an804
Description:
Determination of available sc current
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© All Rights Reserved
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an804
Description:
Determination of available sc current
Copyright:
© All Rights Reserved
Available Formats
Download as PDF or read online from Scribd
DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE FAULT CURRENT
FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FUSING
‘One of the problems facing the design engineer is selecting
adequate circuit interrupting devices for his equipment.
With the increased emphasis on safety today, itis manda
‘ory that shore circuit faults be cleared quickly and without
danger to personnel and equipment. Of prime consideration
is the determination of the available fault current at the
location of the protective device. *
‘The commonly used circuit interrupting devices are circuit
breakers and fuses. Circuit breakers are rated for specific
maximum current interrupting capacities, and itis common
practice to employ various sizes and interrupting capacities
in plane distribution systems according to location and
service. Some industrial fuses are rated up to a certain
stated current interrupting rating, such as 10,000 amperes.
Other fuses are tested and certified to be capable of inter
rupting very large currents. The proper selection of semi
conductor protective fuses is dependent upon the available
faule currenc. The sizing of semiconductor devices subject
to multiple cycle short circuit currents, such as encountered
with « slowblow fuse or a slow circuit breaker, is also
dependent upon the available fault current.
In applying semiconductors and their protective fuses,
there are two different sets of conditions to consider.
In the first case there is no transformer associated with
the semiconductors. One example is 2 thyristor AC com
roller working directly off the plant AC suppiy. Another
‘example is a threephase bridge also working directly off
the plane AC supply
‘The second case is where a rectifier transformer is used to
supply the power to the semiconductors. An example
would be an electroplating rectifier power supply. In this
cease, the impedance of the associated transformer is high
compared to the supply circuit impedance.
‘The impedance of a transformer is defined as the percentage
of rated applied voltage required to cause full rated current
to flow through a short cireuited secondary winding
‘Another way of expressing transformer impedance is to
say that the impedance of the transformer will limit the
short circuit current in the secondary with full rated volt
AN  804
age applied to the primary to a value according to the
following relationship:
= Steady state short circuit current
1. = Rated secondary current
y= Transformer impedance
(percent)
‘Therefore, a transformer with a 5 percent impedance will
limit the short circuit current to 20 times the rated current.
‘A transformer with a 4 percent impedance will limit the
shore circuit current to 25 times the rated current, Trans
former impedance values can be obtained from the name
plate or from the manufacturer.
Under the first set of conditions, where the semiconductors,
are connected directly to the AC supply, the current limita
tion during short cieuit conditions comes from transformer
impedances, cable drops, and accumulated impedances
reaching back to the source, Normally, the semiconductors
are not connected on a primary input supply system with
very low impedance and corresponding extremely high
available fault current. They are usually installed in an
industrial plant where the AC supply has 2 sumber of
distribution transformers in the line, along with circuit
breakers, various sized feeder conductors and cables, OF
major interest is the distribution transformer feeding the
applicable powerline.
‘The common situation involves a low voltage threephase
system of 60 Hz supplied through transformers. As shown
in Fig. 1, the available fault current depends on the follow
ing items: available fault current in the primary, trans:
former sive and impedance, secondary voltage, sizes and
Riki Tear
emma eee
Bincts
Figure 1 — Circuit Investigated and Results Obtainedeffective impedances of motors contributing to the short
and the size, length, and ross scetion geom
‘etry of the feeder conductors connecting the secondary
voltage source bus to the point at which the shortcircuit
duty is being investigated. Electrical motors can contribute
substantial amounts of current, when the voltage source
is interrupted by acting as generators and converting the
kinerie energy into eleccrical energy.
In Figures 2 through 9, the results of calculations are
presenced for various transformer sizes. The short circuit
current and power factor for each transformer size is de
fined in terms of distance from the transformer tw die
point of fault and for various cable sizes. Each figure
shows curves for 208, 240, 480 and 600 vole systems.
‘The magnitude of the AC RMS symmetrical component of
the shortcircuit current and the power factor of the short
circuit current can be determined from these curves.
Approximate shortcircuit current and power factor values
for other feeder conductor sizes and arrangements can be
‘obtained by interpolating between the lines on any curve
sheet, using impedance values as @ rough basis for the
interpolation.
The total asymmetrical shortcireuit current may be deter:
mined from the plotted symmetrical shortcircuit current
by using a multiplier that is a function of shorecireuit
power factor, as shown in Fig. 10.
System Conditions Used for Calculations
The equivalent circuit investigated consists of impedances
that are considered minimum values. It 1s assumed that 2
500 Megavoltampere (MV.A) shortcircuit capacity is availa:
ble at the primary of the transformer, and that the source
cirewit reactanceresistance (X/R) ratio is 25. This ratio
corresponds roughly to the standard multiplier of 1.6 used
to obtain maximum phase RMS total currents in primary
circuits from calculated symmetrical current values. The
probability of any sec of conditions being more stringent
than those selected is very low.
To determine the transformer characteristics, nominal
standard transformer impedances of 41/2 percent for
transformers having ratings up to and including 500 kVA
and 51/2 percent for transformers having ratings above
500 kVA are assumed. Data supplied by numerous manu
facturers were used to determine characteristics.
‘The impedance of the cables as computed is almost the
‘minimum possible impedanee for the conductor sizes
considered and is, therefore, conservative, The motors con
nected to the transformer secondary bus have the charac
teristics of individual 30horsepower induction motors and
iz asumed to have total KVA. oquil to shar of tho
ttansformer.
Using the Curvet to Find Shart.Cirenit Dustinc
‘The curves in Figures 2 through 9 ace used directly to find
the shortcircuit current duties and power factor. To find
4 shorceircuit current at the end of the given length of =
given size feeder originating at the low voltage bus of a
gwen kVA substation, find @ point corresponding to the
length of the feeder as read on the horizontal scale of
the appropriate graph on the shortcircuit current curve
marked with the feeder size; then find the shortcircuit
current corresponding to that point on the vertical current
scale, Power factors are found in similar manner.
Asymmetrical Current Values
To find the asymmetrical current values corresponding to
the symmetrical current values determined from the curves,
refer to Fig. 10, The average shortcircuit asymmetrical
current can be found by multiplying the symmetrical
current by the multiplier Ma shown in Fig. 10, correspond
ing to the shortcircuit power factor. To find the maximum
possible RMS asymmetrical current among the three that
are averaged for the value found previously. chen use the
multiplier My found in Fig. 10 corresponding to the power
factor.
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OVSANGE OM TRANGFORUERTOPOIT OF FAULT. EBT OFSANCE FAO TANGFOMMER OPT OF FAULT FET
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Figure 2 ~ Symmetrical Short Circuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 150kva Liquid Filled
Power Transformer: X/R = 3.24; R = 1.23 Per Cent; X = 4.0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.19 Per Cent‘ses
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET
1) 225KVA Talore, 480 Vt
Figure 3 — Symmetrical ShortCircuit Cur
Power Transformer: X/R = 3.35; R = 1.19 Per Cent; X = 4.0 Per Cent; and Z
“SHORT CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR, &
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO FOWNT OF FAULT, FEET
DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT. FEET
(0) 225A Temtarnr 00 VN
nd Power Factor Versus Distance From a 225kva Liquid Filled
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO PINT OF FAULT, FEET
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO FONT OF FAULT, FEET
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SYMMETRICAL SHORT CINZUFT CURRENT,
‘ROUSaNDSOF AMPERES
tgeSYMMETRICAL sHomT cincurT CURRENT,
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER 10 POINT OF FAULT, FEET
Figure 4 — Symmetrical ShortCircuit Current and Power Factor Varsus Distance From a 300kva LiquidFilled
Power Transformer: X/R = 3.50; R= 1.14 Per Cent; X =
.0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.16 Per Cent
HORT CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR,”  .
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET
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DISTANCE FROM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT. FEET
(0) 500 XVA Traoma 408 Vt
Figure 5  Symmetrical ShortCircuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 500Wva LiquidFilled
Power Transformer: X/R = 3.84; R = 1.04 Per Cant;
= 4.0 Per Cent; and Z = 4.12 Per Cent* :
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Figure 6 — Symmetrical ShortCircuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 750kva LiquiFilled
Power Transformer: X/R.~ 6.45; R = 0.04 Por Cant: X = 5.1 Per Cent; and Z = 5.19 Par CantSHOUEANGSOE AMPERES
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ONTANCE FROMTRANSFORMERTO PINT OF FAULT. FEET STANCE OM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT, FEET
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DISTANCE POM TRANSFORMER TO POINT OF FAULT FEET DISTANCE FROW TRANSFORMER TOPOINTOF FAULT, FEET
Figure 7 — Symmetrieal ShortCircuit Current and Power Factor Versus Distance From a 1,000kva LiquidFilled
Power Transformer: X/R = 5,70; R = 0.89 Per Cent; X = 5.1 Per Cent; and Z = 5.19 Per Cent:
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Figure 8 — Symmetrical Short Circuit Currant and Power Factor Versus
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Figure 10 — Multiplying Fectors to Obtain
ShortCircuit Asymmatrical Currant From
‘Symmetrical Values, ata Point in Time
1/2 Cycle (60Cycle Basis) after
Initiation of a Fault
‘Originally wrrtan for this Application Note By Glenn Geisinger, International Rectifier, El Segundo, Caiforis,
18 international Rect
INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER
Segundo, California
‘Semiconductor Division, 238 Kansas St. El Segundo, Calif. 90246 + Telex 674666  Phone (213) 6786281
Print in USA, 2774
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