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2013 VCAA Physics Exam Solutions

Copyright 2013 itute.com

Area of study Motion in one and two dimensions


Q1a a = g sin 10 1.7 m s

Q5b At the lowest point S the two external forces on the mass are
the upward tension force T of the rod and the downward force of
mv 2
2.0 7.0 2
gravity mg, and T mg =
, T 2.0 10 =
r
1.0
.: T 1.2 10 2 N

-2

Alternative method: s = 3.5 , u = 0 , t = 2.0 , s = ut +

1 2
at
2

a 1.8 m s-2

1 2
3.5
at , .: a =
2
18
Let F f be the force of friction on the block.

Q1b s = 3.5 , u = 0 , t = 2.0 , s = ut +

Fnet = ma , mg sin F f = ma , 0.50 10 sin 10 F f = 0.50

Q5a The mass is in uniform (constant speed) circular motion.


.: the net force is centripetal, i.e. towards the centre of the circular
path, .: direction D.

Q6a Ebottom = E spring =

3.5
18

.: F f 0.77 N

1
1
2
k (x ) = 10 2.0 2 = 20 J
2
2

Q6b The total energy of the system is constant 20 J.


Emidpo int = Ekinetic + E spring + E gravity = Etotal

1
1
1.0 v 2 + 10 1.0 2 + 1.0 10 1.0 = 20 , .: v 3.2 m s-1
2
2

Q2a Fm1 = m1 g = 2.0 10 = 20 N

Q2b Net force on the system = Fm1 = 20 N


Fnet
= 2.5 m s-2
Fnet = (m1 + m2 )a , a =
m1 + m2
Consider m2 only: Fnet = ma , T = 6.0 2.5 = 15 N
Q3a Total momentum after = total momentum before
= 2.0 6.0 + 4.0 0 = 12 kg m s-1

p
12
=
= 2.0 m s-1
m 2.0 + 4.0
1
1
Eafter = mv 2 = (2.0 + 4.0) 2.0 2 = 12 J
2
2
1
Ebefore = 2.0 6.0 2 + 0 = 36 J
2
Eafter Ebefore , .: inelastic

Q3b vafter =

Q3c Impulse on m1 = p of m1 = 2.0+ 2.0 2.0+ 6.0= 8.0 Ns,


i.e. 8.0 Ns to the left.
Q4a

Q6c The mistake made by the student was to take the spring
potential energy as zero at position Q.
1
It should be 10 0.52 = 1.25 J at position Q and
2
1
2
10 1.5 = 11.25 J at position P.
2
The total energy is 11.25 J at both positions.
Q7a Period = 24 hours = 86400 s

GMT 2
r 3 GM

,
s,
r
=
Q7b 2 =
T
=
86400
2
T
4 2
4

3
4.2 10 7 m

Q7c The astronaut is not weightless because the force of gravity is


on her.
The force of gravity, i.e. her weight is given by 65g newtons and g
is the gravitational field strength of the earth at the orbit.
She is on board the orbiting satellite, .: she is in free fall and
experiences apparent weightlessness.
Q8a Vertical component: s = 15 , u = 20 sin 30 = 10 , a = 10 ,
1
s = ut + at 2 , 5t 2 10t 15 = 0 , 5(t 3)(t + 1) = 0 , t = 3.0 s
2
Q8b Vertical component: u = 10 , a = 10 , t = 3.0 ,
v = u + at = 20
Horizontal component: v = 20 cos 30 17.32

Q4b

.: magnitude of velocity 20 2 + 17.32 2 26 m s-1


20
direction tan 1
49 to the horizontal
17.32

v2
50 2
=
= 1.25
r
2000
a
1.25
tan = , = tan 1
7.1
g
10

a=

1
2013 VCAA Physics Exam Solutions Copyright 2013 itute.com

Area of study Electronics and photonics


Q9 When Rvar iable = 0 , Vmax = 15 V; when Rvar iable = 10 k ,
5.0
Vmin =
15 = 5.0 V
5.0 + 10
The output ranges from 5.0 to 15 V.
Q10

Total resistance = 50 +

1
50

1
+ 50 = 125
+ 501

Q15b VR = 18 2 25 V peak
Q15c Pav =

2
VRMS
182
=
= 0.27 W
R
1200

Q15d As the switch is closed, current in the primary coil increases


to a constant value in a short interval and the magnetic field in the
core increases. This causes a change in the magnetic flux through
the secondary coil and a short pulse of current is induced in the
secondary coil and the resistor according to Faradays law of
electromagnetic induction. When the current in the primary coil
becomes constant, the magnetic field in the core becomes constant,
the magnetic flux through the secondary coil becomes constant and
.: no induced current in the resistor.
Q16a The current flows from W to X and the magnetic field is to
the right, .: the force on WX is downwards and the force on YZ is
upwards. The two forces cause the rectangular coil to rotate
anticlockwise as viewed by Mary.

V
2.5
Q11a R = =
= 500
I 5.0 10 3
1.0
= 200
5.0 10 3
Temperature = 20 C from graph

Q11b Rtherm =

10
= 2000
5.0 10 3
Light intensity = 15 lux from graph

Q17a t = 1.5 1.0 = 0.5 s, = 0.6 0.2 = 0.4 Wb

Q11d The buzzer will turn off when the voltage across the resistor
is 2.4 V or lower.
A possible change: Decrease the light intensity to increase RLDR ,
.: higher voltage across the LDR and lower voltage across the
resistor.
Another possible change: Increase the temperature to increase
Rtherm , .: higher voltage across the thermistor and lower voltage
across the resistor.

av =

0.4
0.8
= 0.8 V, .: I av = av =
= 8A
0.5
R
0.1

Q17b = 0 when the rate of change of flux is zero, i.e. when


t = 0.5 , 1.0, 1.5 s
Q17c

Q12a I = 10 mA, VLED = 2.0 V from graph

I induced

VR = 10 103 450 = 4.5 V, .: Vbattery = 2.0 + 4.5 = 6.5 V


Q12b Electric potential energy of the charges is transferred to the
LED and emitted in the form of light, and to the resistor and
emitted as heat.
Q13a gain = gradient =

Q16c No, the operation would not improve. The rectangular coil
will oscillate with decreasing (due to friction) amplitude and
eventually come to a stop with the loop in a vertical position.

Q11c RLDR =

Q16b F = nBIL = 20 500 10 3 0.50 5.0 10 2 = 0.25 N

8
= 400
20 10 3

Q13b It is described as inverting because it gives an output which


is the inversion of the input.

When the ring moves downwards towards the N pole of the


magnet, the upward flux through the ring increases and a current is
induced in the ring. The induced current flows in the clockwise
direction as predicted by Lenzs law, viewing from above.
Q17d. The magnetic flux through the ring is always upwards. It is
the least at A and B, and the most at C.

Position of ring
at point A
at point C
at point B

Area of study Electric power


Q14

Time (s)
0, 2.0
0.5, 1.5, 2.5
1.0

Q18a Vdrop = IR , 24 = 6.0 R , R = 4.0


Q18b Pout = Vout I , 1200 = Vout 6.0 , Vout = 200 V
Q18c Ploss = Vdrop I = 24 6.0 = 144 W 140 W

Q15a VR = Vsec ondary ,


.: VR = 18 V RMS

Vsec ondary
V primary

N sec ondary
N primary

V
6000
, R =
3.0 1000

.:

144
Ploss Ploss
=
=
= 0.12 = 12%
Pin
Pout 1200

Q18d Vdrop = IR , 10 = I 2.0 , I = 5.0 A

Pout = Vout I , 1200 = Vout 5.0 , Vout = 240 V


2013 VCAA Physics Exam Solutions Copyright 2013 itute.com

Area of study Interactions of light and matter

) (

Q23a p =

Q19a E = hf = 6.63 10 34 6.7 1014 4.4 10 19 J

c
3.0 108
Q19b = =
4.5 10 7 m
f 6.7 1014
Q20a Longest wavelength corresponds to lowest energy which is
3.19 2.11 = 1.08 eV.
hc
4.14 10 15 3.0 108
=
=
1.15 10 6 m
E
1.08

Q20b E =

) (

hc

(4.14 10 ) (3.0 10 ) 2.11 eV


15

) (

Q23b Student A is correct.


Since the extent of diffraction is proportional to the wavelength,
same fringe spacing means the wavelengths of X-rays and
h
electrons are the same. Since p =
.: X-rays and electrons have

the same momentum.

Detailed study 1 Einsteins special relativity

588.63 10 9
The spectral line at 588.63 nm comes from the transition of the
sodium atom from the first excited state to the ground state.

E 80 103 1.6 10 19
=
4.3 10 23 kg m s-1
c
3.0 108

Q21a E K ,max = 1.6 10 19 1.85 = 3.0 10 19 J

) (

Q21b E K ,max = hf W , 1.85 = 4.14 10 15 1.00 1015 W


.: W = 2.29 eV

1
D

2
A

4
D

5
C

6
A

7
D

8
C

9
A

10
B

Q2 (340 + v ) 0.0857 = 30 , v = 10
(340 v ) 0.0909 = 30 , v = 10

11
C
A

Q3 Ek + Erest = mc 2 , E k + mo c 2 = mc 2 , Ek = (m mo )c 2

) (

.: Ek = 5.1 10 27 1.7 10 27 3.0 108


= 1

v2
Lo
c2

1
Lo , .:
2

Lo

Q5 L =

Q21c

3
A

Given L =

3.1 10 10 J

v2 1 v
3
3
, v=
= , =
c
c2 2 c
2
2

Q6 Etotal = mc 2 = moc 2 = 2.17 10 10

mo 10.0 3.0 108


Q21d Emission of electrons occurs when E K ,max = hf W > 0 , i.e.

hf > W . No electrons will be emitted if the frequency of light is


W
reduced to a value f <
regardless of the size or sign of the
h
voltage.
Q22a Light from the same source passes through the two slits, .:
light from S1 and light from S2 are in phase at the slits. At the exact
centre of the pattern the distances from S1 and S2 are the same, .: a
bright band is formed due to constructive interference of the lights
arriving at the centre position in phase.
Q22b Lower frequency corresponds to longer wavelength.
L
Since x =
, .: the separation between two adjacent bright (or
d
dark) bands x increases as increases.
D

Q22d The statement is incorrect. Interference is a typical property


of waves. Youngs double-slit experiment demonstrates that light
interferes, showing the wave behaviour of light. .: It supports the
wave model of light.

= 2.17 10 10 , mo 2.41 10 28 kg

( [

])

Q10 t = to = 1 + 5 10 11 1

Q11 The measured vertical distance is not affected by the


horizontal motion of the satellite.

Detailed study 2 Materials and their use in structures


1
D

2
C

3
B

4
D

5
A

6
C

7
C

8
D

9
A

Q1 Youngs modulus for steel P


40 10 6
= gradient =
= 4.0 1010 Pa
1.0 10 3

) (

10
B

11
B

Q2 F = A = 50 10 6 4.0 10 2 = 2.0 10 6 N
6

Mass =

Q22c For the second bright band, path difference = 2 .


.: 2 = 1.4 103 10 9 , = 7.0 10 7 m
For the first dark band,
7.0 107
path difference = =
= 3.5 10 7 m
2
2

F 2.0 10
=
= 2.0 105 kg
g
10

Q3 Strain energy of steel S


1
1
= = 20 10 6 1.5 10 3 = 1.5 10 4 J m-3
2
2

) (

F mg 1000 10
= 2.5 105 Pa
=
=
A
A
4.0 10 2
30 10 6
Youngs modulus for steel P = gradient =
= 2.0 1010 Pa
1.5 10 3

2.5 105
.: =
=
= 1.25 10 5
mod 2.0 1010
.: l = l = 20 1.25 10 5 = 2.5 10 4 m = 0.25 mm
A
Q5 =

2013 VCAA Physics Exam Solutions Copyright 2013 itute.com

Q6 = Fd = 20 10 3.0 = 600 N m

Q7 In equilibrium:
net anticlockwise torque about P = net clockwise torque about P
C
4.0T = 100 1.5 + 200 3.0 , T 190 N
Q8 Let Fbeam be the force on the beam by the support.
In equilibrium:
net anticlockwise torque about K = net clockwise torque about K
Fbeam 2.0 = 40000 3.0 + 10000 6.0 , Fbeam = 90000 N
.: force on the support = 90000 N
D
Q11 Cables cannot be in compression.

Q8
1

after

hc

before

1
C

2
C

3
B

4
D

5
B

6
D

7
C

8
A

9
B

10
C

Q1 Period = 10 ms = 1 10 2 s,
1
1
=
= 100 Hz
frequency =
period 1 10 2

11
B

Q3 V = 12 0.7 2 = 10.6 V

Q4 63% of 20 V = 12.6 V, this corresponds to t 2.1 s


RC = , 10 103 C 2.1 , C 210 10 6 F = 210 F

hc

after

+ Ek ,

after

before

Ek
,
hc

1
74 103
,

12
6.9 10
4.14 10 15 3.0 108

)(

.: after 12 1012 m
Q11 r =

mV
1.6 10 18
p
, B=
=
= 0.25 T
eB
er 1.6 10 19 40

Detailed study 5 Photonics


1
B

Detailed study 3 Further electronics

2
D

3
D

4
C

5
D

6
B

7
C

)(

hc 4.14 10 15 3.0 108


=
E
2.1
9
590 10 m = 590 nm

Q2 =

Q5 sin c =

ncladding
ncore

8
D

9
A

10
B

11
D

)
D

1.38
1.38
, c = sin 1
72
1.45
1.45

Q6 A smaller cladding index (type X) will result in a smaller


critical angle at the core-cladding interface, and .: a greater
acceptance angle.
B

Q5 When the capacitor is fully charged, V = 20 V.


Discharged by 63% of 20 V = 12.6 V, i.e. to 7.4 V in t 2.1 s. B

Q6 = RC = 100 100 10 6 = 0.01 s = 10 ms


V peak = 10 2 0.7 13.4 V

Q8 Resistor R1 : V = 9 5 = 4 V, I = 100 mA = 0.010 A


V
4
.: R1 = =
= 40
I 0.10

Detailed study 6 Sound


1
D

A
Q2

2
B

3
A

4
C

5
C

6
D

7
D

Q11 The Zener diode fails to regulate the voltage at 5 V.

Second harmonic f = 2 250 = 500 Hz

Detailed study 4 Synchrotron and its applications


1
A

2
B

Q1 F =

3
B

4
B

5
D

6
D

7
B

8
D

) (

) (

9
C

eV
1.6 10 19 90 103
=
= 7.2 1014 N
d
0.20

10
D

11
A
A

Q2 Ek = eV = 90 keV or 1.6 1019 90 103 = 1.44 10 14 J


or 1.44 10
Q6 d =

17

kJ

n
1 0.25 109
=
7.7 10 10 m
2 sin
2 sin 9.3

Q7 n < 2d sin 90 , n <

2d

2 0.3 109
= 1.5 , .: n = 1 B
0.4 109

10
C

v 335
=
= 250 Hz
1.34

I 2m
202
= 2 = 100
I 20 m
2

Q6 I back = 0.5% I front , .:

I front
L = 10 log10
I back

11
C
B

Q3 Fundamental frequency =

Q5

9
C

= 0.67 , = 1.34 m

Q9 Since = RC , increase R1 or C or both will decrease the


magnitude of the ripple voltage.
B
B

8
B

A
C

I front
I back

= 200

= 10 log10 200 23 dB

Q10 The 50 Hz sound at 80dB is on the 60 phon loudness curve.


On the same curve the 10000 Hz sound is at 70 dB.
C
Q11

= 0.96 , = 1.92 m, v = f = 500 1.92 = 960 m s-1

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2013 VCAA Physics Exam Solutions Copyright 2013 itute.com