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DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE FAULT CURRENT FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FUSING ‘One of the problems facing the design engineer is selecting adequate circuit interrupting devices for his equipment. With the increased emphasis on safety today, itis manda- ‘ory that shore circuit faults be cleared quickly and without danger to personnel and equipment. Of prime consideration is the determination of the available fault current at the location of the protective device. * ‘The commonly used circuit interrupting devices are circuit breakers and fuses. Circuit breakers are rated for specific maximum current interrupting capacities, and itis common practice to employ various sizes and interrupting capacities in plane distribution systems according to location and service. Some industrial fuses are rated up to a certain stated current interrupting rating, such as 10,000 amperes. Other fuses are tested and certified to be capable of inter- rupting very large currents. The proper selection of semi- conductor protective fuses is dependent upon the available faule currenc. The sizing of semiconductor devices subject to multiple cycle short circuit currents, such as encountered with « slow-blow fuse or a slow circuit breaker, is also dependent upon the available fault current. In applying semiconductors and their protective fuses, there are two different sets of conditions to consider. In the first case there is no transformer associated with the semiconductors. One example is 2 thyristor AC com roller working directly off the plant AC suppiy. Another ‘example is a three-phase bridge also working directly off the plane AC supply ‘The second case is where a rectifier transformer is used to supply the power to the semiconductors. An example would be an electroplating rectifier power supply. In this cease, the impedance of the associated transformer is high compared to the supply circuit impedance. ‘The impedance of a transformer is defined as the percentage of rated applied voltage required to cause full rated current to flow through a short cireuited secondary winding ‘Another way of expressing transformer impedance is to say that the impedance of the transformer will limit the short circuit current in the secondary with full rated volt- AN - 804 age applied to the primary to a value according to the following relationship: = Steady state short circuit current 1. = Rated secondary current y= Transformer impedance (percent) ‘Therefore, a transformer with a 5 percent impedance will limit the short circuit current to 20 times the rated current. ‘A transformer with a 4 percent impedance will limit the shore circuit current to 25 times the rated current, Trans- former impedance values can be obtained from the name- plate or from the manufacturer. Under the first set of conditions, where the semiconductors, are connected directly to the AC supply, the current limita tion during short cieuit conditions comes from transformer impedances, cable drops, and accumulated impedances reaching back to the source, Normally, the semiconductors are not connected on a primary input supply system with very low impedance and corresponding extremely high available fault current. They are usually installed in an industrial plant where the AC supply has 2 sumber of distribution transformers in the line, along with circuit breakers, various sized feeder conductors and cables, OF major interest is the distribution transformer feeding the applicable powerline. ‘The common situation involves a low voltage three-phase system of 60 Hz supplied through transformers. As shown in Fig. 1, the available fault current depends on the follow- ing items: available fault current in the primary, trans: former sive and impedance, secondary voltage, sizes and Riki Tear emma eee Bincts Figure 1 — Circuit Investigated and Results Obtained effective impedances of motors contributing to the short and the size, length, and ross scetion geom ‘etry of the feeder conductors connecting the secondary voltage source bus to the point at which the short-circuit duty is being investigated. Electrical motors can contribute substantial amounts of current, when the voltage source is interrupted by acting as generators and converting the kinerie energy into eleccrical energy. In Figures 2 through 9, the results of calculations are presenced for various transformer sizes. The short circuit current and power factor for each transformer size is de- fined in terms of distance from the transformer tw die point of fault and for various cable sizes. Each figure shows curves for 208, 240, 480 and 600 vole systems. ‘The magnitude of the AC RMS symmetrical component of the short-circuit current and the power factor of the short- circuit current can be determined from these curves. Approximate short-circuit current and power factor values for other feeder conductor sizes and arrangements can be ‘obtained by interpolating between the lines on any curve sheet, using impedance values as @ rough basis for the interpolation. The total asymmetrical short-cireuit current may be deter: mined from the plotted symmetrical short-circuit current by using a multiplier that is a function of shorecireuit power factor, as shown in Fig. 10. System Conditions Used for Calculations The equivalent circuit investigated consists of impedances that are considered minimum values. It 1s assumed that 2 500 Megavolt-ampere (MV.A) short-circuit capacity is availa: ble at the primary of the transformer, and that the source cirewit reactance-resistance (X/R) ratio is 25. This ratio corresponds roughly to the standard multiplier of 1.6 used to obtain maximum phase RMS total currents in primary circuits from calculated symmetrical current values. The probability of any sec of conditions being more stringent than those selected is very low. To determine the transformer characteristics, nominal standard transformer impedances of 41/2 percent for transformers having ratings up to and including 500 kVA and 5-1/2 percent for transformers having ratings above 500 kVA are assumed. Data supplied by numerous manu facturers were used to determine characteristics. ‘The impedance of the cables as computed is almost the ‘minimum possible impedanee for the conductor sizes considered and is, therefore, conservative, The motors con- nected to the transformer secondary bus have the charac- teristics of individual 30-horsepower induction motors and iz asumed to have total KVA. oquil to shar of tho ttansformer. Using the Curvet to Find Shart.Cirenit Dustinc ‘The curves in Figures 2 through 9 ace used directly to find the short-circuit current duties and power factor. To find 4 shorceircuit current at the end of the given length of = given size feeder originating at the low voltage bus of a gwen kVA substation, find @ point corresponding to the length of the feeder as read on the horizontal scale of the appropriate graph on the shortcircuit current curve marked with the feeder size; then find the short-circuit current corresponding to that point on the vertical current scale, Power factors are found in similar manner. Asymmetrical Current Values To find the asymmetrical current values corresponding to the symmetrical current values determined from the curves, refer to Fig. 10, The average short-circuit asymmetrical current can be found by multiplying the symmetrical current by the multiplier Ma shown in Fig. 10, correspond ing to the short-circuit power factor. To find the maximum possible RMS asymmetrical current among the three that are averaged for the value found previously. chen use the multiplier My found in Fig. 10 corresponding to the power factor. BIBLIOGRAPHY: AIEE Paper $5442 E we Eo * 3, 8, Es 9] oS Eg al 8 38 moe BE 3 ea oe BG i _ oo : a ee eG 5 Hi : ot iH A : yo =e 5 5 gue ae 5 ‘a 2800 ck he 34 °o ass 1020 W100 a0 too tooo a0 O00 “0 ass) wo 10 100 0 Tom 20 S00 1st enon TANGFONNGR 0 PONT OF PAUL, PET Bibvace thou RanerONUEN TO PONT OF PALL. FEET (A088 (1A Tere, 0 ‘ ‘ ee eb Ee 0 8 a at He a 8 ee ng 58 no 53> eb 38a ae 7 a u ae 8, we 38, = = Pi ng ORE e i tae ‘Se pact g ‘Isc: 4 WIRE 70 z oasis oe : { oi eet isn 7 # ‘l T "2300 MC F B 7 20 mat ie a 1b se ew we as ow OVSANGE OM TRANGFORUERTOPOIT OF FAULT. EBT OFSANCE FAO TANGFOMMER OPT OF FAULT FET {C10 RA Vat, it 1D) 8044 Tee vos Figure 2 ~ Symmetrical Short Circuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 150-kva Liquid Filled Power Transformer: X/R = 3.24; R = 1.23 Per Cent; X = 4.0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.19 Per Cent ‘ses ” 0 " a ects ° sation ® “ ‘ « ‘ » apt rene . a ples " ‘eho ° 02s 5 10 7 wi@ m0 eo 10 200 samo DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TOPOINT OF FAULT, FEET : : : : ; 1 ‘one 0 ; ae ; (OT eS DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET 1) 225KVA Talore, 480 Vt Figure 3 — Symmetrical Short-Circuit Cur Power Transformer: X/R = 3.35; R = 1.19 Per Cent; X = 4.0 Per Cent; and Z “SHORT CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR, & awe Some Mits ] | domda: : 9 we 6 0 28 8 40 20 ion 700 oOo Top0 7000 sO) DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO FOWNT OF FAULT, FEET DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT. FEET (0) 225A Temtarnr 00 VN nd Power Factor Versus Distance From a 225-kva Liquid Filled 1.17 Per Cent ‘se » ve " we val cane, ae satin wf zac ne atmowcin i ve} Eee 10 § ° elo 8 ‘ ae 2 satune 08 o 0 ° ‘0 25 5 wo 70 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 S400 DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO PINT OF FAULT, FEET (A) 200KVA Tenor, 208 Vee a ® 0% a we 6 oF : 8 : ot 2 se amne me : ime ro : a eo jo%0 a0 100) ons 5 DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO FONT OF FAULT, FEET (6) 900A Tarn, 80 Vo SYMMETRICAL SHORT CINZUFT CURRENT, ‘ROUSaNDSOF AMPERES tge-SYMMETRICAL sHomT cincurT CURRENT, "ROUEANDS OF AMPERES ° Fie a ae potas ¢ fs» nn om oe trae chon uate Orono a (8 MOKA Toomey, 20a sc: sawine DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER 10 POINT OF FAULT, FEET Figure 4 — Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current and Power Factor Varsus Distance From a 300-kva Liquid-Filled Power Transformer: X/R = 3.50; R= 1.14 Per Cent; X = .0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.16 Per Cent HORT CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR, ” | . a ops E H is jo, Es 6 oo ag wes aft "0 2 a 8 we 5 ae oma a u = Towne, S32 ah jog Se ‘mown 53m Jub bm 0 ot auc |o 3 8 Tame Lap 3 7 feromcu | 34°17 Bel ie a8 2aitete a" f° EES age et levee 7 fas ate ee 0 2 Trea Se SS oa s wm #0 wo wos wm m0 i tas so mw wo mo im wo mm ~seumermeat 0a cnet comRENT, se °, DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TOPOINT OF FAULT, FEET (1 500 KVA Tratorme, 208 Vet i me one pes =: oe Be ea of »e oH ag tran DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TOPOINT OF FAULT, FEET (61 50 VA Teo, ete DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET (8) 500A Tantrme, 260 ts » 0 | 0 . 0 * 0 ane 0100 200 S00 i000 200 «200 DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT. FEET (0) 500 XVA Traoma 408 Vt Figure 5 - Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 500-Wva Liquid-Filled Power Transformer: X/R = 3.84; R = 1.04 Per Cant; = 4.0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.12 Per Cent * : as aye EE Somme, g Jeo ie simal TeteN IE One =o 3 ok Es BE x} ‘son lod gg 53 sal zsoomen Ps 38 gs 7 lieu 5s Eo ko 33 ee ag AM oe we Hi fT ee scawox 2H nz EE teed 9f DEE 4 zion 10 % a erent 0 “8 ° Ds }0 0 Ww mw op WOO TD_OM 02s so 9 1 Re om imo 2m wm DisraNce PRow TRansronuen TO POMT OF FAULT. FEET DvETANGE FROM TRANSFORUER 79 PIN OF FAULT. FEET : = Bese é 5B? ‘sci — oc 5 byw a. 5s _ , ile 83 & BB a NA e a gH ol bs 4" i at iB gE e & , 20 fa: sf i fF fe : 8 ee mes fn ° ee a Sbsalec ow Tanefomien rorowt ov Pak FET Seratee ow fumoronwte roronr otreoi et (9 nowva‘reteme 0 a0 1) 70X08 Tare, 0 ts Figure 6 — Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 750-kva Liqui-Filled Power Transformer: X/R.~ 6.45; R = 0.04 Por Cant: X = 5.1 Per Cent; and Z = 5.19 Par Cant SHOUEANGSOE AMPERES * « © © oh a » he = 8 we «| oe SE as = ee « eS EF ol s ae Be ~ oe BE | ‘sels 8 iz B ‘ sume § GE = " fiw §¥ ” = ceils Ee 51 aan! joe Fs Vas mw won moe me we er ONTANCE FROMTRANSFORMERTO PINT OF FAULT. FEET STANCE OM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET UA 0 KYA tr 24 Yt esac renters 2 To ane i » = sou Lew, =F 0 Lod ze 0 # A Wer. tj 2 OE 0 3 =AWIRE: 2 ze S somne rats (of ed eeu a5 8 ‘6 00 Laclo i ee 0 we ge oe lee EF noe oF ee 7 : me ne ge: 2800 Mow he * Teg. Teoma 0 3, we : “S Dreowew. A 4 ue le 0253 1 mo io) nO wo) Tw Boo Som 0 ngs om wo We DBO wh) RD SO DISTANCE POM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT FEET DISTANCE FROW TRANSFORMER TOPOINTOF FAULT, FEET Figure 7 — Symmetrieal Short-Circuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 1,000-kva Liquid-Filled Power Transformer: X/R = 5,70; R = 0.89 Per Cent; X = 5.1 Per Cent; and Z = 5.19 Per Cent : 4 i i i i a mee wet 3 “WIRE es 0 mono] tay & 7 a : ae » 20 3 0) ann so sss : a a ae ae oba ence ea ene anes : Tet 108 Tess § ; 0 2 jo 8 20 5 gg: 2a oe ° SS) powe le |S a eae DISTANCE PROM TRANSEORMEN TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET {€) 100 KV Tomi, 80 Yt Figure 8 — Symmetrical Short Circuit Currant and Power Factor Versus "ROUANDSOF AMERES ees esas 88 se as sees 8a 8 8 Sa ™. jo ont 0 Ne a a ae Shraterion tanith oo raat er "0 nein tte toNo0 somine isowcw = ae oor na istance From a 1,500-kva Liqui Power Transformer: X/R = 6.15; R = 0.83 Per Cent, X = 5.1 Per Cent; and Z = 5.18 Per Cent a is it ie : Be ni at 4 5 zt oss ee Oi =e ome ee as st Be i 1 at Ted aa en SS | i i i 2 g i : i 5 4 Pi Si By 2S Buwee? ee Re * el Figure 10 — Multiplying Fectors to Obtain Short-Circuit Asymmatrical Currant From ‘Symmetrical Values, ata Point in Time 1/2 Cycle (60-Cycle Basis) after Initiation of a Fault ‘Originally wrrtan for this Application Note By Glenn Geisinger, International Rectifier, El Segundo, Caiforis, 18 international Rect INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER Segundo, California ‘Semiconductor Division, 238 Kansas St. El Segundo, Calif. 90246 + Telex 67-4666 - Phone (213) 678-6281 Print in USA, 2774