat can be used to operate an absorption-cooling unit for airconditioning or refrigeration.

2.6 Energy savings in stenters


One of the milestones of our project is to use waste heat recovery system for a stenter
machine in a textile mill in order to optimize its energy consumption. One of the ways
to reduce energy consumption is to reuse waste energy generated during production
processes. In the textile industry, this waste energy can be generally recovered in the
form of heat and be used in other processes of production.

The heat required in fabric drying process in the stenter is obtained from a hot gas
burner. The heat recovery is accomplished by re-utilization of exhaust air from stenter
machine by means of a heat exchanger. As a result, significant thermal energy savings
can be achieved since the heat recovery process reduces the amount of energy needed
to operate the hot gas burner.

Heat recovery system also involves pre-filtering and therefore air pollution caused by
the stenter machine is also minimized. Waste heat recovery from the stenter is possible
in two ways:

1. Waste heat recovery from the hot condensate and flash steam
2. Waste heat recovery from the exhaust gasses

Waste heat recovery from the condensate is easier. As the condensate comes from steam
traps, flash steam is produced. The flash steam may be condensed in a direct contact
condenser where cold water will extract its heat. Whereas the hot condensate may be
returned to the boiler feed water tank, by using a centrifugal pump. On the other hand,
recovering heat from the exhaust air probably offers the greatest potential reducing fuel
consumption. Our scope is limited to use waste heat recovery from the exhaust gases
because we are focusing on hot air dryer stenters.

14

2.7 Device for waste heat recovery


The backbone of heat recovery systems are the Heat Exchangers. It is an equipment
in which a hot fluid exchanges heat with a cold fluid. It is mostly used to obtain the
following results.

1. To get fluid streams to the right temperature for the next process
2. To condense vapors
3. To evaporate liquids
4. To recover heat to use elsewhere
5. To reject low grade heat
6. To drive a power cycle

The equipment for waste heat recovery can be classified in a number of way, but since
our project is based on gas to gas heat recovery, we will present the classification
according to gas to gas heat recovery systems.

2.8 Classification of heat exchangers


Figure 3 shows the tree structure that lists the classification of gas to gas heat
exchangers. They are initially classified as direct or indirect systems.

2.8.1 Direct contact heat exchanger


In Direct Contact type heat Exchanger, heat is directly transferred between hot and cold
fluids. There is no separating wall between the hot and cold fluids. Most direct contact
heat exchangers fall under the Gas- Liquid category, where heat is transferred between
a gas and liquid in the form of drops, films or sprays.

It utilizes the waste heat carrying gases by either mixing them with process streams to
augment their energy content, or by employing them independently as the process
stream itself. The former type is termed as Mixing Type heat recovery systems
whereas the latter is termed as Serial Type heat recovery system.

15

Gas to Gas Heat


Recovery Systems

Direct
Contact HX

Mixing
Type

Serial
Type

Indirect
Contact HX

Rotary
Regenerators

Swing
Regenerators

Checker
Brick

Radiation

Convection

Shell and Tube

Plate Type

Run-around
coil

Regenerators

Recuperators

Heat Pipe HX

Pebble Bed

Mix mode

Tubular

Classification of various heat exchangers

2.8.2 Indirect contact heat exchanger


In an indirect contact type heat exchanger, the fluid stream remains separated. There is
separating wall between the hot and cold fluids. The heat transfer in this type of heat
exchanger takes place continuously through a dividing wall. Most indirect contact heat
16

exchangers fall under those gases and liquids that are soluble in nature. They are further
sub-divided into three categories.

2.8.3 Recuperators
Recuperators are heat exchangers utilizing heat conduction through walls separating
the waste heat stream and the heated fluid stream. The recuperators can be classified
into radiation and convection types based on the mode of heat transfer between the heat
transfer surface and the waste heat stream.
2.8.3.1 Radiation recuperators
They have one large passage for the waste gas stream, with radiation as the primary
heat transfer mode on the waste gas side and convection on the cold side. Such
exchangers can be used with flue gas temperatures of up to 1500C.
2.8.3.2 Convection recuperators
They consist of banks of plates or tubes in the passage of waste heat stream, with
convection as the principal heat transfer mode on both the hot and cold side. The usage
of such recuperators is limited to 800C to 1100C waste gas inlet.
2.8.3.2.1 Shell and tube recuperators
They have an arrangement such that the hot gases are carried through a number of small
diameter parallel tube, while the cold stream enters a shell surrounding the tubes. The
cold gases are passed over the outside of the hot tubes one or more times in a direction
normal to the tubes.
2.8.3.2.2 Tubular type recuperators
They consist of banks of tubes placed in the hot waste stream duct. The cold gas flows
through the tubes, while the hot gas flows across the tube banks.

2.8.3.2.3 Plate type recuperators


They use metal plates as the primary heat transfer surface. They are made up of a series
of plates arranged within an enclosure. The hot gases pass through the plate recuperator
transferring their heat to the plates. Simultaneously, cold stream is drawn into the
17

recuperator in either cross flow or counter flow direction to the hot gas flow, in alternate
plate passages absorbing heat from the plates.

2.8.4 Regenerators
In a regenerator, heat from the waste heat gas stream is conducted to and stored in a
solid matrix. Cold gas stream subsequently flows over the same solid matrix to absorb
the stored heat. The hot and cold streams alternatively share the same heat transfer
surfaces and are switched either by means of a flow reversing valve of by rotating the
heat storage matrix. Following are few different types of regenerator.
2.8.4.1 Swing type regenerators
They consist of two or more solid storage matrices arranged in parallel. While hot gas
passes into one, cold gas flows through the other. Gas flows are switched at appropriate
times.
2.8.4.1.1 Checker brick regenerators
They have storage matrix constructed of fireclay, chrome, or silica brick shapes. Such
kind of regenerators are used in high temperature corrosive environments such as those
in coke oven, glass furnaces, open hearth furnaces and soaking pits.
2.8.4.1.2 Pebble bed regenerators
They have a mass of small refractory particles, enclosed in a brick-lined steel shell, to
work as a heat storage medium.
2.8.4.2 Thermal wheel
It is a rotary type of regenerator, which uses Ljungstrom principle of heat regeneration.
It consists of a cylindrical rotor containing the heat transfer surfaces, which rotates at 1
to 3 rpm inside a housing divided into two sections. Waste heat is absorbed from the
hot gas stream and transferred to incoming cold gas by means of continuously rotating
heat transfer surfaces.

18

CHAPTER #3
3. Heat Recovery Device-Selection
3.1 Introduction
In the previous chapter, a couple of heat exchangers were briefly discussed that were
the potential heat recovery devices for energy conservation. In this chapter however,
we will list down all of these devices that are used to recover heat from stenter machine
exhaust gases.

Additionally a comparison between them will be conducted so as to select the most


appropriate heat exchanger that will be suited to our goals.

3.2 Air to air heat exchanger


The hot stenter exhaust gas at up to 140C is transported by the existing waste air fans
through the heat exchanger and into the atmosphere. The cold, clean fresh air
(approximately 50% of the waste air volume) is drawn in by the fresh air fan through
the heat exchanger and into the stenter. As it passes through the heat exchanger, this air
is preheated to approximately 100C. This hot air can be used in the burner of the stenter
itself so as to lessen the requirement of fuel in the burner. The only problem is that the
burners will have to be modified in order that they are capable of accepting the air at
high temperature. This process is illustrated in Figure 4.

Schematic of a stenter with and without air to air heat recovery


unit
19

Presently, there are several kinds of heat recovery systems which are using waste heat
from stenter exhaust gases to preheat combustion air for the stenter. The existing
systems are discussed below.

3.2.1 Plate-fin recuperator


A plate-fin recuperator energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply
and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial
process, in order to recover the waste heat. In many types of processes, combustion is
used to generate heat, and the recuperator serves to recuperate, or reclaim this heat, in
order to reuse or recycle it.

They are commonly used to reuse waste heat from exhaust air
normally expelled to atmosphere.
Devices typically comprises a
series

of

parallel

plates

of

aluminum, plastic, stainless steel,


or synthetic fibre, with extended
surfaces(fins), alternate pairs of
which are enclosed on two sides
to form twin sets of ducts at right
Flow arrangements of plate-fin
recuperator heat exchanger

angles to each other, and which


contain the supply and extract air

streams. In this manner heat from the exhaust air stream is transferred through the
separating plates, and into the supply air stream. Manufacturers claim gross efficiencies
of up to 80% depending upon the specification of the unit.

The characteristics of this device are attributable to the relationship between the
physical size of the unit, in particular the air path distance, and the spacing of the plates.
For an equal air pressure drop through the device, a small unit will have a narrower
plate spacing and a lower air velocity than a larger unit, but both units may be just as
efficient.

20

3.2.2 Heat pipe heat exchanger


A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal
conductivity and phase transition to efficiently manage the transfer of heat between two
solid interfaces.

Heat pipe transmits thermal


energy

by

evaporation

and

condensation of the working


fluid. The working fluid inside
the heat pipe is in equilibrium
with its own vapour as the
container tube is sealed under
vacuum. Thermal energy applied
to the external surface of the heat
pipe causes the working fluid
near the surface to evaporate
instantaneously. The vapour thus
formed absorbs the latent heat of
Components and mechanism
for a heat pipe containing a
wick

vaporization and this part of the


heat pipe becomes an evaporator

region. Due to the pressure gradients thus created within the heat pipe by the rapid
generation of vapour near the surface, the excess vapour is forced to a remote area
within the heat pipe having low temperature and pressure. The vapour then travels to
the other end of the pipe where the thermal energy is removed causing the vapour to
condense into liquid again, thereby giving up the latent heat of the condensation. This
part of the heat pipe works as the condenser region. The condensed liquid then flows
back to the evaporator region to be reused, thus completing a cycle.

Heat is removed from the external surface of the condenser region by conduction,
convection or radiation. The heat pipe works continuously in a close-loop
condensation/evaporation cycle and thus, the capillary pumping force is established
within the wick structure that returns the working fluid from the condenser region to
21

the evaporator region. Heat pipes are often positioned in the exhaust gases of an
industrial process, in order to recover the heat energy.

Because of the characteristics of


the device, better efficiencies are
obtained

when the unit

positioned upright

with

is
the

supply air side mounted over the


exhaust air side, which allows
the liquid refrigerant to flow
quickly back to the evaporator
aided by the force of gravity.

Typical arrangement of heat


pipe exchanger

Generally, gross heat transfer

efficiencies of up to 75% are claimed by manufacturers.

3.2.3 Thermal wheel


A thermal wheel, also known as a rotary heat exchanger, or rotary air-to-air enthalpy
wheel, or heat recovery wheel, is a type of energy recovery heat exchanger positioned
within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust
gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the heat energy.

A thermal wheel consists of a


circular honeycomb matrix of
heat-absorbing material, which
is slowly rotated within the
supply and exhaust air streams of
an air handling system. As the
thermal wheel rotates, heat is
picked up from the exhaust air
stream in one half of the rotation,
Diagrammatic operation of a
thermal wheel
stream in the other half of the rotation. Thus waste heat energy from the exhaust air
and given up to the fresh air

stream is transferred to the matrix material and then from the matrix material to the
22

fresh air stream, raising the temperature of the supply air stream by an amount
proportional to the temperature differential between air streams, or 'thermal gradient',
and depending upon the efficiency of the device. Heat exchange is most efficient when
the streams flow in opposite directions, since this causes a favorable temperature
gradient across the thickness of the wheel.

Because of the nature of thermal wheels in the way that heat is transferred from the
exhaust air stream to the supply air stream without having to pass directly through or
via an exchange medium, the gross efficiencies are usually much higher than that of
any other air-side heat recovery system. The shallower depth of the heat exchange
matrix, as compared to that say for a plate heat exchanger, means that the pressure drop
through the device is normally lower in comparison.

3.2.4 Run-around coil


A run-around coil is a type
of

energy

recovery

heat

exchanger most often positioned


within the supply and exhaust air
streams of an air handling
system, or in the exhaust gases of
an industrial process, to recover
the heat energy. Generally, it
refers to any intermediate stream
used to transfer heat between two
streams that are not directly
connected for reasons of safety

Run-around coil installation,


serving air handling units on
the roof of an office building

or practicality.

A typical run-around coil system comprises two or more multi-row finned tube coils
connected to each other by a pumped pipework circuit. The pipework is charged with a
heat exchange fluid, normally water, which picks up heat from the exhaust air coil and
gives up heat to the supply air coil before returning again. Thus heat from the exhaust

23

air stream is transferred through the pipework coil to the circulating fluid, and then from
the fluid through the pipework coil to the supply air stream.

The use of this system is generally limited to situations where the air streams are
separated and no other type of device can be utilized since the heat recovery efficiency
is lower than other forms of air-to-air heat recovery. Gross efficiencies are usually in
the range of 40 to 50%, but more significantly seasonal efficiencies of this system can
be very low, due to the extra electrical energy used by the pumped fluid circuit.

3.3 Selection criteria


Now that a general understanding is created about the possible heat recovery devices,
its time to select one satisfying our objective. Due to the many variables involved,
selecting optimal heat exchangers is challenging. In order to select an appropriate heat
exchanger, we have establish the selection criteria for the listed heat exchangers.
Although cost is often the first criterion evaluated, there are several other important
selection criteria which include:

1. Application
2. Size or compactness
3. Weight
4. Heat losses
5. Cost
6. Maintenance requirements, reliability and safety

The above figure of merits has been used to screen different types of heat exchangers.
Each figure of merit is assigned a weightage factor that will dictate the importance of
the criteria. The weightage factor is chosen according to the need of our objective.
Finally a weighted decision matrix has been created which will identify the most
probable choice of heat exchanger that meets the requirements of our objective. The
decision matrix is shown below:

24

Type of heat Exchanger


Figure of
merit
Application
Compactness
Weight
Heat losses
Cost
Maintenance
Total

Weight
factor
10
20
10
10
30
20
100

Plate-fin
recuperator

Heat
pipe

Thermal
wheel

Run-around
coil

Scoring
1
1
1
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
1

-1
1
1
0
1
0

-1
-1
-1
1
0
0

70

30

60

-30

Weighted decision matrix for heat exchangers


The plate-fin heat exchanger has the highest score among others because of its
compactness, lower weight and cost. Thermal wheel has a higher score too but it also
recovers the moisture from the exhaust fluid stream in addition to heat and therefore, is
an energy recovery device rather than heat recovery device and is not suitable for our
application. If the moisture content in the combustion air is higher, it will damage the
burner. Heat pipe has an average score because of its relatively higher weight and less
compactness compared to plate-fin recuperator. Therefore plate-fin heat exchanger is
the most suitable type for our objective.

25

CHAPTER #4
4. Properties Evaluation and Design Constraints
4.1 Properties evaluation
Following are the properties that needs to be evaluated to carry out the design process
of the heat exchanger.

1. Density ()
2. Specific heat (Cp)
3. Absolute viscosity ()
4. Dynamic viscosity ()
5. Thermal conductivity (k)
6. Prandtl no. (Pr)

4.1.1 Properties of hot air


The following properties are evaluated at mean temperature of the hot air coming out
of the stenter.
Thi = Inlet temperature of hot air = 120C = 393 K
Tho,design = Design outlet temperature of hot air = 50C = 323 K
Thm = Mean temperature of hot air at which properties are evaluated

Thm =

Thi + Tho,design
2

Thm = 358 K
All properties are obtained from table A-1, Ref 1. Linear interpolation is done where
necessary.
Density (h):
0.995 kg/m3 at 350 K
0.871 kg/m3 at 400 K
0.975 kg/m3 at Thm = 358 K

26

Specific heat (Cph):

1.009 kJ/kg/K at 350 K


1.014 kJ/kg/K at 400 K
1.009 kJ/kg/K at Thm = 358 K

Absolute viscosity (h):

208.200e10-7 Pa-s at 350 K


230.100e10-7 Pa-s at 400 K
211.704e10-7 Pa-s at Thm = 358 K

Dynamic viscosity (h)

20.920e-6 m2/s at 350 K


26.410e-6 m2/s at 400 K
21.798e-6 m2/s at Thm = 358 K

Thermal conductivity (kh):

30.000e-3 W/m/K at 350 K


33.800e-3 W/m/K at 400 K
30.608e-3 W/m/K at Thm = 358 K

Prandtl no. (Prh):

0.700 at 350 K
0.690 at 400 K
0.698 at Thm = 358 K

27

4.1.2 Properties of cold air


The following properties are evaluated at inlet temperature of the cold air coming from
the environment.
Tci = Inlet temperature of cold air = 30C = 303 K
All properties are obtained from table A-1, Ref 1. Linear interpolation is not done.

Density (c):

1.162 kg/m3 at Tci = 303 K

Specific heat (Cpc):

1.007 kJ/kg/K at Tci = 303 K

Absolute viscosity (c):

184.600e10-7 Pa-s at Tci = 303 K

Dynamic viscosity (c)

15.890e-6 m2/s at Tci = 303 K

Thermal conductivity (kc):

26.300e-3 W/m/K at Tci = 303 K

Prandtl no. (Prc):

0.707 at Tci = 303 K

28

4.1.3 Properties of aluminum


The following properties are evaluated at mean temperature of the hot and cold air going
into the heat exchanger.
Thi = Inlet temperature of hot air = 120C = 393 K
Tci = Inlet temperature of cold air = 30C = 303 K
Tm = Mean temperature of hot and cold air at which properties are evaluated.

Tm =

Thi + Tci
2

Tm = 348 K
All properties are obtained from table A-2, Ref 1. Linear interpolation is done where
necessary.
Density (p):

2770 kg/m3 at Tm = 348 K

Thermal conductivity (kp):

163.000 W/m/K at 200 K


186.000 W/m/K at 400 K
180.000 W/m/K at Tm = 348 K

29

4.2 Design constraints


The following data has been obtained from Afroze textiles for the design of a proposed
heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from the exhaust air of the stenter machine.
Parameters
Volume flow rate

Units
m3/hr

Hot Air Side


31000

Cold Air Side


31000

Mass flow rate (Calculated)

kg/s

8.397

10.001

Inlet Temperature

393

303

Outlet Temperature (Design)

323

To be calculated

Inlet Pressure

Pa

151,987.5

151,987.5

Allowable pressure drop

3.0

3.0

Effectiveness: Must be greater than 70%

Design constraints

4.3 Heat transfer constraints


The design must satisfy the following heat transfer constraints.
Q = Heat transfer rate of the heat exchanger

Q = m Cph (Thi Tho,design)


Q = 8.397 x 1.009e3 x (393-323)
Q = 593.521 kW

Tco,design =
Tco,design =

Q
+ Tci
m Cpc

593.521e3
+ 303
10.001 1.007e3

Tco,design = 361.935 K
Although if the design has better heat transfer rates than the constraints with slightly
lower added cost than it will be selected as the proposed design.

30

4.4 Dimensional constraints


The following are the constraints imposed on the size of the heat exchanger as per the
exterior dimensions of the stenter machine installed at Afroze textiles.

Maximum length: 2 m
Maximum height: 2m
Maximum width: 2m

4.5 Cost constraints


Cost is one of the most important factors in the selection of heat exchanger. The total
cost of the heat exchanger should not be greater than Rs. 1 million. It is assumed in
order to narrow down the selection of various configuration of fins used in the heat
exchanger which will be discussed later.

31

CHAPTER #5
5. Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger
5.1 Introduction
Plate-fin heat exchangers are a
form of compact heat exchanger
consisting of a stack of alternate
flat plates called parting sheets
and fin corrugations brazed
together as a block. Separate hot
and cold fluid streams flow
through alternating layers of the
heat exchanger and are enclosed
at the edges by side bars. Heat is
transferred from one stream
through the fin interface to the
parting sheets and through the
next set of fins into the adjacent
fluid. The fins also serve to
increase the structural integrity
of the heat exchanger and allow

Basic elements and two types


of flow arrangements in platefin heat exchanger

it to withstand high pressures


while providing an extended
surface area for heat transfer.

In a plate-fin heat exchanger, the fins are easily able to be rearranged. This allows for
the two fluids to result in cross flow, counter-flow, and cross-counterflow or parallel
flow arrangement, though parallel flow is mostly not used. If the fins are designed well,
the plate-fin heat exchanger can work in perfect counterflow arrangement which
permits the exchanger to satisfy duties requiring a high thermal effectiveness.
32

A high degree of flexibility is present in plate-fin heat exchanger design as they can
operate with any combination of gas, liquid, and two-phase fluids. Heat transfer
between multiple process streams is also accommodated, with a variety of fin heights
and types as different entry and exit points available for each stream.

5.2 Salient features of plate-fin heat exchanger


The essential features of plate-fin heat exchangers are as follows:

1. Plate-fin surfaces are commonly used in gas-to-gas exchanger applications.


They offer high area densities (up to about 6000 m2/m3).
2. The passage height on each side could be easily varied. Different fins (such as
rectangular or triangular fin either plain or with louver or perforation, offset
strip fin and wavy fin) can be used between plates for different applications.
3. They are generally designed for low pressure applications, whose operating
pressures are limited to about 1000 kPa.
4. The maximum operating temperatures are limited by the type of fin-to-plate
bonding and the materials employed. Plate-fin exchangers have been designed
from low cryogenic operating temperatures to about 800C.
5. Fluid contamination (mixing) is generally not a problem since there is
practically zero fluid leakage from one side to the other side of the exchanger.

5.3 Advantages of plate-fin heat exchanger


The principal advantages of plate-fin heat exchanger over other forms of heat
exchangers are summarized as follows:

1. Plate-fin heat exchangers, in general are superior in thermal performance to


those of the other type of heat exchangers employing extended surfaces.
2. They can achieve temperature approaching as low as 1C between single-phase
streams and 3C between multiphase streams. Typically, overall mean
temperature differences of 3C to 6C are employed in aluminum plate-fin heat
exchanger applications.

33

3. With their high surface compactness, the ability to handle multiple streams, and
with aluminum's highly desirable low temperature properties, brazed aluminum
plate-fins are an obvious choice for cryogenic applications.
4. Very high thermal effectiveness can be achieved; for cryogenic applications,
effectiveness of the order of 95% and above is common.
5. Provided the streams are reasonably clean, plate-fin heat exchanger can be used
to exchange heat in most processes, for the wide range of stream compositions
and pressure/temperature envelopes.
6. Large heat transfer surface per unit volume is possible.
7. Low weight per unit heat transfer.
8. Possibility of heat exchange between many process streams.
9. Provided correct materials are selected, the plate-fin heat exchanger can be
specified for temperatures ranging from near absolute zero to more than 800C,
and for pressures up to at least 140 bar. Usually the plate-fin heat exchanger do
not involve both high temperature and high pressure together.
10. The plate-fin heat exchanger offers about 25 times more surface area per
equipment weight than the shell and tube heat exchanger.

5.4 Limitations of plate-fin heat exchanger


Following are the limitations of plate-fin heat exchanger excluding fouling.

1. With a high effectiveness heat exchanger and/or large frontal area, flow
distribution becomes important.
2. Due to short transient times, careful design of control is required for startup
compared with shell and tube exchangers.
3. Flow oscillations could be a problem.

34

5.5 Flow arrangement


A plate fin heat exchanger can have two or more streams, which may flow in directions
parallel or perpendicular to one another. When the flow directions are parallel, the
streams may flow in the same or in opposite sense. So there are three primary flow
arrangements for a plate fin heat exchanger.

1. Parallel flow
2. Counter-flow
3. Cross flow

Thermodynamically, the counter-flow arrangement provides the highest heat (or cold)
recovery, while the parallel flow geometry gives the lowest. The cross flow
arrangement, gives an intermediate thermodynamic performance, by offering superior
heat transfer properties and easier mechanical layout.

5.5.1 Counter flow


In a counter flows heat exchanger the two fluids flow parallel to each other but in opposite
directions. The counter-flow heat exchanger provides the most thermally effective arrangement
for recovery of heat or cold from process streams. A counter flow arrangement is
thermodynamically superior to any other flow arrangement. It is the most efficient flow
arrangement, producing the highest temperature change in each fluid compared to any other
two-fluid arrangement for a given overall thermal conductance (UA), fluid flow rates and fluid
inlet temperatures. Cryogenic refrigeration and liquefaction equipment use this geometry
almost exclusively. But these type of heat exchangers demand proper design because of the
complex geometry of headers.

5.5.2 Cross flow


In cross flow heat exchangers, the fluids flow in directions normal to each other.
Thermodynamically the effectiveness for cross flow heat exchangers falls in between that for
the counter flow and parallel flow arrangements. The largest structural temperature difference
exists at the corner of the entering hot and cold fluids. Only two streams are handled in a cross
flow type of a heat exchanger which eliminates the need for distributors. For this type of heat
exchangers the header tanks are located on all four sides of the heat exchanger core, making
this arrangement simple and cheap. If high effectiveness is not necessary, and if the two fluid

35

streams have widely differing volume flow rates, or if either one or both streams have constant
temperature, the cross flow arrangement should be preferred. Typical applications include
automobile radiators and some aircraft heat exchangers.

5.6 Fin geometry


Plate-fin surfaces have plain
triangular,
louver,

plain

offset

rectangular,
strip,

wavy,

perforated, or pin fin geometries.


Fin density varies from 120 to
700 fins/meter, thickness from
0.005 to 0.25 mm, and fin heights
may range from 2 to 25 mm. Due
to the lack of data for perforated

Different types of plate-fin


surfaces

and pin fin geometries, we have

discarded it in our design process and will only consider plain, louver, offset strip and
wavy fins for the design of heat exchanger.

5.6.1 Plain fins


Plain fin corrugation is the
simplest type of fins. These
surfaces are straight fins that are
uninterrupted (uncut) in the fluid
flow direction. Triangular and
rectangular passages are more
common. The triangular fin is
generally not

structurally as

strong as the rectangular fin for


the same passage size and fin
thickness. When the fins are

Plain rectangular fins

straight along the flow length, the boundary layers tend to be thick resulting in lower
values of the heat transfer coefficient. When they are wavy or off-set strip fin along the

36

flow length, the boundary layers are thinner or the growth of boundary layers is
disrupted periodically, respectively, resulting in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

Plain fin surfaces have pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics similar to flow
through small-bore tubes, i.e., relatively low pressure drop and heat transfer, but a high
ratio of heat transfer to pressure drop. For a flow channel with rectangular or triangular
cross section, under turbulent flow conditions, standard equations for turbulent flow in
circular tubes may be used to calculate j and f, provided the Reynolds number (Re) is
based on the hydraulic diameter Dh. If the (Re) based on hydraulic diameter is less than
2000, one may use theoretical laminar flow solutions for j and f.

Plain fins are preferred for very low Reynolds number applications and in applications
where the pressure drop is very critical. Condensing duties require minimal pressure
drop or else the heat release curve can significantly alter and the overall duty may not
be met. Therefore, for condensation, plain fins are normally specified.

5.6.2 Louvered fins


The

louvers

are

essentially

formed by cutting the sheet metal


of the fin at intervals and by
rotating the strips of metal thus
formed out of the plane of the fin.
Louvers can be made in many
different geometries. Note that
the parallel louver fin and offset
strip fin both have small strips
aligned parallel to the flow. The
louvered fin geometry bears a
similarity to the offset strip fin.
Louvered fins

Rather than offsetting slit strips,

the entire slit fin is rotated 20- 60 relative to the airflow direction. As such, they are
similar in principle to the offset strip fin. Louvered fins enhance heat transfer by

37

providing multiple flat plate leading edges with their associated high values of heat
transfer coefficient. Salient features of louver fins are as follows:

1. The louvered fin strip length is usually longer than that of offset strip fin, e.g. 6
to 18 mm, versus 3 to 9 mm for the offset strip fin. The louvered fin gage is
generally thinner than that of an offset strip of the fin.
2. The fin corrugations normally form a triangular passage. Hence, it is generally
not as strong as an offset strip fin, since the latter has a large flat area for
brazing, thus providing strength.
3. The louver fins may have a slightly higher potential of fouling compared to the
offset strip fins.
4. The louvered fin can provide heat transfer coefficients comparable to the offset
strip fin. However, the ratio of j/f tends to be lower because of the considerable
form drag on the bent fins.
5. Louver fins can enhance heat transfer by a factor of two or three compared with
the equivalent un-louvered surfaces.
6. A wide range in performance can be achieved by varying the louver angle,
louver width and louver form.

The operating Reynolds number range is 100-5000, depending upon the type of louver
geometry employed.

Their attractive thermal performance characteristics in terms of compactness, light


weight, and low pumping power for a given heat transfer duty make louver fins a
potential candidate for aerospace applications. They are recognized as very effective
heat transfer surfaces leading to compact solutions to cooling problems. Louvered fin
surfaces are now used widely for engine cooling equipment, air-conditioning heat
exchangers (evaporators and condensers), and aircraft oil and air coolers. They share
this quality with the offset strip fin surfaces. The louvered surface is the standard
geometry for automotive radiators. For the same strip width, the louvered fin geometry
provides heat transfer coefficients comparable to the offset strip fin.

38

5.6.3 Offset strip fins


The offset strip fin (OSF) is the
commonly used geometry in
plate-fin heat exchangers. The fin
has a rectangular cross section; it
is cut into small strips of length L,
and every alternate strip is offset
by about 50% of the fin pitch in
the

transverse

direction.

Fin

spacing, fin height, fin thickness,


Offset strip fins

and strip length in the flow


direction are the major variables of OSF.

OSF geometry is characterized by high heat transfer area per unit volume, and high heat
transfer coefficients. The heat transfer mechanism in OSFs is as follows. The heat
transfer enhancement is obtained by periodic growth of laminar boundary layers on the
fin length, and their dissipation in the fin wakes. This enhancement is accompanied by
an increase in pressure drop because of increased friction factor. A form drag force, due
to the finite thickness of the fins, also contributes to the pressure drop. Fluid interchange
between channels is possible. OSFs are used in the approximate Reynolds number
range of 500-10,000. Salient features pertaining to thermal performance include the
following:

1. Commonly used in air separation plants where high thermal effectiveness at low
mass velocities is required.
2. The heat transfer performance of OSFs is increased by a factor of about 1.5 to
4 over plain fins or similar geometry, but at the expense of higher pressure drop.
3. At high Reynolds numbers, the j factor decreases, while the friction factor
remains constant because of the high form drag. Therefore, offset fins are used
less frequently for very high Reynolds number applications.
4. They are used at low Reynolds number applications calling for accurate
performance predictions, such as some aerospace applications; other fin
performance data are not as repeatable.
39

5.6.4 Wavy fins


Since

wavy

fins

have

non-

interrupted walls in each flow


channel, they are less likely to catch
particulates and foul than are
OSFs.

Their

performance

is

competitive with that of the OSF


but the friction factor continues to
rail

with

increasing

Reynolds

numbers.

Wavy fins

The waveform in the flow direction provides effective interruptions to flow and induces
very complex flows. The augmentation is due to Goertler vortices, which form as the
fluid passes over the concave wave surfaces. These are counter-rotating vortices, which
produce a corkscrew-like pattern and probable local flow separation that will occur on
the downstream side of the convex surface. In the low- turbulence regime (Re of about
6000-8000), the wall corrugations increase the heat transfer by about nearly three times
compared with the smooth wall channel. Therefore, wavy fins are often a better choice
at the higher Reynolds numbers typical of the hydrocarbon industry; the smooth surface
allows the friction factor to fall with increasing Reynolds number.

40

5.7 Relative merits of plate-fin geometries


The following table lists the commonly used plate-fin geometries and their relative
merits.
Type of
Fin
Plain

Description

Application

Straight fins
(rectangular or
triangular)

Low Reynolds number


applications and in
applications where the
pressure drop is very
critical, e.g.
condensation.
Louvered The louvers are
Radiators, air
formed by cutting
conditioning heat
the sheet metal of the exchangers (evaporators
fin at intervals & by and condensers), and
rotating the strips
aircraft oil and air
thus formed out of
coolers.
the plane of the fin.
Offset
Straight but offset by Air separation plants and
strip
half a pitch (usually
low Reynolds number
about every 3 to 4
applications calling for
mm)
accurate performance
predictions, e.g.
aerospace applications.
Wavy
Straight fin with
For general purpose use.
small holes Smooth
but wavy.

Features
Heat
Pressure
transfer
drop
Lowest
Lowest

Highest

Highest

Highest

Highest

High

High

Relative merits of plate-fin geometries

5.8 Material of construction


Plate-fin heat exchangers are made in a variety of materials to suit a wide range of
process streams, temperatures and pressures. Material specifications should comply
with the appropriate section of the ASME or to other applicable codes.

Aluminum is preferred for cryogenic duties, because of its relatively high thermal
conductivity, strength at low temperatures, and low cost. For cryogenic services,
aluminum alloy 3003 is generally used for the parting sheets, tins, and edge bars that
41

form the rectangular plate-fin heat exchanger block. Headers and nozzles are made from
aluminum alloy 3003, 5154, 5083, 5086, or 5454. Above ambient temperature, with
increase in temperature, most aluminum alloys rapidly lose their strength.

Stainless steels and most nickel alloys are also used for plate-fin heat exchangers,
particularly for high-temperature services. Stainless steels have poor thermal
conductivity but their higher strength allows thinner parting plates and fins than with
aluminum, which offsets some of the reduction in heat transfer. We are using aluminum
as the material of construction for our design because of low temperature application.

5.9 Relation between heat transfer rate and heat transfer

area
The heat transfer rate Q to or from a fluid is equal to its rate of change enthalpy, and is
given by:
Q = m x Cp x T
(5.1)
Where, m is the fluid mas flow rate, T is the fluid temperature change during
heating or cooling, and Cp is the fluid specific heat at constant pressure.
The product of m x Cp is equal to the rate of heat transfer to or from the fluid per unit
temperature change and is called heat capacity rate C. The heat capacity rate of the
cold side fluid is designated as Cc, and that of the hot side fluid as Ch. The smaller
heat capacity is referred to as Cmin and the larger heat capacity rate as Cmax. It is
convenient to define the unit thermal capacity ratio as:

(5.2)

The values of C lie in the range between 0 and 1.

The maximum possible heat transfer Qmax occurs when the temperature of the fluid with
Cmin changes from its inlet value to the inlet value of the other fluid. If that fluid were
the cold side fluid, it would be heated from Tci to Thi, where Tci, is the inlet temperature
42

of the cold side fluid and Thi is the inlet temperature of the hot side fluid. If the fluid
with Cmin were the hot side fluid, it would be cooled from Thi to Tci Thus,
Qmax = Cmin x (Thi Tci)
(5.3)
Since the heat transfer rate is the same for the fluid with Cmax, its temperature change
at Qmax is less than (Thi Tci).

5.10 Heat exchanger effectiveness


The heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer Q
to the maximum possible heat transfer rate Qmax. Mathematically,

m x Cp x T
Cmin x (Thi Tci)

Where, the terms in the numerator refer to either the hot side or the cold side. If
mc x Cpc = Cmin it follows that,

(Tco Tci)
(Thi Tci)

Where, Tco is the outlet temperature of the cold side fluid. If mh x Cph = Cmin, it follows
that,

(Thi Tho)
(Thi Tci)

Where, Tho is the outlet temperature of the hot side fluid. If mc x Cpc = mh x Cph, it
follows that,

(Tco Tci)
(Thi Tho)
=
(Thi Tci)
(Thi Tci)

The latter condition is approximated reasonably well in a gas turbine recuperator.

5.11 Number of transfer units


Before defining the number of transfer units, additional concepts involved in the
definition must be introduced.

43

The total resistance to the flow of heat between a hot fluid and a cold fluid is equal to
the sum of the resistances in the hot and cold fluids plus the resistance of the heat
transfer path (usually a wall) between the fluids. The resistance of the heat transfer path
(usually a wall) between the fluids. The resistance of the heat transfer path between the
fluids is usually small compared to the fluid thermal resistance. We may then write for
the total thermal resistance Rt.

1
1
1
1
1
=
=
=
+
+

Where hc is the heat transfer coefficient of the cold side fluid, hh, is the heat transfer
coefficient of the hot side fluid, Ac is the cold side heat transfer area, Ah is the hot side
heat transfer area, Uc is the heat transfer coefficient based on the cold side area, Uh is
the heat transfer coefficient based on the hot side area, kp is the thermal conductivity of
aluminum plates and tp is the thickness of plates. In our design the cold side heat transfer
area and the hot side heat transfer area are same such that ATc = ATh = AT.

The heat transfer rate between the fluids can be expressed in terms of UAT as,

Q = U x AT x Tm
(5.4)
Where, Tm is the log mean temperature difference between the hot side and cold side
fluids. Mathematically,

Tm =

( ) ( )
( )

( )

The heat transfer rate given by Eq. (5.4) is also equal to the heat transfer rate to or from
either fluid, as given by Eq. (5.1).

A reference heat transfer area Aref will now be defined as,

Aref =

Tmax
(5.5)

Where, Tmax = Thi Tci


44

As it is evident from Eq. (5.4), the reference area is equal to the area that would be
needed to transfer heat between the hot and cold side fluids at the maximum rate if the
log mean temperature difference were equal to the maximum temperature difference
between the fluids.
With the aid of Eq. (5.5), the number of transfer units NTU can now be defined as,

Tmax
=

(5.6)

Substituting for Qmax from, Eq. (5.3), NTU assumes the final form as,

The magnitude of NTU can be less than, equal to, or greater than unity.

5.12 Applications of plate-fin heat exchanger in waste heat

recovery
Following are the few applications of plate-fin heat exchanger as a waste heat recovery
device.

5.12.1 Application to air conditioning system


The temperature of exhaust gas from the air conditioning system is as low as
approximate 20C, but the high efficiency and compactness of plate-fin heat exchanger
proves to be the best choice for waste heat recovery at such a low temperature.

5.12.2 Application to industrial dryers


Because of relatively low temperature, the heat from the exhaust gas of industrial dryer
is suitable to recover by the usage of plate-fin heat exchanger. Therefore, inquiries are
most frequently concentrated on this field. It was conventionally considered that the
recovery of exhaust gas of low temperature of approximately 150 C was not so
profitable, but in recent years, the investment in the equipment has been recovered for
about one year due to the rise in energy prices, and troubles in the recovery from dryers
are fewer than in the recovery of heat from the combusted gas. Thus, it has been
common to recover heat from the exhaust of dryers.

45

CHAPTER #6
6. Qualitative Thermal Design
Previous chapter describes in detail, the working and types of fin surfaces used in plate
fin heat exchanger. In this chapter however, we describe the sequential steps, we will
follow in conducting the design calculations for our heat exchanger. We have chosen
counterflow arrangement for our proposed heat exchanger because of higher heat
transfer rates and greater effectiveness of the heat exchanger.

Design calculations are also done of a simple plate heat exchanger with no extended
surfaces (simple metal plates arranged parallel to each other, alternate gaps of which
contain the hot and cold fluid) in order to compare the two designs and study their
effects on the cost, size and heat transfer rates. The sequential steps for both heat
exchangers are described as follows:

6.1 Simple plate heat exchanger


We have considered a compact counterflow plate type heat exchanger consisting of
aluminum plates separated by N gaps. The hot and cold air are moving in opposite
direction within alternating gaps. The stack of the heat exchanger is considered to be of
cubical geometry. The assumptions of the design are as follows:

1. Negligible heat loss to the surroundings.


2. Negligible kinetic & potential energy changes.
3. Constant properties.
4. Negligible fouling factors.
5. Fully developed conditions.
6. Identical gap to gap heat transfer coefficients.
7. Heat exchanger exterior dimensions are larger compared to gap width.
8. All units are in S.I system.

46

6.1.1 Range of no. of gaps between plates - selection


The metal plates are separated by a finite no. of gaps of finite height. Let them be
represented by:
No. of gaps between metal plates = N

We have defined a range of assumed no. of gaps that satisfies our design, heat transfer,
dimensional and cost constraints. All the quantities mentioned below will contain this
as a variable until a relationship is developed between height of flow passage and no.
of gaps.

6.1.2 Calculation of dimensions of flow passage


Height of gap between metal plates = Plate spacing = b
Thickness of metal plates = tp
Total number of metal plates = NT = N-1
Height of flow passage = Hf

= ( ) + ((N 1) )
Length of flow passage = Lf = Hf
Width of flow passage = Wf = Hf

6.1.3 Calculation of hydraulic diameter of flow passage


The hydraulic diameter of the flow passage is given by:

Where, Dh is the hydraulic diameter, Av is the cross-sectional area of flow passage and
P is the wetted perimeter of the flow passage. Simplifying above we get,

4 Wf
2 ( + Wf)

Assuming that b << Wf, we get:

= 2

47

6.1.4 Calculation of exterior dimensions of heat exchanger


Since the stack is of cubical geometry, each side of the heat exchanger will be of same
dimension. Let them be represented as,

Thickness of end plates = tep


Height of heat exchanger = H = Hf + (2 x tep)
Length of heat exchanger = L = Hf
Width of heat exchanger = W = Hf

Figure 16 shows the arrangement of our proposed heat exchanger.

Different drawing views of simple plate heat exchanger


48

6.1.5 Calculation of all geometrical quantities for hot and cold


side fluid
Frontal area of hot air side = Afr = Afr,h = Wf x Hf
Frontal area of cold air side = Afr = Afr,c = Wf x Hf

Hot air side heat transfer area i.e. the total surface area of the metal plates on the hot air
side is given by:

= = (N 1)
Similarly, cold air side heat transfer area,

= = (N 1)
Minimum free-flow area of hot air side is given by,

= =

Similarly, minimum free-flow area of cold air side,


= =

Mass velocity of hot air,

Mass velocity of cold air,

6.1.6 Calculation of all the dimensionless quantities for hot and


cold side fluid
Now the following dimensionless quantities need to be calculated for both the hot and
cold side fluid.

49

Reynolds number,

Reynolds number of hot air side,

Reynolds number of cold air side,

Nusselt number,

Nusselt number for hot air side,

Nusselt number for cold air side,

By using table A-3, Ref 1, we have calculated the Nusselt no. for hot and cold air.

Now we can calculate the heat transfer coefficients for hot and cold air side by using
the above relations.

6.1.7 Calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient


Since the heat transfer area is same for hot and cold side, the overall heat transfer
coefficient will also be same and is given by,

= = =

50

1
1
+ +

6.1.8 Calculation of log mean temperature difference


The log mean temperature difference is given by:

(, ) ( , )

(, )
( , )

6.1.9 Calculation of height of flow passage


Now a relationship is developed between the height of flow passages and the no. of
gaps between metal plates. The relationship derived below:

2 ( 1)

1
1

+ +

2 =

1
1
( + + )
( 1)

The above relationship will contain the variable N and by using the defined range
all quantities will be calculated.

6.1.10 Calculation of all quantities


Now that the no. of gaps has been defined, all quantities will be calculated as in the
following order:

1. b
2. NT
3. Dh
4. H, L & W
5. Afr
6.
51

7.
8. &
9. &
10. &
11.

6.1.11 Calculation of number of transfer units and overall


effectiveness
The number of transfer units and heat exchanger effectiveness will computed by using
the following steps.

Heat capacity rate,

=
Heat capacity rate for hot air side,

= =
Heat capacity rate for cold air side,

= =
The thermal capacity ratio is given by:

Number of transfer units is given by:

Hence the effectiveness of heat exchanger is,

1 ((1

))

1 ( ((1 )) )

52

6.1.12 Calculation of overall pressure drop on both sides


The pressure drop is calculated by using the following relation.

2
64

Pressure drop of hot air side,

2
64
=

2
Pressure drop of cold air side,

2
64
=

2
The percentage pressure drop is given by:

% =

Percentage pressure drop of hot air side,

% =

100

Percentage pressure drop of cold air side,


% =

100

The symbols in above equation have the following definitions. Pinlet is the inlet
pressure and P is the net pressure drop.

53

6.1.13 Calculation of cost of heat exchanger


The cost of the heat exchanger is calculated as follows:

Volume of metal plates: Vp = Hf x Lf x tp x NT

Volume of end plates: Vpe = (2 x Lf x H x tep) + (2 x Lf x W x tep)

Total volume aluminum used: Va = Vp + Vpe

Mass of aluminum used: Ma = Va x p

Cost of aluminum: Costa = Ma x 200 (Market price of aluminum in Rs. / kg)

Cost of heat exchanger: CostHX = 7.5 x Costa


The constant 7.5 is taken from Ref 6.

6.1.14 Selection of heat exchanger


All calculations are performed at the defined range of no. of gaps and the results were
tabulated. The tabulated results are shown in this section. Now the most suitable design
satisfying all the constraints will be selected.

54

6.2 Plate fin heat exchanger


We have considered a compact counterflow plate-fin heat exchanger whose core is built
by stacking the layer of fins separated by parting sheets made of aluminum having N
gaps. The hot and cold air are moving in opposite direction within alternating gaps. The
stack of the heat exchanger is considered to be of cubical geometry.

The data regarding different types of fin geometry is obtained from Ref 2, compact heat
exchangers by W. M. Kays and A. L. London. The book serves the basis of the design
and most of the geometrical and dimensional parameters are obtained from this book.
Plain, Louvered, Offset strip and wavy are the types of fin geometries which we have
considered for the design. The assumptions of the design are as follows:

1. Negligible heat loss to the surroundings.


2. Negligible kinetic & potential energy changes.
3. Constant properties.
4. Negligible fouling factors.
5. Fully developed conditions.
6. Identical gap to gap heat transfer coefficients.
7. Heat exchanger exterior dimensions are larger compared to gap width.
8. All units are in S.I system.

6.2.1 Range of no. of parting sheets - selection


The no. of parting sheets are separated by a finite no. of gaps of finite height. Let them
be represented by:
Total no. parting sheets = NT
No. of gaps between parting sheets = N = NT + 1

We have defined a range of assumed no. of parting sheets based on the availability of
data from Ref 2. The range is actually dictated by the Reynolds no. at which the
dimensionless parameters such as Stanton no. and friction factor are obtained from the
book. The Reynolds no. however is controlled by the no. of parting sheets in the heat
exchanger core.
55

6.2.2 Geometrical parameters of the fin


Following are the geometrical parameters which are obtained from table A-4, Ref 2. At
each NT, all the quantities mentioned below are calculated for a particular type of fin
and then the geometrical parameters are changed for another fin to repeat the above
mentioned process. The parameters are,

Type of fin
Surface designation
Plate spacing = b
Fin thickness =
Hydraulic diameter = Dh
Fin frequency = F
Total heat transfer area on one side / volume between the plates on that side =
Fin area/ Total Heat transfer area =

6.2.3 Calculation of dimensions of flow passage


Thickness of metal plates = tp
Height of flow passage = Hf

= ( ) + ((N 1) )
Length of flow passage = Lf = Hf
Width of flow passage = Wf = Hf

6.2.4 Calculation of exterior dimensions of heat exchanger


Since the stack is of cubical geometry, each side of the heat exchanger will be of same
dimension. Let them be represented as,

Height of heat exchanger = H = Hf + (2 x tep)


Length of heat exchanger = L = Hf
Width of heat exchanger = W = Hf
Thickness of end plates = tep

56

Figure 17 shows the arrangement of our possible design of heat exchanger.

Different drawing views of plate-fin heat exchanger


57

6.2.5 Calculation of all geometrical quantities for hot and cold


side fluid
Frontal area of hot air side = Afr = Afr,h = Wf x Hf
Frontal area of cold air side = Afr = Afr,c = Wf x Hf
Total volume of heat exchanger core = Vtotal = Hf x Wf x Lf

The ratio of total heat transfer area on one side and total volume of heat exchanger core
designated by is calculated as follows:

(2 ) + (2 )

Hot air side heat transfer area i.e. the total surface area of metal plates on the hot air
side is given by:

= =
Similarly, cold air side heat transfer area,

= =
The ratio of minimum free flow area and frontal area designated by is calculated
as follows:
=

Minimum free-flow area of hot air side is given by,

= =
Similarly, minimum free-flow area of cold air side,
= =

58

6.2.6 Calculation of all the dimensionless quantities for hot and


cold side fluid
Now the following dimensionless quantities need to be calculated for both the hot and
cold side fluid.

Mass velocity of hot air,

Mass velocity of cold air,

Reynolds number,

Reynolds number of hot air side,

Reynolds number of cold air side,

Stanton number,

Stanton number for hot air side,

Stanton number for cold air side,

By using table A-5, Ref 2, we have obtained the Stanton no. for hot and cold air side at
the calculated Reynolds number.
59

Now we can calculate the heat transfer coefficients for hot and cold air side by using
the above relations.

6.2.7 Calculation of fin effectiveness


Now the calculations for effectiveness of the fin are done in this section.

Fin effectiveness parameter,

Fin effectiveness parameter for hot air side,

Fin effectiveness parameter for cold air side,

The fin length from root to center is given by:

Fin effectiveness,

tanh( )

tanh( )

Fin effectiveness for hot air side,

60

Fin effectiveness for cold air side,

tanh( )

Total surface effectiveness,

= 1 ( (1 ))
Total surface effectiveness for hot air side,

= 1 ( (1 ))
Total surface effectiveness for cold air side,

= 1 ( (1 ))

6.2.8 Calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient


Since the heat transfer area is same for hot and cold side, the overall heat transfer
coefficient will also be same and is given by,

= = =

1
1
+ +

6.2.9 Calculation of number of transfer units and overall


effectiveness
The number of transfer units and heat exchanger effectiveness will computed by using
the following steps.

Heat capacity rate,

=
Heat capacity rate for hot air side,

= =

61

Heat capacity rate for cold air side,

= =
The thermal capacity ratio is given by:

Number of transfer units is given by:

Hence the effectiveness of heat exchanger is,

6.2.10 Calculation

of

1 ((1

))

1 ( ((1 )) )

effectiveness

of

heat

exchanger

considering longitudinal wall conduction


Longitudinal heat conduction along the separating surfaces of hot and cold fluids causes
serious performance deterioration. The effect of longitudinal heat conduction is to
reduce the effectiveness of heat exchanger. The decrease in the effectiveness of heat
exchanger is found out by using Kroegers equation found in Ref 4.

Longitudinal wall conduction area,

Longitudinal wall conduction area of hot air side,

= = ,

Similarly, wall conduction area of cold air side,

= = ,

62

Wall conduction parameters are given by,

=(

1
(1 + )(1 + )

(1 + )
1
)2 (
)
1+
1 (1 + )

1 =

1+
1

(1 )
1 + ( )

Now the corrected heat exchanger effectiveness is calculates as:

= 1

1
1

6.2.11 Calculation of amount of heat transferred and the outlet


temperatures for hot and cold side fluids
The maximum possible heat transfer rate by the heat exchanger is,

= ( )
The actual heat transfer rate by the heat exchanger is given by:

=
The outlet temperature of hot air is,

, =
63

Similarly, the outlet temperature of cold air is,

, = +

6.2.12 Calculation of overall pressure drop on both sides


The hot and cold side fluids undergo a drop in pressure while flowing through the heat
exchanger. Since a decrease in fluid pressure can adversely affect the performance of
the system of which the flowing fluids are apart, there is generally a limit on the
allowable hot and cold side fluid pressure drops. In a gas turbine recuperator for
example, a representative requirement might be that the sum of the hot and cold side
pressure drops does not exceed 6%.

The same factors that act to increase heat transfer coefficient and reduce heat exchanger
size, such as an increase in the flow velocity or a decrease in the hydraulic diameter of
flow passages, also act to increase the pressure drop. Therefore, the minimum size of a
heat exchanger with a specified effectiveness will generally be determined by the
allowable overall (hot side plus cold side) pressure drop.

The fractional pressure drop of a fluid flowing through one side of a heat exchanger can
be expressed as:

2 1

[( + 1 2 ) + 2 ( 2 1) + ( )
=

2
1
1
(1 2 ) (

2
)]
1

The symbols in above equation have the following definitions. Pinlet is the inlet
pressure, P is the net pressure drop, 1 is the specific volume at the core inlet, 2 is
the specific volume at the core exit, m is the mean specific volume in the core, G is
the mass velocity in the core, Kc is the entrance loss coefficient, Ke is the exit loss
coefficient, f is the friction coefficient and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

The variables f, Kc, and Ke depend on the core geometry and the Reynolds number.

64

The first term in the brackets of above equation accounts for entrance losses due to
both the momentum increase associated with the increase of velocity as the fluid
enters the heat exchanger core (1-2) and the irreversible losses associated with the
abrupt contraction of flow area (the entrance loss coefficient Kc). The second term
accounts for the pressure change due to momentum change in the core as the fluid
density changes during heating or cooling. The third term accounts for the core
friction pressure loss. The last term accounts for the increase in exit pressure due to
the momentum loss associated with the deceleration of fluid leaving the heat
exchanger core [-(1-2 )] and the irreversible pressure loss associated with abrupt
expansion (the exit loss coefficient Ke).
The entrance and exit loss coefficients are obtained from Figure 18 which is taken
from Ref 2.

Entrance & exit pressure loss coefficients for a multiple


square-tube heat exchanger core with abrupt- contraction
entrance and abrupt-expansion exit.
65

For gaseous hot and cold fluids, the perfect gas law can be used to obtain following
relationships:

2 2 1
=

1 1 2
Similarly,

m 1
=

1
1
Since the allowable percentage pressure drop is small in most cases,

2 2
=
1 1
m
=
1
1
Where, subscript 1 & 2 corresponds to inlet and outlet properties of fluids. Therefore,
by use of all the above mentioned substitutions, the equation for fractional pressure
drop reduces to,

2 R 1
2

2
[
=
(
+
1

)
+
2

1)
+
(

1
1
2 2
2
(1 2 ) ( )]
1

6.2.13 Calculation of cost of heat exchanger


The cost of the heat exchanger is calculated as follows:

Total fin area on both sides: Af = 2 x x AT

Total volume of fins: Vf = Af x

Volume of parting sheets: Vp = Hf x Lf x tp x NT


66

Volume of end plates: Vpe = (2 x Lf x H x tep) + (2 x Lf x W x tep)

Total volume aluminum used: Va = Vp + Vpe + Vf

Mass of aluminum used: Ma = Va x p

Cost of aluminum: Costa = Ma x 200 (Market price of aluminum in Rs. / kg)

Cost of heat exchanger: CostHX = 7.5 x Costa


The constant 7.5 is taken from Ref 6.

6.2.14 Selection of heat exchanger


All calculations are performed at the defined range of no. of parting sheets for each type
of fin geometry included in plain, louvered, offset strip and wavy fins. The results are
tabulated at each NT and are shown in this section. The most appropriate design is
selected from each table and design results are once again tabulated. Out of the initial
heat exchanger designs, the most suitable design satisfying all the constraints is
selected.

67

CHAPTER #7
7. Quantitative Thermal Design
Having gone through a number of designs, we end up with the final design of both the
heat exchangers in all of the design constraints are successfully satisfied. All the designs
of both (Simple plate and plate-fin) heat exchanger are also tabulated and are shown in
this chapter.

7.1 Simple plate heat exchanger


Following calculations have been done in the order described in the qualitative
thermal design. These calculations are of the design that is selected among all the other
proposed design.

7.1.1 Range of no. of gaps between plates - selection


The defined range of assumed no. of gaps ranges from 500 to 600 i.e.
500 600

7.1.2 Dimensions of flow passage


Following are the internal dimensions of heat exchanger.
b = to be calculated later
tp = 0.08e-3 m
NT = N-1

= ( ) + ((N 1) )
= ( ) + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)
= + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)
=

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N

Lf = = + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)
Wf = = + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)
68

7.1.3 Hydraulic diameter of flow passage


Hydraulic diameter of the flow passage:

= 2
= 2

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N

7.1.4 Exterior dimensions of heat exchanger


Following are the exterior dimensions of heat exchanger.

tep = 1e-3 m

= + (2 )
= ( + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)) + (2 1e 3)
= ( + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)) + 2e 3

L = = + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)
W = = + ((N 1) 0.08e 3)

7.1.5 All geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid
Frontal area:

= , =
= 2
= , =
= 2

69

Heat transfer area:

= = (N 1)
= 2 (N 1)
= = (N 1)
= 2 (N 1)
Minimum free-flow area:

= =

2
=
2

= =

2
=
2
Mass velocity:

=
=

8.397
2
2
16.794
2

70

=
=

10.001
2
2
20.002
2

7.1.6 All dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side fluid
Reynolds number:

=
=

211.704 7

1586.554812e3 ( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N 2

=
=

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3)) 16.794

N
2

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3)) 20.002

N
2
184.600 7

2167.063922e3 ( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N 2

Nusselt number (using table A-3, Ref 1)

= 7.54
= 7.54

71

Value of h

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N
7.54 =
30.608e 3
0.11539216
=
( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))
2

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


N
7.54 =
26.300e 3
0.099151
=
( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))
2

7.1.7 Overall heat transfer coefficient


Overall heat transfer coefficient:

= = =

1
1
+ +

=[

1
0.11539216
( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))
+

72

1
0.099151
( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))
0.08 3 1
]
180

=[

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


0.11539216
+

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))

0.099151
0.08 3 1
+
]
180

7.1.8 Log mean temperature difference


Log mean temperature difference:

(, ) ( , )

(, )
( , )

(323 303) (393 361.935)


(323 303)
(
393 361.935)

= 25.128

7.1.9 Height of flow passage


The height of flow passage is calculated as follows:

2 =

( 1)

2 =

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


593.5213
[
( 1) 25.128
0.11539216
+

( ((N 1) 0.08e 3))


0.099151

0.08 3
]
180

Now a relationship has been developed between the height of flow passage and the
number of gaps. We will calculate the quantities at N = 550, because it is our selected
design of heat exchanger from all the values of N. After hit & trial the height of flow
passage is calculated to be:

= 1.432 m
73

7.1.10 Calculated values of all quantities


1. Plate spacing: b = 2.508e-3 m
2. Total number of metal plates: NT = 549
3. Hydraulic diameter: Dh = 5.015e-3 m
4. Height of heat exchanger: H = 1.4251 m
Length of heat exchanger: L = 1.432 m
Width of heat exchanger: W = 1.432 m
5. Frontal area of both side fluids: Afr = 2.051 m
6. Heat transfer area of both side fluids: AT = 1111.842 m
7. Minimum free flow area of both side fluids: Ac = 1.0126 m
8. Mass velocity of hot air: Gh = 8.292 kg/m2/s
Mass velocity of cold air: Gc = 9.876 kg/m2/s
9. Reynolds no. of hot air side: Reh = 1964
Reynolds no. of cold air side: Rec = 2683
10. Heat transfer coefficient of hot air side: hh = 46.017 W/m2/K
Heat transfer coefficient of cold air side: hc = 39.540 W/m2/K
11. Overall heat transfer coefficient of both side fluids: U = 21.266

7.1.11 Number of transfer units and overall effectiveness


Heat capacity rate:

= =
= 8.397 1.00983
= 8479 W/K
= =
= 10.001 1.0073
= 10,071 W/K

74

Thermal capacity ratio:

=
=

8479
10,071

= 841.925 3
Number of transfer units:

=
=

21.266 1111.842
8479

= 2.789
Effectiveness of heat exchanger:

1 ((1

))

1 ( ((1 )) )

1 (2.789(1841.9253))
1 (841.925 3 (2.789(1841.9253)) )

= 778.004 3

7.1.12 Overall pressure drop on both sides


Pressure drop through heat exchanger:

2
64
=

2
=

64
8.2922 1.432

1964 0.9751 2 0.0050152

= 325.950 Pa

75

2
64
=

2
64
9.8762 1.432
=

2683 1.1614 2 0.0050152


= 284.219 Pa
Percentage pressure drop:

% =
=

325.9497818
100
151987.5

= 0.214 %

% =
=

284.2191442
100
151987.5

= 0.187 %

7.1.13 Cost of heat exchanger


Volume of metal plates: Vp = Hf x Lf x tp x NT
= 1.432 x 1.432 x 0.08e-3 x 549
= 88.947e-3 m3

Volume of end plates: Vpe = (2 x Lf x H x tep) + (2 x Lf x W x tep)


= (2 x 1.432 x 1.4251 x 1e-3) + (2 x 1.432 x 1.432 x 1e-3)
= 81.066e-3 m3

Total volume aluminum used: Va = Vp + Vpe


= 88.947e-3 + 81.066e-3
= 97.054e-3 m3

76

Mass of aluminum used: Ma = Va x p


= 97.054e-3 x 2770
= 268.839 kg

Cost of aluminum: Costa = Ma x 200


= 268.839 x 200
= Rs. 53.768e3

Cost of heat exchanger: CostHX = 7.5 x Costa


= 7.5 x 53.768e3
= Rs. 403.259e3

7.1.14 Selection of heat exchanger


The tabulated results are shown in table 9. All of the designed heat exchangers satisfied
the constraints that we had established. Since it is difficult to choose among them now,
we selected the design with number of gaps equal to 550. In this design, the cost is well
within the limits, the flow seems to be laminar and the use of equation for pressure drop
is justified because we have consider the formula of friction factor for laminar flow.
The design with number of gaps greater than 550 have lies roughly in the transition
zone.

77

Number of gaps N
Parameters

500

510

520

530

540

550

560

570

580

590

600

499

509

519

529

539

549

559

569

579

589

599

1.736

1.666

1.600

1.538

1.479

1.423

1.370

1.320

1.272

1.227

1.184

AT
Ac
Gh
Gc
Rh
Rc
hh

1.504e3

1.413e3

1.329e3

1.251e3

1.179e3

1.112e3

1.049e3

991.426

937.255

886.612

839.428

1.507

1.388

1.280

1.183

1.094

1.013

938.724e-3

871.200e-3

809.374e-3

752.642e-3

700.691e-3

5.570

6.047

6.557

7.099

7.677

8.292

8.945

9.638

10.374

11.156

11.983

6.635

7.203

7.810

8.456

9.144

9.876

10.654

11.479

12.356

13.288

14.273

1.785e3

1.821e3

1.857e3

1.893e3

1.928e3

1.964e3

2.000e3

2.036e3

2.072e3

2.107e3

2.143e3

2.439e3

2.487e3

2.536e3

2.585e3

2.634e3

2.683e3

2.732e3

2.781e3

2.830e3

2.879e3

2.927e3

34.011

36.200

38.494

40.890

43.396

46.017

48.752

51.608

54.591

57.707

60.953

hc
U

29.224

31.105

33.076

35.134

37.288

39.540

41.890

44.344

46.907

49.585

52.374

15.718

16.730

17.790

18.897

20.055

21.266

22.530

23.850

25.229

26.669

28.169

778.010e-3

778.017e-3

778.006e-3

778.014e-3

778.012e-3

778.004e-3

779.008e-3

778.012e-3

778.012e-3

778.003e-3

778.012e-3

%Ph
%Pc
Ma
Costa

0.961e-3

1.133e-3

1.334e-3

1.567e-3

1.835e-3

2.144e-3

2.500e-3

2.908e-3

3.376e-3

3.912e-3

4.523e-3

0.837e-3

0.988e-3

1.164e-3

1.366e-3

1.600e-3

1.870e-3

2.180e-3

2.536e-3

2.944e-3

3.411e-3

3.944e-3

366.787

344.004

322.930

303.519

285.526

268.839

253.385

239.020

225.645

213.165

201.558

73.357e3

68.801e3

64.586e3

60.704e3

57.105e3

53.768e3

50.677e3

47.804e3

45.129e3

42.633e3

30.311e3

550.181e3

516.006e3

484.395e3

455.278e3

428.290e3

403.259e3

380.078e3

358.530e3

338.468e3

319.748e3

302.336e3

NT
Hf

CostHX

Design parameters of simple plate heat exchangers for different values of N

78

7.2 Plate fin heat exchanger


Following calculations have been done in the order described in the qualitative
thermal design. These calculations are of the design that is selected among all the other
proposed design.

7.2.1 Range of no. of parting sheets - selection


The defined range of no. of parting sheet ranges from 70 to 130 i.e.
70 130
For NT < 100, the data is not available for plain and louvered type of fins and the
calculations have only been done for offset strip and wavy fins for N T < 100. The
calculations listed here are performed at NT = 110.

7.2.2 Geometrical parameters of the fin


Following are the geometrical parameters of the fin.

Type of fin: Offset strip fin


Surface designation: 1/4-15.4(D)
b = 5.2324e-3 m
= 1.524e-4 m
Dh = 1.605e-3 m
F = 606.300 fins per meter
= 2106.300
= 0.816

7.2.3 Dimensions of flow passage


Following are the internal dimensions of heat exchanger.
tp = 0.08e-3 m
N = NT + 1 = 110 + 1 =111

= ( ) + (N )
= (5.2324e 3 111) + (110 0.08e 3)
79

= 589.5964 3 m
Lf = = 589.5964 3 m
Wf = = 589.5964 3 m

7.2.4 Exterior dimensions of heat exchanger


Following are the exterior dimensions of heat exchanger.

tep = 1e-3 m

= + (2 )
= 589.5964 3 + (2 1e 3)
= 591.596 3 m
L = = 589.5964 3 m
W = = 589.5964 3 m

7.2.5 All geometrical quantities for hot and cold side fluid
Frontal area:

= , =
= 589.5964 3 589.5964 3
= 347.624 3 m
= , =
= 589.5964 3 589.5964 3
= 347.624 3 m

80

Total volume of heat exchanger core:

=
= 589.5964 3 589.5964 3 589.5964 3
= 204.958 3 m
Ratio of total heat transfer area on one side & total volume of heat exchanger core:

(2 ) + (2 )

=
=

5.2324e 3 2106.300
(2 5.2324e 3) + (2 0.08e 3)

m2
= 1037.291 3
m
Heat transfer area:

= =
= 1037.291 204.958 3
= 212.601 m2
= =
= 1037.291 204.958 3
= 212.601 m2
Ratio of minimum free flow area & frontal area:

=
=


4
1037.291 1.605e 3
4

= 416.213 3
81

Minimum free-flow area:

= =
= 416.213 3 347.624 3
= 144.686 3 m2
= =
= 416.213 3 347.624 3
= 144.686 3 m2
Mass velocity:

8.397
144.686 3

= 58.036 kg/m2 /s

=
=

10.001
144.686 3

= 69.122 kg/m2 /s

7.2.6 Dimensionless quantities for hot and cold side fluid


Reynolds number:

=
=

1.605e 3 58.036
211.704 7

= 4.4003

82

=
=

1.605e 3 69.122
184.600 7

= 6.0103
Stanton number (using table A-5, Ref 2)
2

= 5.578 3 3
2

= 5.578 3 0.69843
= 7.086 3
2

= 5.108 3 3
2

= 5.108 3 0.7073
= 6.437 3
Value of h

7.086 3 =

58.036 1.00983

= 415.273 W/m2 /K

6.437 3 =

69.122 1.0073

= 448.053 W/m2 /K

83

7.2.7 Fin effectiveness


Fin effectiveness parameter:

2 415.273
180 1.524e 4

= 174.002 1/m

2 448.053
180 1.524e 4

= 180.737 1/m
Fin length:

2
5.2324e 3
=
2

= 2.616 3
Fin effectiveness:

=
=

tanh( )

tanh(174.002 2.616 3)
174.002 2.616 3

= 936.215 3

84

=
=

tanh( )

tanh(180.737 2.616 3)
180.737 2.616 3

= 931.594 3
Total surface effectiveness:

= 1 ( (1 ))
= 1 (0.816 (1 936.215 3))
= 947.951 3
= 1 ( (1 ))
= 1 (0.816 (1 931.594 3))
= 944.181 3

7.2.8 Overall heat transfer coefficient


Overall heat transfer coefficient:

= = =

1
1
+ +

1
1
0.08e 3
1
+
+
947.951 3 415.273
180
944.181 3 448.053
= 203.893 /2 /

85

7.2.9 Number of transfer units and overall effectiveness


Heat capacity rate:

= =
= 8.397 1.00983
= 8479 W/K
= =
= 10.001 1.0073
= 10,071 W/K
Thermal capacity ratio:

=
=

8479
10,071

= 841.925 3
Number of transfer units:

=
=

203.893 212.601
8479

= 5.112
Effectiveness of heat exchanger:

1 ((1

))

1 ( ((1 )) )

86

1 (5.112(1841.9253))
1 (841.925 3 (5.112(1841.9253)) )

= 887.224 3

7.2.10 Effectiveness

of

heat

exchanger

longitudinal wall conduction


Longitudinal wall conduction area:

= = ,
= 347.624 3 144.686 3
= 202.938 3 m2
= = ,
= 347.624 3 144.686 3
= 202.938 3 m2
Wall conduction parameters are given by:

=
=

2

180 2 202.938 3
589.5964 3 8479

= 14.614 3
=
= 14.614 3 5.112 841.925 3
= 62.897 3
1
=
(1 + )(1 + )
=

1 841.925 3
(1 + 841.925 3)(1 + 62.897 3)
87

considering

= 80.742 3

=(

(1 + )
1
)2 (
)
1+
1 (1 + )

62.897 3 1
)2
1 + 62.897 3
(1 + 80.742 3) 62.897 3
(
)
1 80.742 3 (1 + 80.742 3) 62.897 3
= 80.742 3 (

= 1.342 3

1+
1
1 + 1.342 3
=
1 1.342 3

= 1.003

1 =
=

(1 )
1 + ( )
(1 841.925 3) 5.112
1 + (14.614 3 5.112 841.925 3)

= 760.261 3

Corrected heat exchanger effectiveness is calculated as:

= 1
=1

1
1
1 841.925 3
(1.003 760.2613 ) 841.925 3

= 878.714 3

88

7.2.11 Amount of heat transferred and the outlet temperatures


for hot and cold side fluids
Maximum possible heat transfer rate:

= ( )
= 8479 (393 303)
= 763.098 kW
Actual heat transfer rate:

=
= 878.714 3 763.0983
= 670.545 kW
Outlet temperature of hot air:

, =

= 393

670.545e3
8479

= 314.000 K
Outlet temperature of cold air:

, = +

= 303 +

670.5453
10071

= 369.582 K

89

7.2.12 Overall pressure drop on both sides


Pressure drop through the heat exchanger:

2 R 1
2
2
[
=
1) + (
2 ( + 1 ) + 2 (

1
2


2
) (1 2 ) ( )]
1
1

Entrance and exit loss coefficients (using Figure 18, Ref 2)


For hot air side:
, = 0.49
, = 0.30
For cold air side:
, = 0.47
, = 0.32
Friction factor (using table A-5, Ref 2)
= 0.0182
= 0.0167
Pressure drop for hot air side:

58.036 2 287.1 393


[(0.49 + 1 0.4162132 ) + 2
=

2 9.81 151987.52
314
212.601
353.5
1) + (0.0182

)
393
144.686 3
393
314
(1 0.4162132 0.30) (
)]
393
(

= 2.026 %
90

Pressure drop for cold air side:

69.122 2 287.1 303


[(0.47 + 1 0.4162132 ) + 2
=
2

2 9.81 151987.5
370
212.601
337
1) + (0.0167

)
303
144.686 3 303
370
(1 0.4162132 0.32) (
)]
303
(

= 2.566 %

7.2.13 Cost of heat exchanger


Total fin area on both sides: Af = 2 x x AT
= 2 x 0.816 x 212.601
=346.965 m2
Total volume of fins: Vf = Af x
= 346.965 x 1.524e-4
= 52.877e-3 m3

Volume of parting sheets: Vp = Hf x Lf x tp x NT


= 589.596e-3 x 589.596e-3 x 0.08e-3 x 110
= 3.060e-3 m3

Volume of end plates: Vpe = (2 x Lf x H x tep) + (2 x Lf x W x tep)


= (2 x 589.596e-3 x 591.596e-3 x 1e-3) + (2 x 589.596e-3 x
589.596e-3 x 1e-3)
= 1.393e-3 m3

Total volume aluminum used: Va = Vp + Vpe + Vf


= 3.060e-3 + 1.393e-3 + 52.877e-3
=57.330e-3 m3

91

Mass of aluminum used: Ma = Va x p


= 57.330e-3 x 2770
= 158.804 kg

Cost of aluminum: Costa = Ma x 200


= 158.804 x 200
= Rs. 31.761e3

Cost of heat exchanger: CostHX = 7.5 x Costa


= 7.5 x 31.761e3
= Rs. 238.208e3

7.2.14 Selection of heat exchanger


The tabulated results are shown in Table 10, 11, 12 & 13. The calculations are
performed at the defined range of no. of parting sheets for each type of fin geometry.
However for plain and louvered fins, there was not enough data available in the book
to perform the calculations for NT ranging from 70 to 90. Therefore no calculations are
shown in that range for both fins.

Initially the pressure drops are not computed for each and every type of fin at each NT
because of tedious work involved. Therefore at first, the pressure drop constraint is not
imposed on selecting the design for each fin at each NT. A total of 20 designs of heat
exchangers are selected with each satisfying the constraints imposed. The 20 designs
are shown in Table 14. The pressure drops are then computed for the 20 designs and
the prime design is selected with features having lower cost, better heat transfer rates,
smaller size and lower pressure drop.

The best design is at NT =110 of offset strip fin having surface designation 1/4-15.4(D).
The design is well within the constraints and has better heat transfer rate than any other
at a lower cost. The pressure drops are somewhat higher than the others but is well
within the constraints.

92

Design parameters of plain plate fin at each NT


Total Number of Plates, NT = 100
Surface Designation

Parameters
Hf
Afr
Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U
Qcalculated

Ma
Costa
CostHX
Data
Availability

5.3

6.2

9.03

11.11

11.11(a)

14.77

15.08

19.86

10.27T

11.94T

12.00T

16.96T

25.79T

30.33T

1.216

1.049

2.121

651.350e-3

1.241

856.582e-3

1.082

651.350e-3

1.406

648.785e-3

651.350e-3

666.742e-3

895.063e-3

1.478

1.100

4.500

424.000e-3

1.541

733.733e-3

1.171

424.257e-3

1.976

420.921e-3

424.000e-3

444.000e-3

801.000e-3

1.794

1.152

9.537

275.491e-3

1.910

627.035e-3

1.266

275.49e-3

2.773

272.245e-3

275.000e-3

295.000e-3

715.000e-3

306.346

332.063

398.736

594.544

508.475

682.463

674.055

908.826

472.820

636.632

636.170

984.920

1321

549.563

382.562

3803

163.792

971.171

427.928

853.060

250.373

1311.000

173.320

175.260

291.050

944.970

470.762e-3

459.675e-3

462.845e-3

457.950e-3

447.191e-3

441.590e-3

450.282e-3

425.903e-3

453.364e-3

456.810e-3

456.490e-3

424.040e-3

403.410e-3

695.795e-3

505.814e-3

2.083

194.288e-3

689.145e-3

324.015e-3

527.485e-3

180.692e-3

895.680e-3

192.283e-3

193.660e-3

188.500e-3

323.190e-3

12.068
14.373

16.600
19.772

4.031
4.802

43.210
51.470

12.180
14.510

25.910
30.860

15.910
18.950

46.460
55.340

9.374
11.165

43.660
52.010

43.350
51.630

44.540
53.050

25.980
30.940

3.504e3
4.786e3

4.342e3
5.931e3

884.165
1208

6290
8591

2025
2765

3168
4328

2009
2744

4115
5620

1698
2320

5920
8087

5878
8029

3623
4949

1499
2048

6.299e-3
5.723e-3

4.217e-3
4.099e-3

8.165e-3
6.261e-3

4.480e-3
4.125e-3

4.760e-3
4.660e-3

5.238e-3
4.811e-3

4.465e-3
3.977e-3

4.589e-3
4.299e-3

6.252e-3
5.313e-3

4.092e-3
3.886e-3

4.108e-3
3.805e-3

3.483e-3
3.541e-3

5.310e-3
4.448e-3

76.760
82.837

70.694
81.622

33.241
30.275

195.510
213.820

58.590
68.200

137.060
149.520

71.7690
75.9370

215.360
239.600

59.180
59.730

180.420
203.520

179.830
197.870

156.680
189.160

139.310
138.590

938.441e-3
933.953e-3

973.593e-3
969.659e-3

938.677e-3
943.779e-3

954.700e-3
950.710e-3

962.110e-3
956.230e-3

945.320e-3
940.710e-3

953.580e-3
951.040e-3

950.370e-3
945.160e-3

960.750e-3
960.390e-3

958.340e-3
953.300e-3

958.150e-3
954.180e-3

961.600e-3
954.080e-3

939.700e-3
939.990e-3

955.739e-3
952.512e-3

980.776e-3
977.912e-3

945.545e-3
950.076e-3

965.750e-3
962.730e-3

967.640e-3
962.620e-3

953.850e-3
949.960e-3

959.610e-3
957.400e-3

957.870e-3
953.440e-3

966.120e-3
965.820e-3

967.960e-3
964.090e-3

967.650e-3
964.580e-3

966.940e-3
960.460e-3

944.040e-3
944.310e-3

38.015

37.103

15.019

98.482

30.423

68.075

35.367

108.397

28.717

92.397

91.024

82.611

65.600

572.928e3

501.450e3

704.493e3

526.072e3

627.884e3

625.932e3

630.989e3

615.394e3

660.502e3

524.701e3

523.974e3

596.412e3

711.418e3

750.792e-3

657.124e-3

923.201e-3

689.39e-3

822.940e-3

820.25e-3

826.878e-3

806.441e-3

865.553e-3

687.593e-3

686.64e-3

781.56e-3

932.276e-2

382.606

428.362

3.951e3

118.576

984.744

329.230

665.424

193.500

1658

126.450

128.413

226.282

766.926

76.521e3

85.672e3

790.150e3

23.715e3

196.94e3

65.846e3

133.085e3

38.7e3

331.542e3

25.290e3

25.683e3

45.250e3

153.385e3

573.909e3

642.543e3

5.926e6

177.865e3

1.477e6

493.845e3

998.136e3

290.250e3

2.487e6

189.775e3

192.619e3

339.423e3

1.150e6

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

93

Total Number of Plates, NT = 110


Parameters

Surface Designation
5.3

6.2

9.03

11.11

11.11(a)

14.77

15.08

19.86

10.27T

11.94T

12.00T

16.96T

25.79T

30.33T

Hf

1.336

1.153

2.331

715.650e-3

1.364

941.202e-3

1.189

715.650e-3

1.544

712.831e-3

715.650e-3

732.566e-3

980.674e-3

Afr

1.785

1.329

5.434

512.155e-3

1.861

885.861e-3

1.414

512.155e-3

2.386

508.127e-3

512.155e-3

536.653e-3

961.721e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

2.381

1.529

12.657

365.499e-3

2.535

832.86e-3

1.679

365.499e-3

3.680

361.192e-3

365.499e-3

392.061e-3

941.211e-3

306.346

332.063

398.736

594.544

508.475

682.463

674.055

908.826

472.820

636.632

636.178

984.929

1.321e3

729.291

507.653

5.047e3

217.305

1.289e3

567.811

1.132e3

332.175

1.740e3

229.947

232.523

386.152

1.243e3

470.762e-3

459.675e-3

462.84e-3

457.95e-3

447.19e-3

441.598e-3

450.282e-3

425.903e-3

453.364e-3

456.815e-3

456.490e-3

424.042e-3

403.403e-3

840.158e-3

610.733e-3

2.515

234.54e-3

832.13e-3

391.194e-3

636.904e-3

218.128e-3

1.082

232.120e-3

233.793e-3

227.563e-3

387.961e-3

9.994
11.903

13.748
16.375

3.338
3.976

35.8
42.64

10.09
12.018

21.464
25.565

13.183
15.702

38.494
45.848

7.763
9.247

36.173
43.085

35.915
42.776

36.898
43.947

21.643
25.778

2902
3964

3596
4912

732
1000

5210
7117

1677
2290

2624
3584

1664
2273

3408
4656

1406
1921

4904
6699

4869
6651

3001
4100

1249
1706

6.592e-3
6.028e-3

4.177e-3
4.161e-3

9.303e-3
7.25e-3

4.683e-3
4.324e-3

5.133e-3
4.711e-3

5.469e-3
5.05e-3

4.728e-3
4.229e-3

4.754e-3
4.450e-3

6.982e-3
5.762e-3

4.112e-3
4.013e-3

4.249e-3
3.975e-3

3.341e-3
3.541e-3

5.980e-3
4.945e-3

66.528
72.25

57.99
68.62

31.359
29.009

169.298
185.661

52.304
57.009

118.546
129.964

62.940
66.869

184.806
205.452

54.738
53.657

150.197
174.122

154.083
171.240

124.495
156.695

130.687
128.367

946.116e-3
941.804e-3

978.213e-3
974.34e-3

941.907e-3
945.978e-3

960.49e-3
956.87e-3

966.02e-3
963.1e-3

952.292e-3
947.984e-3

959.013e-3
956.587e-3

957.057e-3
952.532e-3

963.567e-3
964.256e-3

965.029e-3
959.727e-3

963.887e-3
960.058e-3

969.201e-3
961.601e-3

943.488e-3
944.425e-3

961.258e-3
958.157e-3

984.139e-3
981.32e-3

948.41e-3
952.03e-3

970.13e-3
967.4e-3

970.978e-3
968.483e-3

959.735e-3
956.098e-3

964.341e-3
962.231e-3

963.541e-3
959.700e-3

968.558e-3
969.153e-3

973.101e-3
969.030e-3

972.085e-3
969.125e-3

973.482e-3
966.938e-3

947.557e-3
948.426e-3

33.242

30.891

14.320

85.787

26.453

59.391

31.233

93.563

26.252

78.315

78.724

67.332

61.389

597.741e3

520.716e3

722.964e3

552.827e3

647.8e3

646.354e3

652.555e3

635.192e3

682.757e3

546.550e3

549.527e3

608.810e3

726.617e3

787.308e-3

682.371e-3

947.4e-3

724.450e-3

848.909e-3

847.012e-3

855.139e-3

832.386e-3

894.717e-3

716.224e-3

720.126e-3

797.813e-3

952.193e-3

55.833

567.016

5.238e3

156.777

1305

435.910

881.509

256.179

2.197e3

167.227

169.827

299.649

1.008e3

101.167e3

113.403e3

1.047e6

31.355e3

260.964e3

87.182e3

176.302e3.

51.236e-3

439.477e3

33.445e3

33.965e3

59.93e3

201.592e-3

CostHX

758.750e3

850.523e3

7.856e6

235.165e3

1.957e6

653.866e3

1.322e6

384.269e3

3.296e6

250.841e3

254.741e3

449.474e3

1.512e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

94

Total Number of Plates, NT = 120


Surface Designation

Parameters
5.3

6.2

9.03

11.11

11.11(a)

14.77

15.08

19.86

10.27T

11.94T

12.00T

16.96T

25.79T

30.33T

Hf

1.456

1.256

2.541

779.950e-3

1.487

1.026

1.296

779.950e-3

1.683

776.877e-3

779.950e-3

798.390e-3

638.574e-3

1.072

Afr

2.120

1.578

6.457

608.322e-3

2.211

1.052

1.680

608.322e-3

2.834

603.537e-3

608.322e-3

637.427e-3

407.776e-3

1.149

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

3.083

1.980

16.394

473.244e-3

3.282

1.077

2.175

473.244e-3

4.766

467.667e-3

473.244e-3

507.641e-3

259.580e-3

1.229

306.346

332.063

398.736

594.544

508.475

682.463

674.055

908.826

472.820

636.632

636.178

984.929

1382

1.321e3

944.468

657.411

6.537e3

281.364

1.699e3

735.271

1.466e3

430.096

2.253e3

297.732

301.067

499.990

358.792

1.624e3

470.762e-3

459.675e-3

462.845e-3

457.950e-3

447.191e-3

441.598e-3

450.282e-3

425.903e-3

453.364e-3

456.815e-3

456.490e-3

424.042e-3

397.598e-3

403.413e-3

998.120e-3

725.532e-3

2.988

278.581e-3

988.591e-3

464.698e-3

756.629e-3

259.086e-3

1.285

275.705e-3

277.693e-3

270.296e-3

162.131e-3

463.530e-3

8.412
10.02

11.573
13.784

2.810
3.346

30.140
35.899

8.493
10.116

18.069
21.521

11.097
13.218

32.408
38.6

6.534
7.783

30.455
36.274

30.237
36.014

31.064
36.999

51.789
61.684

18.114
21.575

2442
3336

3027
4135

616.22
841.71

4386
5992

1411
1928

2209
3017

1401
1913

2870
3920

1184
1617

4129
5640

4099
5599

2527
3452

2815
3845

1045
1428

6.826e-3
6.328e-3

4.228e-3
4.191e-3

10.157e-3
8.412e-3

4.866e-3
4.487e-3

6.401e-3
5.128e-3

5.681e-3
5.248e-3

4.928e-3
4.501e-3

4.896e-3
4.593e-3

7.781e-3
6.360e-3

4.181e-3
4.062e-3

4356e-3
4.113e-3

3.371e-3
3.416e-3

3.601e-3
3.118e-3

6.741e-3
5.457e-3

57.985
63.852

49.49
58.17

28.87
28.34

148.10
162.22

54.899
52.237

103.662
113.742

55.227
59.911

160.219
178.537

51.346
49.847

128.572
148.371

133.010
149.160

105.748
127.292

188.329
193.655

123.299
118.572

952.643e-3
948.150e-3

981.366e-3
978.148e-3

346.313e-3
947.132e-3

965.229e-3
962.066e-3

964.402e-3
966.059e-3

957.980e-3
954.119e-3

963.818e-3
960.893e-3

962.513e-3
958.441e-3

965.732e-3
966.693e-3

969.882e-3
965.436e-3

968.640e-3
964.992e-3

973.692e-3
968.535e-3

970.371e-3
969.563e-3

946.187e-3
948.121e-3

965.950e-3
962.720e-3

986.434e-3
984.092e-3

952.326e-3
953.053e-3

973.713e-3
971.322e-3

969.6e-3
971.014e-3

964.535e-3
961.277e-3

968.522e-3
965.977e-3

968.174e-3
964.716e-3

970.427e-3
971.256e-3

976.839e-3
973.421e-3

975.759e-3
972.939e-3

977.349e-3
972.908

973.808e-3
973.094e-3

950.061e-3
951.857e-3

29.307

26.325

13.614

75.295

25.973

52.225

27.797

81.613

24.555

67.175

68.511

56.336

92.939

57.480

618.367e3

539.244e3

735.762e3

545.327e3

677.055e3

662.919e3

670.001e3

651.622e3

701.668e3

565.340e3

570.720e3

620.977e3

644.852e3

738.255e3

810.337e-3

706.650e-3

964.177e-3

753.935e-3

887.244e-3

868.720e-3

878.001e-3

853.915e-3

919.498e-3

740.849e-3

747.898e-3

813.758e-3

845.044e-3

967.44e-3

653.024

732.759

6777

202.408

1.688e3

563.455

1.140e3

331.113

2843

215.943

219.305

387.373

283.067

1315

130.605e3

146.552e3

1.355e6

40.482e3

337.534e3

112.691e3

227.988e3

66.223e3

568.612e3

43.189e3

43.861e3

77.475e3

56.613e3

263.069e3

CostHX

979.536e3

1.099e6

10.166e6

303.612e3

2.531e6

845.812e3

1.710e6

496.669e3

4.265e6

323.915e3

328.958e3

581.060e3

424.600e3

1.973e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

95

Total Number of Plates, NT = 130


Surface Designation

Parameters
5.3

6.2

9.03

11.11

11.11(a)

14.77

15.08

19.86

10.27T

11.94T

12.00T

16.96T

25.79T

30.33T

Hf

1.576

1.360

844.250e-3

1.609

1.110

1.403

844.25oe-3

1.822

840.923e-3

844.250e-3

864.214e-3

691.190e-3

1.160

Afr

2.458

1.850

712.758e-3

2.591

1.233

1.969

712.250e-3

3.321

707.151e-3

712.758e-3

746.866e-3

477.743e-3

1.346

Vtotal

3.911

2.512

600.320e-3

4.165

1.367

2.759

600.320e-3

6.047

593.245e-3

600.320e-3

643.959e-3

329.255e-3

1.560

306.346

332.063

594.544

508.475

682.463

674.055

908.826

472.820

636.632

636.178

984.929

1382

1321

AT

1.198e3

834.057

356.917

2.118e3

932.790

1860

545.587

2.859e3

377.679

381.911

634.254

455.098

2060

470.762e-3

459.675e-3

457.950e-3

447.191e-3

441.598e-3

450.282e-3

425.903e-3

453.364e-3

456.815e-3

456.490e-3

424.042e-3

397.598e-3

403.413e-3

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

1.170

850.211e-3

326.408e-3

1.158

544.526e-3

886.659e-3

303.566e-3

1.506

323.037e-3

325.367e-3

316.702e-3

189.949e-3

543.164e-3

7.178
8.550

9.876
11.763

25.724
30.639

7.248
8.638

15.420
18.366

9.470
11.279

27.660
32.944

5.576
6.641

25.993
30.959

25.806
30.737

26.512
31.578

44.204
52.650

15.49
18.412

2084
2847

2583
3528

3744
5114

1204
1645

1855
2575

1195
1633

2449
3345

1010
1380

3524
4813

3499
4779

2157
2946

2402
3282

892.117
1219

6.629e-3
6.566e-3

3.801e-3
4.149e-3

5.026e-3
4.664e-3

6.401e-3
5.128e-3

5.907e-3
5.447e-3

5.085e-3
4.713e-3

5.035e-3
4.731e-3

7.615e-3
6.826e-3

4.114e-3
4.086e-3

4.408e-3
4.227e-3

3.395e-3
3.317e-3

3.785e-3
3.366e-3

7.597e-3
6.010e-3

48.053
56.536

37.902
49.150

130.557
143.913

46.847
44.575

91.976
100.744

48.629
53.529

140.627
156.994

42.887
45.650

107.971
127.397

114.877
130.822

90.882
105.488

1168.945
178.458

118.560
111.442

960.370e-3
953.762e-3

985.631e-3
981.461e-3

969.197e-3
966.174e-3

969.432e-3
970.863e-3

962.504e-3
959.105e-3

967.974e-3
964.883e-3

966.916e-3
963.246e-3

971.189e-3
969.394e-3

974.561e-3
970.148e-3

972.776e-3
969.137e-3

977.290e-3
973.755e-3

973.232e-3
971.871e-3

948.126e-3
951.058e-3

971.506e-3
966.755e-3

989.539e-3
986.504e-3

976.713e-3
974.427e-3

973.895e-3
975.117e-3

968.354e-3
965.485e-3

972.138e-3
969.448e-3

971.911e-3
968.796e-3

975.136e-3
973.587e-3

980.437e-3
877.043e-3

978.956e-3
976.143e-3

980.446e-3
977.403e-3

976.417e-3
975.134e-3

951.861e-3
954.582e-3

25.178

21.147

66.784

22.259

46.492

24.738

71.974

21.544

57.205

59.797

47.796

84.682

54.759

Qcalculated

630.989e3

542.744e3

595.005e3

686.071e3

677.098e3

683.528e3

665.622e3

710.902e3

578.675e3

587.980e3

631.673e3

663.358e3

746.684e3

826.878e-3

711.237e-3

779.723e-3

899.060e3

887.301e-3

895.728e-3

872.263e-3

931.6e-3

758.323e-3

770.516

827.773e-3

869.295e-3

978.489e-3

Ma

826.307

928.008

256.130

2139

713.725

1444

419.395

3604

273.304

277.565

490.736

358.627

1667

Costa

165.261e3

185.602e3

51.226e3

427.783e3

142.745e3

288.900e3

83.879e3

720.848e3

54.661e3

55.513e3

98.147e3

71.725e3

333.503e3

CostHX
Data
Availability

1.239e6

1.392e6

394.195e3

3.208e6

1.071e6

2.167e6

629.093e3

5.406e6

409.957e3

416.348e3

736.105e3

537.941e3

2.501e6

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

96

Design parameters of louvered plate fin at each NT


Total Number of Plates, NT = 100
Surface Designation

Parameters
3/8-6.06

3/8(a)-6.06

1/2-6.06

1/2(a)-6.06

3/8-8.7

3/8(a)-8.7

3/16-11.1

1/4-11.1

1/4(b)-11.1

3/8-11.1

3/8(b)-11.1

1/2-11.1

3/4-11.1

3/4(b)-11.1

Hf

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

651.350e-3

Afr

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

424.257e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

275.491e-3

414.723

414.723

414.723

414.723

497.343

497.343

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

114.252

114.252

114.252

114.252

137.014

137.014

163.792

163.792

163.792

163.792

163.792

163.792

163.792

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

453.823e-3

453.823e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

195.858e-3

195.858e-3

195.858e-3

195.858e-3

195.538e-3

195.538e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

194.449e-3

42.871
51.061

42.871
51.061

42.871
51.061

42.871
51.061

43.610
51.942

43.610
51.942

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

43.181
51.432

9017
12316

9017
12316

9017
12316

9017
12316

7519
10270

7519
10270

6290
8591

6290
8591

6290
8591

6290
8591

6290
8591

6290
8591

6290
8591

7.262e-3
6.943e-3

8.729e-3
8.039e-3

7.447e-3
7.157e-3

8.184e-3
7.535e-3

7.580e-3
6.829e-3

8.187e-3
7.686e-3

9.058e-3
8.392e-3

9.557e-3
8.833e-3

8.102e-3
7.260e-3

8.147e-3
73434e-3

7.586e-3
7.018e-3

6.369e-3
5.710e-3

6.403e-3
5.802e-3

314.377
356.994

377.901
413.362

322.375
368.009

354.281
387.446

333.822
357.220

360.520
402.037

394.965
434.631

416.730
457.472

353.268
376.015

355.242
385.034

330.805
363.498

277.707
295.716

279.217
300.477

929.492e-3
920.839e-3

916.666e-3
909.691e-3

927.853e-3
918.635e-3

921.385e-3
914.776e-3

925.520e-3
920.794e-3

920.132e-3
911.905e-3

913.293e-3
905.570e-3

909.036e-3
901.194e-3

921.588e-3
917.041e-3

921.191e-3
915.253e-3

926.133e-3
919.536e-3

937.096e-3
933.343e-3

936.780e-3
932.357e-3

954.875e-3
949.337e-3

946.666e-3
942.202e-3

953.826e-3
947.926e-3

949.686e-3
945.457e-3

952.332e-3
949.308e-3

948.885e-3
943.619e-3

934.450e-3
928.611e-3

931.231e-3
925.302e-3

940.721e-3
937.283e-3

940.421e-3
935.931e-3

944.157e-3
939.169e-3

952.445e-3
949.607e-3

952.206e-3
948.862e-3

159.177

186.452

163.420

175.361

164.072

179.869

192.767

202.442

171.029

173.348

163.095

136.198

137.569

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

548.344e3

576.271e3

553.109e3

565.560e3

585.361e3

600.373e3

637.395e3

644.094e3

620.160e3

622.161e3

612.982e3

584.076e3

585.750e3

718.576e-3

755.172e-3

724.819e-3

741.254e-3

767.084e-3

786.757e-3

835.272e-3

844.051e-3

812.687e-3

815.309e-3

803.280e-3

765.401e-3

767.594e-3

75.766

75.766

75.766

75.766

88.065

88.065

118.576

118.576

118.576

118.576

118.576

118.576

118.576

15.153e-3

15.153e-3

15.153e-3

15.153e-3

17.613e3

17.613e3

23.715e3

23.715e3

23.715e3

23.715e3

23.715e3

23.715e3

23.715

CostHX

113.650e3

113.650e3

113.650e3

113.650e3

132.098e3

132.098e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

177.865e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

97

Total Number of Plates, NT = 110


Surface Designation

Parameters
3/8-6.06

3/8(a)-6.06

1/2-6.06

1/2(a)-6.06

3/8-8.7

3/8(a)-8.7

3/16-11.1

1/4-11.1

1/4(b)-11.1

3/8-11.1

3/8(b)-11.1

1/2-11.1

3/4-11.1

3/4(b)-11.1

Hf

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

715.650e-3

Afr

712.758e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

512.155e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

365.499e-3

414.723

414.723

414.723

414.723

497.343

497.343

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

151.181

151.181

151.181

151.181

181.779

181.779

217.305

217.305

217.305

217.305

217.305

217.305

217.305

217.305

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

453.823e-3

453.823e-3

458.328

458.328

458.328

458.328

458.328

458.328

458.328

458.328

236.437e-3

236.437e-3

236.437e-3

236.437e-3

232.428e-3

232.428e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

234.735e-3

35.513
42.298

35.513
42.298

35.513
42.298

35.513
42.298

36.126
43.028

36.126
43.028

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

35.770
42.605

7469
10202

7469
10202

7469
10202

7469
10202

6228
8508

6228
8508

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

5210
7117

8.548e-3
7.716e-3

8.983e-3
8.039e-3

7.854e-3
7.157e-3

8.427e-3
7.535e-3

8.026e-3
7.215e-3

8.656e-3
7.215e-3

9.267e-3
8.694e-3

9.680e-3
8.737e-3

10.059e-3
9.167e-3

8.585e-3
7.726e-3

8.699e-3
7.768e-3

8.237e-3
7.280e-3

6.74e-3
7.51e-3

6.75e-3
6.13e-3

221.186
236.174

322.140
342.419

281.667
304.849

302.188
320.951

292.789
312.611

315.760
343.957

334.747
373.012

349.64
374.83

363.339
393.27

310.11
331.47

314.21/333
.27

297.53
312.33

243
322

243
263

949.119e-3
945.894e-3

927.901e-3
923.776e-3

936.268e-3
931.453e-3

932.003e-3
928.144e-3

933.951e-3
926.855e-3

929.092e-3
923.465e-3

925.332
917.638

922.317e-3
917.275e-3

919.568e-3
913.625e-3

930.369e-3
925.997e-3

929.525e-3
925.631e-3

932.966e-3
929.912e-3

944e-3
927e-3

944e-3
940e-3

967.436e-3
965.372e-3

927.901e-3
923.776e-3

959.212e-3
956.130e-3

956.482e-3
954.012e-3

953.435e-3
950.547e-3

950.092e-3
946.043e-3

943.551
937.734

941.272e-3
937.460e-3

939.193e-3
934.701e-3

947.359e-3
944.053e-3

946.721e-3
943.77e-3

949.323e-3
947.014e-3

957e-3
945e-3

957e-3
954e-3

110.378

158.102

140.203

148.674

143.927

156.081

165.964

169.931

176.952

151.518

152.873

144.473

132

121

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

572.665e3

595.879e3

575.865e3

585,775e3

609.775e3

622.053e3

655.103e3

658.086e3

663.087e3

643.143e3

644.345e3

636.604e3

623.837e3

610.630e3

808.91e-3

780.867e-3

754.640e-3

767.627e-3

799.078e-3

815.167e-3

858.477e-3

862.38e-3

868.80e-3

842.805e-3

844.380e-3

834.23e-3

817e-3

800e-3

99.980

99.980

99.980

99.980

126.273

126.273

156.777

156.77

156.77

156.77

156.77

156.77

156.77

156.77

19.996e3

19.996e3

19.996e3

19.996e3

25.2255e3

25.2255e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

31.355e3

CostHX

149.970e3

149.970e3

149.970e3

149.970e3

189.410e3

189.410e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

235.165e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

98

Total Number of Plates, NT = 120


Surface Designation

Parameters
3/8-6.06

3/8(a)-6.06

1/2-6.06

1/2(a)-6.06

3/8-8.7

3/8(a)-8.7

3/16-11.1

1/4-11.1

1/4(b)-11.1

3/8-11.1

3/8(b)-11.1

1/2-11.1

3/4-11.1

3/4(b)-11.1

Hf

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

779.950e-3

Afr

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

608.322e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

473.244e-3

414.723

414.723

414.723

414.723

497.343

497.343

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

196.265

196.265

196.265

196.265

235.365

235.365

281.364

281.364

281.364

281.364

281.364

281.364

281.364

281.364

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

453.823e-3

453.823e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

458.328e-3

280.832e-3

280.832e-3

280.832e-3

280.832e-3

276.071e-3

276.071e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

278.811e-3

29.899
35.611

29.899
35.611

29.899
35.611

29.899
35.611

30.415
36.226

30.415
36.226

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

30.116
35.869

6288
8590

6288
8590

6288
8590

6288
8590

5244
7163

5244
7163

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

4386
5992

8.164e-3
7.316e-3

10.057e-3
8.973e-3

8.229e-3
7.259e-3

8.944e-3
7.953e-3

8.495e-3
7.646e-3

9.150e-3
80255e-3

9.884e-3
8.699e-3

10.216e-3
9.177e-3

10.576e-3
9.593e-3

9.539e-3
8.131e-3

9.269e-3
8.195e-3

8.44e-3
7.61e-3

7.12e-3
6.40e-3

7.09e-3
6.42e-3

246.487
262.355

259.147
274.617

248.463
261.589

270.044
285.185

260.914
278.943

281.012
301.124

300.591
314.227

310.67
331.496

321.636
346.501

290.105
293.705

281.871
295.999

256
275

216
231

215
232

943.691e-3
940.325e-3

941.003e-3
937.744e-3

943.27e-3
940.487e-3

938.705e-3
935.533e-3

940.630e-3
936.838e-3

936.405e-3
932.223e-3

932.33e-3
929.52e-3

930.25e-3
925.992e-3

928.004e-3
922.952e-3

934.50e-3
933.76e-3

936.50e-3
933.28e-3

941e-3
937e-3

950e-3
946e-3

950e-3
946e-3

963.962e-3
961.808e-3

962.242e-3
960.156e-3

963.693e-3
961.912e-3

960.771e-3
958.741e-3

958.144e-3
955.471e-3

955.165e-3
952.217e-3

948.844e-3
946.71e-3

947.272e-3
944.05e-3

945.571e-3
941.751e-3

950.48e-3
949.92e-3

951.78e-3
949.563e-3

955e-3
952e-3

962e-3
959e-3

962e-3
959e-3

122.368

128.152

122.685

133.118

128.989

138.628

145.601

151.656

157.406

138.671

137.255

126.720

107.531

107.491

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

596.224e3

618.869e3

596.643e3

609.559e3

631.881e3

641.911e3

670.622e3

675.286e3

679.418e3

664.852e3

663.610e3

653.640e3

631.392e3

631.339e3

781.320e-3

837.170e-3

781.869e-3

798.794e-3

828.047e-3

841.191e-3

878.81e-3

884.926e-3

890.342e-3

871.34e-3

869.62e-3

856e-3

827e-3

827e-3

128.868

128.868

128.868

128.868

162.912

162.912

202.408

202.408

202.408

202.408

202.408

202.408

202.408

202.408

25.774e-3

25.774e-3

25.774e3

25.774e3

32.582e3

32.582e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

40.482e3

CostHX

193.302e3

193.302e3

193.302e3

193.302e3

244.369e3

244.369e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

303.612e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

99

Total Number of Plates, NT = 130


Surface Designation

Parameters
3/8-6.06

3/8(a)-6.06

1/2-6.06

1/2(a)-6.06

3/8-8.7

3/8(a)-8.7

3/16-11.1

1/4-11.1

1/4(b)-11.1

3/8-11.1

3/8(b)-11.1

1/2-11.1

3/4-11.1

3/4(b)-11.1

Hf

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

844.250e-3

Afr

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

712.758e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

600.320e-3

414.723

414.723

414.723

414.723

497.343

497.343

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

594.544

248.966

248.966

248.966

248.966

298.565

298.565

356.917

356.917

356.917

356.917

356.917

356.917

356.917

356.917

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

461.651e-3

453e-3

453e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

458e-3

329.045e-3

329.045e-3

329.045e-3

329.045e-3

323e-3

323e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

326e-3

25.518
30.393

25.518
30.393

25.518
30.393

25.518
30.393

25.958
30.918

25.958
30.918

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

25.703
30.614

5367
7331

5367
7331

5367
7331

5367
7331

4475
6113

4475
6113

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

3744
5114

8.164e-3
42.042e-3

10e-3
8.97e-3

8.6e-3
7.83e-3

9.4e-3
8.4e-3

8.49e-3
7.64e-3

9.67e-3
8.65e-3

10.5e-3
9.25e-3

10.72e-3
9.65e-3

10.56e-3
10.024e-3

10.133e-3
8.56e-3

9.82e-3
8.68e-3

8.83e-3
8.01e-3

7.49e-3
6.72e-3

7.42e-3
6.72e-3

210.371
1287

259.147
274.617

221.667
239.770

243.2
/257.65

222.684
238.072

253.577
269.360

272.626
285.238

278.43
297.59

274.07
309.032

262.99
263.97

254.95
267.63

229.192
247.013

194.479
207.313

192.738
207.401

951.46e-3
771e-3

941e-3
937e-3

949.01e-3
945e-3

944.379e-3
941.321e-3

948.79e-3
945e-3

942e-3
938e-3

938e-3
935e-3

936e-3
932e-3

937.85e-3
930.59e-3

940e-3
939e-3

941e-3
939e-3

947e-3
943.57e-3

954e-3
952e-3

955.312e-3
952.10e-3

968e-3
853e-3

962e-3
960e-3

967.000e-3
964.88e-3

964.403e-3
962e-3

963e-3
961.56e-3

959e-3
956e-3

953e-3
951.3e-3

952e-3
949e-3

953.32e-3
947.52e-3

954.78e-3
954.62e-3

956.78e-3
954.04e-3

960.22e-3
957.346e-3

965.928e-3
963.808e-3

966.21e-3
963.79e-3

171.911

128.152

111.280

120.544

110.772

125.135

132.734

136.772

138.045

125.766

124.699

113.985

96.819

96.405

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

675.527e3

638.843e3

618.505e3

630.235e3

643.745e3

659.544e3

686.597e3

689.664e3

690.597e3

680.882e3

679.957e3

669.813e3

649.581e3

649.018e3

885e-3

837.17e-3

810e-3

825e-3

843e-3

864e-3

899e-3

903e-3

904e-3

892e-3

891e-3

877e-3

851e-3

850e-3

162.843

162.843

162.843

162.843

206.029

206.029

256.130

256.130

256.130

256.130

256.130

256.130

256.130

256.130

32.569e3

32.56e3

32.56e3

32.56e3

41.206e-3

41.206e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

51.226e-3

CostHX

244.265e3

244.265e3

244.265e3

244.265e3

309.044e3

309.044e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

384.195e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

100

Design parameters of offset strip plate fin at each NT


Total Number of Plates, NT = 70
Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

882.249e-3

754.208e-3

683.875e-3

644.200e-3

573.868e-3

Afr

778.363e-3

568.829e-3

467e-3

414e-3

329e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

685e-3

427e-3

318e-3

266e-3

188e-3

554.145

678.890

619.794

686.135

1056

379.674

290.482

197.654

182.861

198.817

472.58e-3

449.20e-3

415.21e-3

45.18e-3

41.36e-3

367.83e-3

255.51e-3

194.19e-3

18.75e-3

13.62e-3

22.822
27.188

32.861
39.139

43.239
51.50

447.815
433.374

616.434
734.208

3678
5024

4108
5611

5473
7476

5572
7610

4563
6233

11.909e-3
10.416e-3

12.096e-3
10.936e-3

14.503e-3
13.104e-3

7.747e-3
6.811e-3

8.491e-3
6.804e-3

274.513
285.165

401.395
431.018

633.232
679.607

3503
3658

5286
5031

738e-3
731e-3

796e-3
784e-3

832e-3
822e-3

357e-3
350e-3

398e-3
407e-3

774e-3
768e-3

821e-3
812e-3

859e-3
851e-3

455e-3
449e-3

469e-3
477e-3

107.955

169.841

280.363

810.023

1220

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

670.682e3

690.729e3

701.801e3

755.047e3

761.773e3

878.893e-3

905.164e-3

919.673e-3

989.449e-3

998.264e-3

204.837

229.168

246.009

98.160

156.762

40.967e3

45.834e3

49.202e3

19.632e3

31.352e3

CostHX

307.256e3

343.753e3

369.014e3

147.240e3

235.143e3

Data
Availability

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

101

Total Number of Plates, NT = 80


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

1.006

860.164e-3

779.925e-3

734.662e-3

633.850e-3

654.424e-3

Afr

1.012

739e-3

608e-3

539e-3

401e-3

428e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

1.017

634e-3

473e-3

395e-3

253e-3

279e-3

554.144

678.890

619.794

686.135

854.013

1056

563.459

431.054

293.286

271.324

216.796

294.972

472.57e-3

449.20e-3

415.21e-3

45.18e-3

44.19e-3

41.361e-3

478.49e-3

332.35e-3

252.56e-3

24.38e-3

17.75e-3

17.714e-3

17.54
20.90

25.264
30.091

33.245
39.596

344.322
410.108

472.862
563.206

474.015
564.579

2827
3862

3158
4314

4208
5748

4284
5852

4624
6316

3509
4793

13.138e-3
11.564e-3

13.049e-3
11.835e-3

15.668e-3
14.177e-3

7.591e-3
7.529e-3

8.550e-3
7.686e-3

9.380e-3
8.134e-3

232.813
243.394

332.906
358.604

525.992
565.290

2639
3109

4086
4359

4490
4624

767e-3
759e-3

823e-3
812e-3

856e-3
847e-3

408e-3
378e-3

383e-3
371e-3

429e-3
423e-3

799e-3
793e-3

845e-3
836e-3

879e-3
871e-3

499e-3
473e-3

470e-3
460e-3

496e-3
491e-3

94.757

146.264

238.514

694.978

980.461

1125

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

698.381e3

712.237e3

720.664e3

759.420e3

760.768e3

762.850e3

915.191e-3

933.349e-3

944.392e-3

995.179e-3

996.946e-3

999.674e-3

302.459

338.952

364.119

144.833

116.336

231.934

60.492e3

67.790e3

72.824e-3

28.967e3

23.267e3

46.387e3

CostHX

453.688e3

508.428e3

546.178e3

217.249e3

174.504e3

347.900e3

Data
Availability

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

102

Total Number of Plates, NT = 90


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

1.130

966.120e-3

875.975e-3

825.124e-3

711.866e-3

734.980e-3

Afr

1.277

933e-3

767e-3

680e-3

506e-3

540e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

1.441

899e-3

670e-3

560e-3

359e-3

395e-3

554.144

678.890

619.794

686.135

854.013

1056

798.643

610.931

415.652

384.515

307.211

418

472.57e-3

449.20e-3

415.21e-3

45.18e-3

44.19e-3

41.361e-3

603.67e-3

419.27e-3

318.60e-3

30.76e-3

22.39e-3

22.343e-3

13.909
16.566

20.026
23.852

26.354
31.389

272.962
325.113

374.896
446.523

375.802
447.602

2241
3061

2504
3420

3336
4556

3396
4639

3666
5007

2782
3800

14.444e-3
12.644e-3

14.101e-3
12.676e-3

16.892e-3
15.190e-3

9.481e-3
8.261e-3

9.482e-3
8.178e-3

10.080e-3
9.005e-3

202.869
210.937

285.160
304.466

449.530
480.141

2613
2704

3590
3667

3825
4081

789e-3
783e-3

844e-3
835e-3

873e-3
866e-3

410e-3
403e-3

406e-3
402e-3

460e-3
448e-3

818e-3
813e-3

863e-3
856e-3

893e-3
887e-3

500e-3
495e-3

490e-3
486e-3

524e-3
513e-3

84.408

126.67

206.851

661.556

887.159

1024

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

717.957e3

727.524e3

733.860e3

762.039e3

762.345e3

763.057e3

940.844e-3

953.381e-3

961.684e-3

998.612e-3

999.013e-3

999.946e-3

427.008

479.158

515.023

204.354

164.185

327.956

85.402e3

95.832e3

103.005e3

40.871e3

32.837e3

65.591e-3

CostHX

640.512e3

718.737e3

772.535e3

306.531e3

246.278e3

491.934e3

Data
Availability

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

103

Total Number of Plates, NT = 100


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

651.350e-3

1.254

1.072

972.025e-3

618.000e-3

538.472e-3

915.586e-3

789.882e-3

664.177e-3

815.536e-3

Afr

424e-3

1.573

1.149

944e-3

381e-3

289e-3

838e-3

623e-3

441e-3

665e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

275e-3

1.970

1.230

916e-3

235e-3

155e-3

765e-3

491e-3

292e-3

541e-3

594.544

554.144

678.890

619.794

746.315

1037

686.135

854.013

891.223

1056

163.792

1092

834.958

568.048

175.582

161.352

525.482

419.807

260.332

571.211

458.328e-3

472.577e-3

449.201e-3

415.216e-3

422.728e-3

416.285e-3

45.182e-3

44.197e-3

41.48e-3

41.361e-3

194.449e-3

743.394e-3

516.288e-3

392.309e-3

161.450e-3

120.703e-3

37.876e-3

27.575e-3

18.299e-3

27.509e-3

43.181
51.432

11.295
13.453

16.263
19.371

21.403
25.492

52.007
61.944

69.564
82.855

221.688
264.043

304.497
362.673

458.85
546.517

305.228
363.544

6290
8591

1820
2486

2033
2777

2709
3700

5566
7603

5275
7205

2758
3767

2977
4067

4035
5512

2259
3086

7.267e-3
6.615e-3

15.758e-3
13.647e-3

14.896e-3
13.498e-3

17.922e-3
16.204e-3

6.099e-3
5.695e-3

6.728e-3
6.426e-3

10.398e-3
13.256e-3

10.38e-3
8.93e-3

10.619e-3
9.803e-3

10.784e-3
9.666e-3

316.868
342.615

179.726
184.881

244.635
263.293

387.335
415.972

320.313
355.265

472.583
536.172

2328
3525

3192
3261

4920
5395

3324
3539

928e-3
923e-3

808e-3
804e-3

862e-3
854e-3

888e-3
881e-3

934e-3
928e-3

928.160e-3
919.42e-3

432e-3
356e-3

429e-3
425e-3

494e-3
475e-3

489e-3
476e-3

946e-3
942e-3

834e-3
831e-3

880e-3
872e-3

906e-3
900e-3

948e-3
943e-3

941e-3
934e-3

519e-3
454e-3

509e-3
506e-3

573e-3
556e-3

549e-3
538e-3

155.456

75.917

111.139

181.271

159.299

235.595

689.146

819.198

1454

932.619

605.543e3

731.731e3

737.962e3

742.917e3

619.931e3

661.683e3

762.957e3

762.900e3

762.994e3

763.093e3

793.532e-3

958.895e-3

967.06e-3

973.553e-3

812.386e-3

867.101e-3

999.815e-3

999.74e-3

999.863e-3

999.992e-3

118.576

581.765

653.509

702.740

130.628

120.741

278.285

223.628

200.319

447.380

23.715e3

116.353e3

130.702e3

140.548e3

26.126e3

24.148e3

55.657e3

44.726e3

40.064e3

89.476e-3

CostHX

177.865e3

872.648e3

980.263e3

1.054e6

195.942e3

181.112e3

417.427e3

335.442e3

300.478e3

671.071e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

104

Total Number of Plates, NT = 110


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

715e-3

1.378

1.178

1.068

678e-3

591e-3

1.006

867e-3

577e-3

588e-3

591e-3

729e-3

Afr

512e-3

1.899

1.388

1.141

461e-3

349e-3

1.012

753e-3

333e-3

346e-3

349e-3

532e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

365e-3

2.614

1.632

1.216

312e-3

206e-3

1.016

652e-3

191e-3

203e-3

206e-3

387e-3

594.544

554.144

678.890

619.794

746.315

1037

686.135

854.013

1127

1099

1066

891.223e-3

217.305

1449

1108

753.770

232.941

214.045

697.271

557.016

216.374

223.469

220.047

345.391

458.328e-3

472.577e-3

449.201e-3

415e-3

422.728e-3

416.285e-3

45.182e-3

44.197e-3

42.021e-3

42.206e-3

41.374e-3

41.482e-3

234.735e-3

897.641e-3

623.383e-3

473e-3

194.894e-3

145.694e-3

45.73e-3

33.291e-3

14.041e-3

14.631e-3

14.480e-3

22.091e-3

35.770
42.605

9.354
11.141

13.469
16.043

17.72
21.113

43.03
51.31

57.623
68.642

183.613
218.693

252.214
300.402

599.142
713.613

573.891
683.538

579.866
690.654

380.097
452.717

5210
7117

1507
2059

1684
2300

2244
3065

4611
6298

4370
5969

2284
3120

2466
3369

4220
5764

4166
5690

4251
5806

3343
4566

7.77e-3
6.92e-3

16.871e3
14.831e-3

15.675e-3
14.324e-3

18.749e-3
17.164e-3

6.398e-3
5.863e-3

7.086e-3
6.437e-3

11.308e-3
9.717e-3

11.542e-3
9.779e-3

10.862e-3
10.773

11.179e-3
11.088e-3

12.539e-3
12.437e-3

11.32e-3
10.131e-3

280.646
296.941

159.359
166.392

213.2
231.409

335.607
364.935

278.366
302.986

412.380
444.930

2097
2140

2940
2958

6571
7742

6479
7632

7342
8650

4365
4619

936e-3
933e-3

825e-3
819e-3

877e-3
868e-3

902e-3
894e-3

942e-3
938e-3

936e-3
932e-3

453e-3
449e-3

445-e3
444e-3

450e-3
418e-3

445e-3
413e-3

500e-3
466e-3

519e-3
507e-3

951e-3
949e-3

849e-3
844e-3

893e-3
885e-3

917e-3
911e-3

954e-3
950e-3

948e-3
944e-3

536e-3
533e-3

523e-3
522e-3

536e-3
509e-3

533e-3
506e-3

588e-3
560e-3

594e-3
584e-3

137.165

68.952

98.707

159.902

138.217

202.544

566.667

771.096

1860

1823

2283

1322

629.252e3

741.541e3

745.464e3

749.102e3

640.092e3

677.064e3

763.022e3

763.058e3

763.032e3

763.038e3

763.088e3

763.74e3

824.601e-3

971.749e-3

976.891e-3

981.658e-3

838.806e-3

887.257e-3

999.900e-3

999.947e-3

999.913e-3

999.92e-3

999.986e-3

999.968e-3

156.777

770.009

865.724

931.287

172.816

159.804

368.187

295.921

114.424

118.004

165.239

265.207

31.255e3

154.002e3

173.145e3

186.257e3

34.563e3

31.961e3

73.637e3

59.184e3

22.885e3

23.601e3

33.048e3

53.041e3

CostHX

235.165e3

1.155e6

1.299e6

1.0397e6

259.224e3

239.706e3

552.281e3

443.881e3

171.636e3

177.006e3

247.859e3

397.810e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

105

Total Number of Plates, NT = 120


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

779e-3

1.502

1.284

1.164

739e-3

644e-3

1.096

945e-3

629.000e-3

641e-3

644e-3

795e-3

Afr

608e-3

2.257

1.649

1.355

547e-3

415e-3

1.202

894e-3

396e-3

411e-3

415e-3

632e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

473e-3

3.385

2.113

1.575

404e-3

267e-3

1.316

844e-3

248e-3

263e-3

267e-3

501e-3

594.544

554.144

678.890

619.794

746.315

1037

686.135

854.013

1127

1099

1066

891.223

281.364

1876

1435

976.112

301.602

277.118

902.932

721.273

280.130

289.318

284.888

447.212

458e-3

472e-3

449e-3

415e-3

422e-3

416e-3

45e-3

44e-3

42e-3

42.e-3

41.e-3

41e-3

278e-3

1.006

740e-3

562e-3

231e-3

173e-3

54e-3

39e-3

16e-3

17e-3

17e-3

26e-3

30.116
35.869

7.874
9.378

11.338
13.504

14.922
17.773

36.273
43.202

48.525
57.796

154.566
184.097

212.326
252.893

504.480
600.864

483.213
575.535

488.243
581.525

320.006
381.145

4386
5992

1269
1733

1417
1936

1889
2580

3882
5302

3679
5026

1923
2627

2076
2836

3553
4853

3507
4791

3579
4889

2814
3844

8.258e-3
10.687e-3

18.168e-3
15.937e-3

16.306e-3
14.976e-3

20.057e-3
18.004e-3

8.503e-3
6.119e-3

7.433e-3
6.754e-3

12.111e-3
10.563e-3

12.450e-3
10.614e-3

11.179e-3
11.088e-3

12.539e-3
12.437e-3

12.129e-3
10.73e-3

251.148
386.029

144.447
150.499

186.696
203.655

32.231
322.218

311.471
266.234

364.213
393.102

1890
1958

2669
2703

5533
6519

5455
6426

6182
7283

3919
4118

942e-3
915e-3

838e-3
833e-3

890e-3
882e-3

910e-3
905e-3

936e-3
945e-3

943e-3
939e-3

474e-3
467e-3

464e-3
462e-3

484e-3
451e-3

479e-3
446e-3

536e-3
501e-3

542e-3
532e-3

956e-3
935e-3

861e-3
856e-3

904e-3
897e-3

925e-3
920e-3

949e-3
956e-3

953e-3
950e-3

554e-3
548e-3

540e-3
538e-3

565e-3
537e-3

562e-3
534e-3

618e-3
590e-3

613e-3
604e-3

10.86e-3
10.77e-3

144.285

63.291

87.780

143.917

136.820

180.017

530.486

723.934

1653

1620

2021

1222

669.564e3

748.576e3

750.565e3

753.733e3

671.464e3

691.835e3

763.083e3

763.091e3

763.077e3

763.79e3

763.096e3

763.094e3

877.428e-3

980.97e-3

983.575e-3

987.727e-3

879.917e-3

906.614e-3

999.979e-3

999.991e-3

999.972e-3

999.975e-3

999.997e-3

999.994e-3

202.408

995.019

1119

1205

223.229

206.495

475.622

382.321

147.761

152.381

213.532

342.781

40.482e3

199.004e3

223.905e3

240.936e3

44.646e3

41.299e3

95.124e3

76.464e3

29.552e3

30.476e3

42.706e3

68.556e3

CostHX

303.612e3

1.492e6

1.679e6

1.807e6

334.843e3

309.743e3

713.434e3

573.482e3

221.641e3

228.572e3

320.298e3

514.172e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

106

Total Number of Plates, NT = 130


Surface Designation

Parameters
1/4(s)-11.1

3/32-12.2

1/8-15.2

1/8-13.95

1/2-11.94(D)

1/4-15.4(D)

1/6-12.18(D)

1/7-15.75(D)

1/8-20.06(D)

1/8-19.82(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

1/816.0(D)

1/8-16.12(D)

Hf

844e-3

1.626

1.390

1.260

800e-3

697e-3

1.187

1.024

681e-3

694e-3

697e-3

860e-3

Afr

712e-3

2.644

1.932

1.588

641e-3

487e-3

1.409

1.048

464e-3

482e-3

486e-3

741e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

600e-3

4.295

2.681

1.998

512e-3

339e-3

1.669

1.071

315e-3

334e-3

338e-3

636e-3

594.544

554.144

678.890

619.794

746.315

1037

686.135

854.013

1127

1099

1066

891.223

356.917

2380

1820

1238

382.582

351.503

1145

915.009

355.319

366.977

361.359

567.303

458e-3

472e-3

449e-3

415e-3

422e-3

416e-3

45e-3

44.e-3

42e-3

42e-3

41e-3

41e-3

326e-3

1.250

867e-3

659.000e-3

271e-3

202e-3

63e-3

46e-3

19e-3

20e-3

20e-3

30e-3

25.703
30.614

6.719
8.002

9.675
11.524

12.734
15.167

30.959
36.874

41.418
49.332

131.904
157.106

181.204
215.824

430.6
512.869

412.445
491.245

416.736
496.357

273.115
325.296

3744
5114

1083
1479

1210
1652

1612
2202

3313
4526

3141
4290

1641
2242

1772
2420

3033
4142

2994
4089

3055
4173

2402
3281

8.928e-3
7.742e-3

19.291e-3
16.873e-3

16.832e-3
15.620e-3

20.972e-3
18.971e-3

7.730e-3
6.379e-3

7.754e-3
7.062e-3

13.057e-3
11.296e-3

13.372e-3
11.552e-3

10.862e-3
10.773e-3

11.275e-3
11.088e-3

12.539e-3
12.437e-3

12.966e-3
11.347e-3

231.730
238.668

130.879
135.972

164.456
181.264

269.680
289.744

241.659
236.849

324.306
350.804

1739
1787

2447
2511

4723
5564

4696
5485

5276
6216

3576
3717

946e-3
945e-3

851e-3
846e-3

902e-3
893e-3

919e-3
914e-3

949e-3
950e-3

949e-3
945e-3

491e-3
485e-3

482e-3
477e-3

517e-3
483e-3

510e-3
478e-3

570e-3
535e-3

562e-3
553e-3

959e-3
958e-3

871e-3
867e-3

914e-3
907e-3

932e-3
927e-3

960e-3
961e-3

958e-3
955e-3

569e-3
564e-3

555e-3
551e-3

593e-3
564e-3

588e-3
561e-3

646e-3
617e-3

629e-3
622e-3

112.779

58.001

78.565

129.910

114.892

161.283

499.492

685.438

1481

1456

1804

1141

668.565e3

753.270e3

754.193e3

756.825e-3

678.590e3

703.839e3

763.096e3

763.097e3

763.092e3

763.093e3

763.098e-3

763.098e3

876.119e-3

987.120e-3

988.330e-3

991.779e-3

889.257e-3

922.344e-3

999.996e-3

999.999e-3

999.991e-3

999.992e-3

999.999e-3

999.999-3

256.130

1260

1419

1527

282.599

261.496

602.153

484.086

187.013

192.860

270.421

434.175

51.226e3

252.015e3

283.726e3

35.388e3

56.520e3

52.299e3

120.430e3

96.817e3

37.403e3

38.572e3

54.084e3

86.835e3

CostHX

384.195e3

1.890e6

2.182e6

2.290e6

423.899e3

392.244e3

903.229e3

726.130e3

280.520e3

289.290e3

405.632e3

651.262e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

107

Design parameters of wavy plate fin at each NT

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 70


Surface Designation
11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

752.404e-3

683.875e-3

752.404e-3

Afr

566e-3

467e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

424e-3

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 80


Surface Designation
11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

858.106e-3

779.925e-3

858.106e-3

566e-3

Afr

736e-3

608e-3

736e-3

318e-3

424e-3

630e-3

473e-3

630e-3

571.430

564.485

836.794

242.751
461.55e-3

180.016
426.55e-3

355.481
444.22e-3

571.430
360.224
461.55e-3

564.485
267.113
426.55e-3

836.794
527.507
444.221e-3

261.29e-3

199.49e-3

251.47e-3

339.86e-3

259.46e-3

327.10e-3

32.135
38.274

42.09
50.131

33.38
39.76

24.70
29.42

32.36
38.54

25.67
30.57

4904
6699

6009
8208

3349
4575

3770
5150

4620
6311

2575
3517

10.83e-3
9.64e-3

10.552e-3
9.321e-3

10.18e-3
8.85e-3

11.99e-3
10.56e-3

11.69e-3
10.30e-3

11.309e-3
9.902e-3

351.677
371.690

448.48
470.56

343.443
354.58

299.229
312.964

382.091
399.955

293.157
304.881

816.48e-3
808.42e-3

874.04e-3
868.81e-3

819.85e-3
815.30e-3

838.58e-3
832.65e-3

890.24e-3
885.81e-3

841.23e-3
836.13e-3

844.56e-3
837.73e-3

896.46e-3
892.16e-3

839.31e-3
835.25e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

863.28e-3
858.25e-3

909.78e-3
906.13e-3

858.38e-3
853.82e-3

131.673
686.720e3

177.417
686.631e3

127.945
718.046e3

899.91e-3

899.79e-3

940.96e-3

278.736

326.417

418.405

55.747e3

65.282e3

83.681e3

152.003

205.352

146.06

657.990e3

658.220e3

695.743e3

862.262e-3

862.563e-3

911.73e-3

188.586

220.601

282.708

37.717e3

44.120e3

56.542e3

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

CostHX

282.879e3

330.901e3

424.062e3

CostHX

418.103e3

489.625e3

627.607e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

108

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 90


Surface Designation
11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

963.808e-3

875.975e-3

963.803e-3

Afr

928e-3

767e-3

928e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

893e-3

670e-3

893e-3

571.430

565.585

836.794

510.543
461.55e-3

378.560
426.55e-3

747.633
444.22e-3

428.75e-3

327.30e-3

412.64e-3

19.58
23.32

25.65
30.55

20.34
24.23

2989
4082

3663
5003

2041
2788

13.042e-3
11.516e-3

12.781e-3
11.214e-3

12.390e-3
10.869e-3

257.921
270.496

331.082
345.053

254.575
265.254

857.06e-3
851.33e-3

903.20e-3
899.60e-3

858.60e-3
853.71e-3

878.93e-3
874e-3

920.43e-3
917.47e-3

873.87e-3
869.50e-3

115.725

155.262

113.234

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

707.427e3

706.983e3

732.978e3

927.04e-3

926.46e-3

960.52e-3

393.820

461.591

591.772

78.764e3

92.318e3

118.354e3

CostHX

590.730e3

692.387e3

887.658e3

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Parameters

11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

1.069

972.025e-3

1.069

Afr

1.144

944e-3

1.144

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

1.221

916e-3

1.221

571.430

564.485

836.794

697.758

517.356

1022

461.55e-3

426.55e-3

444.22e-3

527.95e-3

403.02e-3

508.12e-3

15.904
18.943

20.83
24.81

16.52
19.68

2427
3315

2975
4063

1657
2264

14.141e-3
12.5e-3

13.731e-3
12.159e-3

13.503e-3
11.828e-3

227.104
238.417

288.886
303.832

225.326
234.429

871.52e-3
866.14e-3

914.27e-3
910.31e-3

872.37e-3
868.03e-3

891.17e-3
886.62e-3

929.53e-3
926.27e-3

886.15e-3
882.28e-3

103.390

137.406

101.591

722.838e3

721.809e3

743.271e3

947.240e-3

945.892e-3

974.018e-3

536.883

629.717

807.424

107.377e3

125.943e3

161.485e3

CostHX

805.324e3

944.576e3

1.211e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

109

Total Number of Plates, NT = 100


Surface Designation

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 110


Surface Designation

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 120


Surface Designation

11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

1.175

1.068

1.175

Hf

1.281

1.164

1.281

Afr

1.381

1.141

1.381

Afr

1.641

1.355

1.641

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

1.620

1.216

1.620

2.098

1.575

2.098

571.430

564.485

836.794

571.430

564.485

836.794

925.917

686.504

1356

1199

889.005

1756

461.55e-3

426.53e-3

444.22e-3

461.555e-3

426.553e-3

444.221e-3

637.46e-3

486.60e-3

613.52e-3

757.292e-3

578.059e-3

728.851e-3

13.17
15.68

17.25
20.55

13.68
16.30

11.08
13.20

14.52
17.30

11.52
13.72

2010
2746

2464
3365

1373
1875

1692
2311

2074
2833

1155
1578

15.094e-3
14.787e-3

14.744e-3
13.079e-3

14.355e-3
12.745e-3

16.135e-3
14.289e3

15.809e-3
13.899e-3

14.517e-3
13.629e-3

200.771
233.603

256.910
270.676

198.383
209.212

180.649
190.024

231.888
242.145

168.881
188.311

888.43e-3
868.42e-3

922.88e-3
919.15e-3

885.54e-3
880.19e-3

894.48e-3
889.73e-3

929.26e-3
926.93e-3

900.543e-3
890.597e-3

902.05e-3
888.55e-3

936.61e-3
933.54e-3

897.90e-3
893.13e-3

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

910.63e-3
906.60e-3

942.26e-3
939.93e-3

911.54e-3
902.41e-3

84.147

111.473

80.757

96.714

123.248

91.190

736.098e3

732.946e3

749.964e3

964.618e-3

960.486e-3

982.788e-3

710.969

834.390

1070

142.194e3

166.878e3

213.995e3

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

CostHX

1.066e6

1.252e6

1.605e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

110

742.005e3

741.176e3

753.976e3

972.358e-3

971.272e-3

988.045e-3

919.122

1079

1384

183.824e3

215.840e3

276.807e3

CostHX

1.379e6

1.619e6

2.076e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Parameters

Total Number of Plates, NT = 130


Surface Designation
11.48-3/8W

11.5-3/8W

17.8-3/8W

Hf

1.387

1.260

1.387

Afr

1.923

1.588

1.923

Vtotal

AT

Ac
Gh
Gc
Reh
Rec
Sth
Stc
hh
hc
fh
fc
oh
oc
U

2.662

1.998

2.662

571.430
1521
461.55e-3

564.485
1128
426.55e-3

836.794
2228
444.22e-3

887.43e-3

677.38e-3

854.10e-3

9.46
11.26
1444
1972
16.954e-3
15.086e-3
161.983
171.203
904.139e-3
899.340e-3
918.806e-3
914.741e-3
76.307
747.763e3

12.39
14.76
1770
2417
16.825e-3
14.717e-3
210.597
218.797
935.71e-3
933.41e-3
947.15e-3
945.26e-3
101.535
747.258e3

9.83
11.70
986.058
1347
16.503e-3
14.315e-3
163.828
168.795
903.17e-3
900.58e-3
913.63e-3
911.32e-3
75.860
757.739e3

979.903e-3

979.242e-3

992.977e-3

1164

1368

1754

232.877e3

273.550e3

350.845e3

CostHX

1.747e6

2.052e6

2.631e6

Data
Availability

Yes

Yes

Yes

Qcalculated

Ma
Costa

111

Final list of design parameters for each type of fin satisfying all the constraints at each NT

Serial No.

Type of Plate
fin

Surface
Designation

No. of parting
sheets (NT)

Hf

Qcalculated

CostHX

%Pressure drop
(Hot side)

%Pressure drop
(cold side)

1.

Plain

19.86

100

651.350e-3

615.394e3

290.250e3

676.521e-3

874.456e-3

2.

Plain

19.86

110

715.650e-3

635.192e3

384.269e3

529.602e-3

680.415e-3

3.

Plain

25.79T

120

638.574e-3

644.852e3

424.600e3

1.181

1.496

4.

Plain

25.79T

130

691.190e-3

663.358e3

537.941e3

991.048e-3

1.215

5.

Louvered

3/8-11.1

100

651.350e-3

620.160e3

177.865e3

968.849e-3

1.223

6.

Louvered

1/4(b)-11.1

110

715.650e-3

663.087e3

235.165e3

1.001

1.304

7.

Louvered

1/4(b)-11.1

120

779.950e-3

679.418e3

303.612e3

802.716e-3

1.032

8.

Louvered

1/4(b)-11.1

130

844.250e-3

690.597e3

384.195e3

643.298e-3

835.322e-3

9.

Offset-Strip

1/8-13.95

70

683.875e-3

701.801e3

369.014e3

2.808

3.718

10.

Offset-Strip

1/8-13.95

80

779.925e-3

720.664e3

546.178e3

1.950

2.587

11.

Offset-Strip

1/8-13.95

90

875.975e-3

733.860e3

772.535e3

1.418

1.881

12.

Offset-Strip

1/4-15.4(D)

100

538.472e-3

661.683e3

181.112e3

2.566

3.407

13.

Offset-Strip

1/4-15.4(D)

110

591.596e-3

677.064e3

239.706e3

2.026

2.566

14.

Offset-Strip

1/4-15.4(D)

120

644.720e-3

691.835e3

309.743e3

1.636

2.073

15.

Offset-Strip

1/4-15.4(D)

130

697.844e-3

703.839e3

392.244e3

1.343

1.704375

16.

Wavy

11.44-3/8W

70

752.404e-3

657.990e3

282.879e3

943.604e-3

1.146

17.

Wavy

11.44-3/8W

80

858.106e-3

686.720e3

418.103e3

701.478e-3

850.729e-3

18.

Wavy

11.44-3/8W

90

963.808e-3

707.427e3

590.730e3

536.005e-3

661.325e-3

19.

Wavy

11.44-3/8W

100

1.069

722.838e3

805.324e3

419.985e-3

522.806e-3

20.

Wavy

11.44-3/8W

110

1.175

736.098e3

1.066e6

344.740e-3

422.980e-3

112

CHAPTER #8
8. Advantages, Savings & Comparison
8.1 Advantages
Following are the advantages of the designed air pre-heater.

1. There is no mixing of both fluids because of parting sheets, thus resulting in the
prevention of leakage between supply and exhaust air.
2. Since the structure is simple, the design can be easily made according to
environment conditions for use and allowable pressure drop.
3. The air pre-heater is easy to install. Ductwork and support structures are less
complex than those needed for conventional tubular or regenerative air preheaters. Therefore it can be easily and economically incorporated to any existing
system.
4. The air pre-heater has lower pressure than regenerative or tubular air preheaters.
5. There are no moving parts, no electrical connections, no complex gear drives to
align lubricate, or maintain, and no spare parts to worry about.
6. Natural gas consumption of the hot air stenter machine is reduced significantly.
7. The air pollution caused by the stenter machine is decreased significantly.

8.2 Principle of waste heat recovery system


In this project, Waste heat recovery system is applied to the stenter machine in textile
plant by using a heat exchanger. A schematic diagram of the waste heat recovery system
is shown in Figure 19. In this diagram, all of the system components and
interconnections with each other are shown in detail. Table 15 indicates all parameters
and their corresponding explanations.

The exhaust waste air contains high amount of moisture and generally contaminated
with fibre fragments, dust and chemical materials. For this reason, the exhaust air
cannot be directly used as a supplementary source of the inlet fresh air but it could be
113

used to preheat the inlet fresh air. In order to cause less air pollution, the exhaust air is
cleaned thoroughly before being sent to preheating process. A pre-filter is installed just
before the heat exchanger to achieve above mentioned cleaning of exhaust air. Air is
easily flowed through the filter, but impurities are collected on the surface of the filter.
The pre-filter is equipped with a proper cleaning device with pressurized water which
is supplied from a pool with the help of a water pump having an electrical power of 2.3
kW.

Detailed schematic diagram of waste heat recovery system


114

Components of waste heat recovery system


Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Description

Number

Fabric inlet
Fabric outlet
Stenter machine
Blower fan
Pre-filter
Drainage system
Pump

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Description
Pool
Valve
Heat Exchanger
Blower fan
Blower fan
Exhaust duct
Duct

Components of waste heat recovery system


After pre-filtering, the cleaned air is sent to the air-to-air heat exchanger. Heat of the
cleaned exhaust air is transferred by the heat exchanger to the cold fresh air coming
from outside. Thus, the temperature of the fresh air is raised while that of the waste air
is decreased. The cooled waste air is exhausted to the atmosphere by using a blower fan
motor. The pre-heated fresh air is supplied to the burner of the stenter itself so as to
lessen the requirement of fuel in the burner located in each of the 8 chambers of the
stenter machine. Fresh air and waste exhaust air is processed with a blower fan motor
separately each having an electrical power of 11 kW.

8.3 Energy requirement and savings


8.3.1 Energy requirement without pre-heater
Without the use of the pre-heater, the combustion air entering the burner is at ambient
temperature i.e. at 303 K. The maximum temperature for the given moisture loading in
the stenter machine is 473 K. Thus, the energy requirement of the stenter machine
fulfilled by the burners is given as,

= (1 2 )
Where,
m = mass flow rate of the ambient air entering the burners = 10.00 kg/s
T1 = Maximum temperature in the stenter machine = 473 K
T2 = Temperature of the ambience = 303 K

115

Cp = Specific heat of the air at mean temperature, Tm

1 + 2
2
473 + 303
=
2

= 388 K
The specific heat at mean temperature is,
Cp = 1.013 kJ/kg/K

The energy requirement is therefore,

Q = 10 1.0133 (473 303)


= 1722.1 kW

The energy requirement of the stenter machine is also given as,

=
Where,
= Burner efficiency for natural gas = 85%
mfuel = mass flow rate of the natural gas (kg/s)
LHV = Lower heating value of natural gas = 47.141 MJ/kg
The mass flow rate of fuel is therefore calculated as,

1722.13 = 0.85 47.1416


= 0.0430 kg/s

The volume flow rate of natural gas is given as,

Where,
fuel = density of natural gas = 0.70 kg/m3
116

Therefore,

0.0430
0.70

= 0.0614 m3 /s
= 0.0614 3600 20 300
= 1326.243 m3 /year
The cost of natural gas for industrial consumers in Pakistan is Rs. 17.424 per m3.

Hence, the annual price of consumed natural gas is,

= 17.424
= 1326.243 17.424
= . 23.11 million per year

8.3.2 Energy requirement with pre-heater


Since two heat exchanger designs have been proposed, we conducted the calculations
for both the designs and have compared it at the end of this chapter.
8.3.2.1 Simple plate heat exchanger
With the use of the pre-heater, the combustion air entering the burner is at outlet
temperature of pre-heater i.e. at 362 K. The maximum temperature for the given
moisture loading in the stenter machine is 473 K. Thus, the energy requirement of the
stenter machine fulfilled by the burners is given as,

= (1 2 )
Where,
m = mass flow rate of the outlet air from the preheater = 10.00 kg/s
T1 = Maximum temperature in the stenter machine = 473 K
T2 = Outlet temperature of air from the pre-heater = 363 K
Cp = Specific heat of the air at mean temperature, Tm

1 + 2
2
117

473 + 362
2

= 417.5 K
The specific heat at mean temperature is,
Cp = 1.016 kJ/kg/K

The energy requirement is therefore,

Q = 10 1.0163 (473 362)


= 1127.76 kW

The energy requirement of the stenter machine is also given as,

=
Where,
= Burner efficiency for natural gas = 85%
mfuel = mass flow rate of the natural gas (kg/s)
LHV = Lower heating value of natural gas = 47.141 MJ/kg

The mass flow rate of fuel is therefore calculated as,

1127.763 = 0.85 47.1416


= 0.0282 kg/s

The volume flow rate of natural gas is given as,

Where,
fuel = density of natural gas = 0.70 kg/m3
Therefore,

0.0282
0.70

= 0.0402 m3 /s
118

= 0.0402 3600 20 300


= 868.4703 m3 /year
The cost of natural gas for industrial consumers in Pakistan is Rs. 17.424 per m3.

Hence, the annual cost of consumed natural gas is,

= 17.424
= 868.4703 17.424
= Rs. 15.132 million per year
The additional power requirement imposed the water pump and two blower fans per
year is given as,

= ((2 11) + 2.3) 20 300


= 145.8e3 kWh/year

The electricity tariff for industrial consumers in Pakistan is Rs. 14 per kWh.
Hence, the annual cost of additional consumed electricity is,

= 145.8e3 14
= Rs. 2.0412 million per year

The total annual cost is therefore given by:

Total annual cost = 15.132 + 2.0412


= Rs. 17.173 million per year

Therefore the savings in energy is calculated is follows:


Total annual saving = 23.11 17.173
= Rs. 5.937 million per year

119

The payback period for the proposed heat exchanger is then given as,

Payback period =

Cost HX
Total annual saving

0.404
5.937

= 0.0680 years
= 0.0680 300
= 20.4 21 days
8.3.2.2 Plate fin heat exchanger
With the use of the pre-heater, the combustion air entering the burner is at outlet
temperature of pre-heater i.e. at 370 K. The maximum temperature for the given
moisture loading in the stenter machine is 473 K. Thus, the energy requirement of the
stenter machine fulfilled by the burners is given as,

= (1 2 )
Where,
m = mass flow rate of the outlet air from the preheater = 10.00 kg/s
T1 = Maximum temperature in the stenter machine = 473 K
T2 = Outlet temperature of air from the pre-heater = 370 K
Cp = Specific heat of the air at mean temperature, Tm

1 + 2
2
473 + 370
=
2

= 421.5 K
The specific heat at mean temperature is,
Cp = 1.017 kJ/kg/K

The energy requirement is therefore,

Q = 10 1.0173 (473 370)


120

= 1047.51 kW

The energy requirement of the stenter machine is also given as,

=
Where,
= Burner efficiency of natural gas = 85%
mfuel = mass flow rate of the natural gas (kg/s)
LHV = Lower heating value of natural gas = 47.141 MJ/kg

The mass flow rate of fuel is therefore calculated as,

1047.513 = 0.85 47.1416


= 0.0261 kg/s

The volume flow rate of natural gas is given as,

Where,
fuel = density of natural gas = 0.70 kg/m3
Therefore,

0.0261
0.70

= 0.0373 m3 /s
= 0.0373 3600 20 300
= 806.6713 m3 /year
The cost of natural gas for industrial consumers in Pakistan is Rs. 17.424 per m3.
Hence, the annual cost of consumed natural gas is,

= 17.424
= 806.6713 17.424
= Rs. 14.055 million per year
121

The additional power requirement imposed the water pump and two blower fans per
year is given as,

= ((2 11) + 2.3) 20 300


= 145.8e3 kWh/year

The electricity tariff for industrial consumers in Pakistan is Rs. 14 per kWh.

Hence, the annual cost of additional consumed electricity is,

= 145.8e3 14
= Rs. 2.0412 million per year

The total annual cost is therefore given by:

Total annual cost = 14.055 + 2.0412


= Rs. 16.097 million per year

Therefore the savings in energy is calculated is follows:


Total annual saving = 23.11 16.097
= Rs. 7.013 million per year

The payback period for the proposed heat exchanger is then given as,

Payback period =

Cost HX
Total annual saving

0.238
7.013

= 0.0340 years
= 0.0340 300
= 10.181 11 days

122

8.4 Comparison of both heat exchanger designs


The following table lists the design parameters of heat exchangers.
Parameters

Simple plate
heat exchanger
-

Offset-strip plate
fin heat exchanger
1/4-15.4(D)

550

110

1.432

0.590

1111.842

212.601

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2/K)

21.266

203.893

Heat transfer rate (kW)

593.521

670.545

Effectiveness of HX (%)

77.800

87.871

Pressure drop for both fluids (Hot/Cold) (%)

0.214 / 0.187

2.026 / 2.566

Cost of HX (Rs.)

0.404 million

0.238 million

Annual saving (Rs.)

5.937 million

7.013 million

21

11

Surface designation
Number of parting sheets
Length of flow passage (m)
Heat transfer area (m2)

Payback period (Days)

Comparison of heat exchanger designs


As we can see the offset-strip fin has higher heat transfer rates at a lower cost and
smaller size but at the expense of higher pressure drop within the heat exchanger core.
Although the simple plate heat exchanger has lower pressure drop, its heat transfer rate
is relatively less with greater size of the heat exchanger core. Moreover, the cost of
offset-strip fin HX is lower than that of simple plate HX. The offset-strip fin HX has
also greater annual saving with payback period of only 11 days compared to simple
plate HX which has less annual saving with payback period of 21 days.

Therefore, the offset-strip fin heat exchanger with a surface designation of 1/4-15.4(D)
offers the greatest potential for our goal as to recover the waste heat from exhaust air
of a stenter machine.

123

CHAPTER #9
9. Mechanical Dewatering
9.1 Introduction
Mechanical dewatering of fabrics before going for thermal drying is of considerable
interest (in an ecological and economic sense) due to a high efficiency and relative low
energy consumption.

Energy used in mechanical dewatering is only 1% of the energy used for evaporate the
same quantity of water. Wherever possible, mechanical dewatering techniques should
be employed.

The minimization of the moisture content in the textile goods allows shorter curing
times. Stentering is an energy intensive process, so it is important to remove as much
water as possible before the fabric enters the oven. Up to 15% energy savings in the
stenter (depending on the type of fabric) can be obtained if the moisture content of the
fabric is reduced from 70% to 60% before it enters the stenter machine. This can be
achieved using the following methods.

1. Squeezing mangle
2. Vacuum Slot Extraction device
3. Centrifugal extractors

124

9.2 Squeezing mangle


A mangle or wringer is a
mechanical

laundry

aid

consisting of two rollers in a


sturdy frame, connected by cogs.
Most often these mangles are
used to reduce the moisture
loading at the entry of the stenter
machine. The mangles are used in
2

or

bowl

combinations.

machine

Reduction

in

moisture loading is accomplished


by passing the fabric between a
pair of rollers and is by far the
least

expensive

method

Squeezing mangle

for

dewatering fabrics. The energy requirements of water removal are only approximately
58 kJ/kg. Little data is available for squeezing mangles therefore we cannot discuss this
in detail.

9.3 Vacuum slot extraction device


Vacuum slot extraction device remove excess liquid as it passes over a narrow slot in a
tube connected to a vacuum pump. The pressure differential across the fabric forces
mobile liquid from the interior spaces of fabric into the slot, and then the resulting
airflow penetrates into the yarns and removes much of the liquid adhering to the surface
of the fibers. Although mechanical removal of water from textiles is much cheaper than
thermal drying, the vacuum technique was not widely used in the past because of poor
reproducibility of the final water content.

9.3.1 Equipment used for vacuum slot extraction


A simple vacuum extractor can be made by cutting a narrow slot along the length of a
steel pipe connected to a vacuum pump. The orifice, however, is preferably formed
from two parallel plates, mounted on top of the slot in the vacuum tube. The use of a
material with low friction and the actual shape of the orifice formed between the two
125

plates are important factors for


minimizing accumulation of lint
(an accumulation of

fluffy

fibers that collect on fabric)


sucked from the cloth surface
and for ensuring good contact
and fit of the fabric with the slot.
The vacuum tube should have a
diameter large enough to avoid
any pressure drop in the air
flowing through it. The tube
may have a plastic lining to
avoid adhesion of lint.

Arrangement of a typical
vacuum slot extraction device

The exposure time to the pressure differential is a key factor determining the efficiency
of water removal. It is determined by the slot width, geometry and the fabric speed.

9.3.2 Mechanism of vacuum extraction


In discussing vacuum extraction, it is important to distinguish between bound and
unbound water. Bound water is that absorbed by the fiber and held between the polymer
chains in the amorphous zones by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds. The
amount of bound water depends on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the
particular fiber. Many textile materials can be vacuum extracted down to moisture
levels close to the water retention values determined by centrifugation

Unbound water is held by surface tension in the interyarn and interfiber spaces. Such
water can migrate easily and the bulk of it can be removed by vacuum extraction. This
involves two steps: suction of water from the yarn interstices because of the pressure
differential between the two faces of the fabric, and subsequent elimination of most of
the interfacial water by the high velocity airflow through the yarns. The viscous drag
of the air creates shear forces sufficiently powerful to overcome the interfacial tension
holding water to the fiber surfaces. When the pressure drop decreases as the fabric
leaves the vacuum slot, relaxation of residual distorted water drops results in retention
126

of a small amount of unbound interfacial water, held predominantly at fiber


intersections.

Effective liquid removal depends on generating the maximum shear force by having
the highest possible air speed through the yarns and ensuring an adequate exposure to
the vacuum. There is little evaporative drying caused by the airflow at ambient
temperatures. Well extracted fabrics do not demonstrate any significant decrease in
moisture content on repeated extraction.

9.3.3 Importance of airflow in vacuum slot extraction device


Vacuum extraction can be considered in terms of airflow through a mesh screen or thin
porous sheet as a consequence of the pressure differential across the layer. Fluid flow
through such materials follows irregular patterns precluding exact solutions of the
equations of motion used in fluid dynamics. Correlations of experimental data based on
theoretical models for flow through screens or thin porous layers have been published.
These are generally based on equations including both laminar (viscous) and turbulent
(inertial) flow for idealized structures, and they could be useful for correlation of air
flow data in vacuum slot extraction.

These correlations are based on Eq. (9.1) relating the pressure drop, DP, and the fluid
approach velocity, v. The two constants, d and e, depend on the characteristics of the
layer material (thickness, porosity) and the moving fluid (viscosity, density). Equations
of this form can also be expressed in terms of the two dimensionless parameters, the
friction factor, f and the Reynolds number, Re (proportional to v) and two constants,
A and B Eq. (9.2), related to the viscous and inertial resistance to flow, respectively.

P
= + ( )

(9.1)

(9.2)
127

As the flow rate increases, the value of Re increases and the friction factor approaches
a constant value of B as the inertial resistance to flow becomes dominant. The actual
values of the constants A and B depend on the theoretical model used to represent the
structure of the fibrous web.

An empirical relationship describing the airflow through a textile web as a function of


the vacuum level, the orifice area and the permeability of the fabric has been published.
It has been called the Albany airflow equation. Its application is difficult because of
uncertainties in the mathematical signs and the units of some of the variables. As with
all the existing airflow correlations, it is not of general validity but limited to the
materials and conditions used in developing it.

The flow of air through a textile fabric is through a series of small orifices in parallel.
Consideration of a simple orifice meter allows development of some important basic
principles applicable to vacuum slot extraction. As the pressure differential is increased,
the airflow through the fabric increases, as does the velocity of the air in the channels.
Once the air reaches a velocity equal to that of sound in air, its flow rate and velocity
through the channels cannot be increased further. This is the critical flow condition.
Even if the pressure downstream can be decreased further, this will not be registered in
the actual channels because the pressure wave in a compressible fluid can only travel
at sonic velocity and the pressure drop cannot be transmitted upstream.

For passage of air from an open face through a narrow section of fabric over a vacuum
slot, the critical pressure ratio, rc (i.e., the ratio of the absolute pressure in the orifices
in the fabric and of the entering air) is given by Eq. (9.3), with a value of 0.528 for air,
which has a specific heat ratio, k. of 1.40 at 25 C.

= (

2
)1
(1 + )

(9.3)

128

9.3.4 Applications
The major applications of vacuum extraction during textile finishing are:

1. Dewatering of fabrics before drying.


2. Dewatering before wet-on-wet pad application of chemicals to eliminate
exchange of the water in the incoming fabric with the bath solution.
3. Removal of unwanted chemicals in washing during preparation and after
dyeing.
4. Low add-on finishing with good penetration.
5. Lint removal.

9.4 Centrifugal extractors


Hydro extraction may be carried
out in a common box form of a
centrifuge

which

consists

essentially of a perforated cage


of copper or galvanized iron
mounted on a central spindle
and contained in steel casing.
The steel casing has an outlet for
the water.
The wet fabric is placed in the
cage in which the fabric is in
completed and crushed state.
Centrifugal extractor

The cage is then rotated at high

speed, developing centrifugal pressure which forces the cloth to the inner wall of the
cage; the excess water passes through the perforations and the water is drained away.

Centrifuges of this type are available of various sizes from 36 to 72 inches in diameter
and developing speeds from 1000 to 600 rpm respectively; the drive may be belt,
friction or directly by electric motor. Depending on the size of the machine and the type
of fabric, the centrifugal action may require from 2 to 10 minutes to remove the excess
water.
129

With some goods particularly smooth fabrics there is a danger of the perforation of the
cage marking the outer layer of the fabrics where they are forced against the walls by
centrifugal force. This method of removing excess water from fabrics is not much
favored since it is very slow and it requires much labor. The machine extract water from
the cloth in a discontinuous manner, but continuous extractors may be used where the
fabric is treated at full width and the water is removed by a vacuum pump.

9.5 Comparison of dewatering machines


The following table lists the relative energy cost of the three machines we have studied
so far.

Dewatering machine

Energy cost

Squeezing mangle

1.5

Vacuum slot extraction device

4.5

Centrifugal extractors

2.5

Energy cost of dewatering machine


When the three mechanical methods of removing excess water are compared, it is found
that the mangle is the cheapest, and the suction extractor the most expensive. The
centrifuge is useful on account of its versatility, but the output is low.

Although vacuum slot extraction device is somewhat less efficient than squeezing
mangle, the technique is of considerable merit. Its use results in considerable savings
in drying and in recovered chemicals. It can play a key role in improving the efficiency
of drying operations. The success of the vacuum technique in dewatering and in
finishing has led to its almost universal use in American finishing mills.

130

CONCLUSION
In this project, we have established waste heat recovery system into a textile plant.
Waste heat recovery system reutilizes the hot exhaust air of stenter machine and uses it
to preheat the inlet fresh air of the machine. For this two configurations of plate heat
exchangers are considered, one with fins and the other one without fins. Design
calculations are performed using maple for different fin geometries and by varying the
number of parting sheets between the two fluid streams which results in two hundred
& two designs and out of these, the two designs best matched to our constraints have
been selected. Both designs are then compared and the one with greatest monetary gain
and lowest payback period is selected for goal.

In short, the following conclusions are drawn from the study of waste heat recovery
system.
1. A waste heat recovery system which utilizes an offset-strip fin heat exchanger
with a surface designation of 1/4-15.4(D) has been applied to textile plant.
2. Hot air produced by the system has been re-utilized in the same machine.
3. Natural gas consumption of the burners used in stenter machine is reduced
significantly.
4. Thermal and monetary gain has been obtained from the system.
5. The air pollution caused by the plant is decreased significantly.

Three mechanical dewatering techniques are also studied but due to the lack of data no
significant conclusions are drawn aside from that mechanical dewatering techniques
should be employed whenever possible as energy savings of up to 15% can be obtained
by the usage of proper mechanical dewatering techniques.

131

NOMENCLATURE
AT

= Total heat transfer area for one side

ATh

= Total heat transfer area for hot air side

ATc

= Total heat transfer area for cold air side

Av

= Cross-sectional area of flow passage

Ac

= Minimum free flow area for one side

Ach

= Minimum free flow area for hot air side

Acc

= Minimum free flow area for cold air side

Afr

= Frontal area for one side

Afr, h

= Frontal area for hot air side

Afr, c

= Frontal area for cold air side

Aw

= Longitudinal wall conduction area

Awh

= Longitudinal wall conduction area for hot air side

Awc

= Longitudinal wall conduction area for cold air side

Af

= Total fin area on both sides

Aref

= Reference heat transfer area

= Plate spacing

Cp

= Specific heat

Cph

= Specific heat of hot air

Cpc

= Specific heat of cold air

= Heat capacity rate

Ch

= Heat capacity rate of hot air

Cc

= Heat capacity rate of cold air

= Thermal capacity ratio

Costa

= Cost of aluminum used

CostHX

= Cost of heat exchanger

Dh

=Hydraulic diameter of flow passage

= Fin frequency

= friction coefficient

fh

= friction coefficient for hot air side

fc

= friction coefficient for cold air side

Gh

= Mass velocity of hot air

Gc

= Mass velocity of cold air

= Acceleration due to gravity

hh

= Heat transfer coefficient of hot air

hc

= Heat transfer coefficient of cold air

Hf

= Height of flow passage

= Height of heat exchanger

Kc

= Entrance loss coefficient

Kc,h

= Entrance loss coefficient for hot air side

Kc,c

= Entrance loss coefficient for cold air side

Ke

= Exit loss coefficient

Ke,h

= Exit loss coefficient for hot air side

Ke,c

= Exit loss coefficient for cold air side

kh

= Thermal conductivity of hot air

kc

= Thermal conductivity of cold air

kp

= Thermal conductivity of aluminum

= Specific heat ratio

Lf

=Length of flow passage

= Length of heat exchanger

= Fin length from root to center

LHV

= Lower heating value of natural gas

= Fin effectiveness parameter

Mh

= Fin effectiveness parameter for hot air side

Mc

= Fin effectiveness parameter for cold air side

Ma

= Mass of aluminum used

= Mass flow rate

mh

= Mass flow rate of hot air

mc

= Mass flow rate of cold air

mfuel

= mass flow rate of natural gas

= No. of gaps between metal plates or parting sheets

NT

=Total no. of metal plates or parting sheets

Nuh

= Nusselt no of hot air

Nuc

= Nusselt no of cold air

NTU

= No. of heat transfer units

Sth

= Stanton no. for hot air side

Stc

= Stanton no. for cold air side

Prh

= Prandtl no. of hot air

Prc

= Prandtl no. of cold air

= Wetted perimeter of flow passage

Pinlet

= Inlet pressure of heat exchanger

DP

= Pressure drop

DPh

= Pressure drop of hot air side

DPc

= Pressure drop of cold air side

fuel

= Volume Flow rate of natural gas

Qdesign

= Design heat transfer rate of heat exchanger

Qmax

= Maximum possible heat transfer

Qcalculated

= Actual heat transfer rate

= Universal gas constant

Reh

= Reynolds no. of hot air

Rec

= Reynolds no. of cold air

Rt

= Total thermal resistance

Thi

= Inlet temperature of hot air

Tho, design

= Design outlet temperature of hot air

Tho, calculated

= Calculated outlet temperature of hot air

Thm

= Mean temperature of hot air

Tci

= Inlet temperature of cold air

Tco, design

= Design outlet temperature of cold air

Tco, calculated

= Calculated outlet temperature of cold air

Tm

= Mean temperature of hot and cold air

DTm

= Log mean temperature difference

tp

= Thickness of metal plate or parting sheets

tep

= Thickness of end plate

= Overall heat transfer coefficient

Uh

= Overall heat transfer coefficient for hot air side

Uc

= Overall heat transfer coefficient for cold air side

Vtotal

= Total volume of heat exchanger core

Vf

= Total volume of fins

Vp

= Volume of metal plates or parting sheets

Vpe

= Volume of end plates

Va

= Total volume of aluminum used

= Fluid approach velocity

Wf

= Width of flow passage

= Width of heat exchanger

= Total heat transfer area on one side / total volume of exchanger core

= Total heat transfer area on one side / volume between the plates on
that side

= Fin thickness

= Density of hot air

= Density of cold air

= Density of aluminum

fuel

= Density of natural gas

= Fin area / total heat transfer area

= Absolute viscosity of hot air

= Absolute viscosity of cold air

= Dynamic viscosity of hot air

= Dynamic viscosity of cold air

= Minimum free flow area / frontal area

= Fin effectiveness

fh

= Fin effectiveness for hot air side

fc

= Fin effectiveness for cold air side

= Total surface effectiveness

oh

= Total surface effectiveness for hot air side

oc

= Total surface effectiveness for cold air side

= Burner efficiency for natural gas

= Heat exchanger effectiveness

= Corrected heat exchanger effectiveness

REFERENCES
[1]

Frank P. Incropera. Fundamentals of heat and Mass


transfer (Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine &
David P. Dewitt).

[2]

W. M. Kays. Compact Heat Exchangers (A. L. London).

[3]

Kuppan

Thulukkanam.

Heat

Exchanger

Design

Handbook
[4]

Sidramappa Alur., (2012). Experimental Studies on Plate


Fin Heat Exchangers

[5]

Mustafa Sekkeli., (2012). Scada Based An Energy Saving


Approach To operation Of Stenter Machine In A Textile
plant Using Waste Heat Recovery System

[6]

R. K. Shah., (2005). Compact Heat Exchangers for Micro


turbines

[7]

Arthur D. Broadbent., (1990). Basic principles of vacuum


slot extraction, Textile Chemist and Colorist, Vol. 22, No.
8.

[8]

Bureau of Energy Efficiency. , (2004). Waste heat recovery

[9]

Mohit S. Ishar (2013, Jan 22). Stenter exhaust heat


recovery for combustion air preheating. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/mohitishar/stenter-exhaustheat-recovery-for-combustion-air-preheating

[10]

Abhinav Chittora (2009, May 28). Heat Exchanger.


Retrieved

from

http://www.slideshare.net/Abhinav2006/heat-exchanger

APPENDIX
Table A-1

From Ref. 1

Table A-2

From Ref. 1

Table A-3

From Ref. 1

Table A-4
Geometrical parameters of different fins
(a) Plain fins

(b) Louvered fins

Table A-4 (continued)


Geometrical parameters of different types of fins
(c) Strip fins

(d) Wavy fins

From Ref. 2

Table A-5
Heat transfer & friction factor data for plain fin surfaces

Table A-5 (continued)


Heat transfer & friction factor data for plain plate-fin surfaces (continued)

Table A-5 (continued)


Heat transfer & friction factor data for louvered plate-fin surfaces

Table A-5 (continued)


Heat transfer & friction factor data for strip plate-fin surfaces

Table A-5 (continued)


Heat transfer & friction factor data for strip plate-fin surfaces (continued)

Heat transfer & friction factor data for wavy plate-fin surfaces

From Ref. 2