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As we have discussed earlier in Chapter 1 that the transmission line parameters

include series resistance and inductance and shunt capacitance. In this chapter we shall

discuss the various models of the line. The line models are classified by their length. These

classifications are

Short line approximation for lines that are less than 80 km long.

Medium line approximation for lines whose lengths are between 80 km to 250 km.

Long line model for lines that are longer than 250 km.

These models will be discussed in this chapter. However before that let us introduce the

ABCD parameters that are used for relating the sending end voltage and current to the

receiving end voltage and currents.

2.1 ABCD PARAMETSRS

Consider the power system shown in Fig. 2.1. In this the sending and receiving end

voltages are denoted by VS and VR respectively. Also the currents IS and IR are entering and

leaving the network respectively. The sending end voltage and current are then defined in

terms of the ABCD parameters as

VS = AVR + BI R

I S = CVR + DI R

(2.1)

(2.2)

A=

VS

VR

(2.3)

I R =0

This implies that A is the ratio of sending end voltage to the open circuit receiving end

voltage. This quantity is dimension less. Similarly,

B=

VS

IR

(2.4)

VR = 0

i.e., B, given in Ohm, is the ratio of sending end voltage and short circuit receiving end

current. In a similar way we can also define

C=

IS

VR

mho

I R =0

(2.5)

1.31

D=

IS

IR V

(2.6)

R

=0

The shunt capacitance for a short line is almost negligible. The series impedance is

assumed to be lumped as shown in Fig. 2.2. If the impedance per km for an l km long line is

z0 = r + jx, then the total impedance of the line is Z = R + jX = lr + jlx. The sending end

voltage and current for this approximation are given by

VS = VR + ZI R

IS = IR

(2.7)

(2.8)

A = D = 1, B = Z and C = 0

(2.9)

Medium transmission lines are modeled with lumped shunt admittance. There are two

different representations nominal- and nominal-T depending on the nature of the network.

These two are discussed below.

2.2.1 Nominal- Representation

In this representation the lumped series impedance is placed in the middle while the

shunt admittance is divided into two equal parts and placed at the two ends. The nominal-

representation is shown in Fig. 2.3. This representation is used for load flow studies, as we

shall see later. Also a long transmission line can be modeled as an equivalent -network for

load flow studies.

1.32

Let us define three currents I1, I2 and I3 as indicated in Fig. 2.3. Applying KCL at

nodes M and N we get

I s = I1 + I 2 = I1 + I 3 + I R

=

Y

Y

Vs + VR + I R

2

2

(2.10)

Again

Vs = ZI 2 + VR = Z VR + I R + VR

2

YZ

=

+ 1VR + ZI R

2

(2.11)

Is =

Y

Y YZ

+ 1VR + ZI R + VR + I R

2 2

YZ

YZ

= Y

+ 1VR +

+ 1 I R

4

(2.12)

Therefore from (2.11) and (2.12) we get the following ABCD parameters of the

nominal- representation

YZ

+ 1

A= D=

2

B=Z

YZ

C = Y

+ 1 mho

4

(2.13)

(2.14)

(2.15)

In this representation the shunt admittance is placed in the middle and the series

impedance is divided into two equal parts and these parts are placed on either side of the

shunt admittance. The nominal-T representation is shown in Fig. 2.4. Let us denote the

midpoint voltage as VM. Then the application of KCL at the midpoint results in

1.33

VS VM

V VR

= YVM + M

Z 2

Z 2

Rearranging the above equation can be written as

VM =

2

(VS + VR )

YZ + 4

(2.16)

IR =

VM VR

Z 2

(2.17)

YZ

YZ

Vs =

+ 1 I R

+ 1VR + Z

(2.18)

I S = YVM + I R

(2.19)

YZ

I R = YVR +

+ 1 I R

(2.20)

YZ

A= D=

+ 1

2

YZ

B = Z

+ 1

4

C = Y mho

(2.21)

(2.22)

(2.23)

1.34

2.3 LONG LINE MODEL

For accurate modeling of the transmission line we must not assume that the

parameters are lumped but are distributed throughout line. The single-line diagram of a long

transmission line is shown in Fig. 2.5. The length of the line is l. Let us consider a small strip

x that is at a distance x from the receiving end. The voltage and current at the end of the

strip are V and I respectively and the beginning of the strip are V + V and I + I

respectively. The voltage drop across the strip is then V. Since the length of the strip is x,

the series impedance and shunt admittance are z x and y x. It is to be noted here that the

total impedance and admittance of the line are

Z = z l and Y = y l

(2.24)

V = Iz x

V

= Iz

x

(2.25)

dV

= Iz

dx

(2.26)

Now for the current through the strip, applying KCL we get

I = (V + V ) y x = Vy x + Vy x

(2.27)

The second term of the above equation is the product of two small quantities and therefore

can be neglected. For x 0 we then have

dI

= Vy

dx

(2.28)

d dV

dx dx

dI

=z

dx

1.35

Substitution of (2.28) in the above equation results

d 2V

yzV = 0

dx 2

(2.29)

The roots of the above equation are located at (yz). Hence the solution of (2.29) is of the

form

V = A1e x

yz

+ A2e x

yz

(2.30)

dV

= A1 yz e x

dx

yz

A2 yz e x

yz

(2.31)

1 dV

I=

=

z dx

A1 x

e

z y

yz

A2 x

e

z y

yz

(2.32)

ZC =

z

which is called the characteristic impedance

y

(2.33)

(2.34)

Then (2.30) and (2.32) can be written in terms of the characteristic impedance and

propagation constant as

V = A1ex + A2e x

A

A

I = 1 ex 2 e x

ZC

ZC

(2.35)

(2.36)

Let us assume that x = 0. Then V = VR and I = IR. From (2.35) and (2.36) we then get

VR = A1 + A2

A A

IR = 1 2

ZC ZC

(2.37)

(2.38)

Solving (2.37) and (2.38) we get the following values for A1 and A2.

A1 =

VR + Z C I R

V ZC I R

and A2 = R

2

2

1.36

Also note that for l = x we have V = VS and I = IS. Therefore replacing x by l and substituting

the values of A1 and A2 in (2.35) and (2.36) we get

VR + Z C I R l VR Z C I R l

e +

e

2

2

V Z + I R l VR Z C I R l

IS = R C

e

e

2

2

VS =

(2.39)

(2.40)

Noting that

el e l

el + e l

= sinh l and

= cosh l

2

2

We can rewrite (2.39) and (2.40) as

VS = VR cosh l + Z C I R sinh l

sinh l

I S = VR

+ I R cosh l

ZC

(2.41)

(2.42)

The ABCD parameters of the long transmission line can then be written as

A = D = cosh l

B = Z C sinh l

sinh l

mho

C=

ZC

(2.43)

(2.44)

(2.45)

Example 2.1: Consider a 500 km long line for which the per kilometer line impedance

and admittance are given respectively by z = 0.1 + j0.5145 and y = j3.1734 106 mho.

Therefore

ZC =

z

=

y

0.1 + j 0.5145

0.524179

0.5241

79 90

=

=

6

6

6

j 3.1734 10

3.1734 10 90

3.1734 10

2

= 406.4024 5.5

and

79 + 90

= 0.644884.5 = 0.0618 + j 0.6419

We shall now use the following two formulas for evaluating the hyperbolic forms

cosh ( + j ) = cosh cos + j sinh sin

sinh ( + j ) = sinh cos + j cosh sin

Application of the above two equations results in the following values

1.37

cosh l = 0.8025 + j 0.037 and sinh l = 0.0495 + j 0.5998

Therefore from (2.43) to (2.45) the ABCD parameters of the system can be written as

A = D = 0.8025 + j 0.037

B = 43.4 + j 240.72

C = 2.01 10 5 + j 0.0015

The -equivalent of a long transmission line is shown Fig. 2.6. In this the series

impedance is denoted by Z while the shunt admittance is denoted by Y. From (2.21) to

(2.23) the ABCD parameters are defined as

YZ

A= D=

+ 1

2

B = Z

YZ

C = Y

+ 1 mho

4

(2.46)

(2.47)

(2.48)

Z = Z C sinh l =

z

sinh l

sinh l

sinh l = zl

=Z

y

l

l yz

(2.49)

where Z = zl is the total impedance of the line. Again comparing (2.43) with (2.46) we get

cosh l =

YZ

Y

+1 =

Z C sinh l + 1

2

2

(2.50)

1 cosh l 1 1

Y

=

=

tanh (l 2 ) =

2 Z C sinh l

ZC

Y tanh (l 2 )

=

2 (l 2)

y

yl tanh (l 2 )

tanh (l 2) =

2 (l 2) yz

z

(2.51)

1.38

where Y = yl is the total admittance of the line. Note that for small values of l, sinh l = l and

tanh (l/2) = l/2. Therefore from (2.49) we get Z = Z and from (2.51) we get Y = Y. This

implies that when the length of the line is small, the nominal- representation with lumped

parameters is fairly accurate. However the lumped parameter representation becomes

erroneous as the length of the line increases. The following example illustrates this.

Example 2.2: Consider the transmission line given in Example 2.1. The equivalent

system parameters for both lumped and distributed parameter representation are given in

Table 2.1 for three different line lengths. It can be seen that the error between the parameters

increases as the line length increases.

Table 2.1 Variation in equivalent parameters as the line length changes.

Length of

the line

(km)

Lumped parameters

Distributed parameters

Z ()

Y (mho)

Y (mho)

100

52.4179

3.1710490

52.2779

3.1710489.98

250

131.03279

7.9310490 128.8179.2

8.010489.9

500

262.06479

1.5810390 244.6179.8

1.6410389.6

For a lossless line, the line resistance is assumed to be zero. The characteristic

impedance then becomes a pure real number and it is often referred to as the surge

impedance. The propagation constant becomes a pure imaginary number. Defining the

propagation constant as = j and replacing l by x we can rewrite (2.41) and (2.42) as

V = VR cos x + jZ C I R sin x

sin x

I = jVR

+ I R cos x

ZC

(2.52)

(2.53)

The term surge impedance loading or SIL is often used to indicate the nominal

capacity of the line. The surge impedance is the ratio of voltage and current at any point

along an infinitely long line. The term SIL or natural power is a measure of power delivered

by a transmission line when terminated by surge impedance and is given by

SIL = Pn =

V02

ZC

(2.54)

At SIL ZC = VR/IR and hence from equations (2.52) and (2.53) we get

V = V R e x = V R e jx

(2.55)

1.39

I = I R ex = I R e jx

(2.56)

This implies that as the distance x changes, the magnitudes of the voltage and current in the

above equations do not change. The voltage then has a flat profile all along the line. Also as

ZC is real, V and I are in phase with each other all through out the line. The phase angle

difference between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage is then = l. This

is shown in Fig. 2.7.

For the analysis presented below we assume that the magnitudes of the voltages at the

two ends are the same. The sending and receiving voltages are given by

VS = VS and VR = VR 0o

(2.57)

where is angle between the sources and is usually called the load angle. As the total length

of the line is l, we replace x by l to obtain the sending end voltage from (2.39) as

VS = VS =

VR + Z C I R j VR Z C I R j

e +

e = VR cos + jZ C I R sin

2

2

(2.58)

IR =

VS VR cos

jZ C sin

(2.59)

Substituting (2.59) in (2.52), the voltage equation at a point in the transmission line that is at

a distance x from the receiving end is obtained as

V = VR cos x +

VS VR cos

V sin x + VR sin ( x )

( jZ C sin x ) = S

jZ C sin

sin

(2.60)

I=

j VS cos x VR cos( x )

ZC

sin

(2.61)

1.40

Example 2.3: Consider a 500 km long line given in Example 2.1. Neglect the line

resistance such that the line impedance is z = j0.5145 per kilometer. The line admittance

remains the same as that given in Example 2.1. Then

ZC =

z

=

y

j 0.5145

= 402.6524

j 3.1734 10 6

and

Therefore = l = 0.6380 rad. It is assumed that the magnitude of the sending and receiving

end voltages are equal to 1.0 per unit with the line being unloaded, i.e., VS = VR = 10 per

unit. The voltage and current profiles of the line for this condition is shown in Fig. 2.8. The

maximum voltage is 1.0533 per unit, while the current varies between 0.3308 per unit to

0.3308 per unit. Note that 1 per unit current is equal to 1/ZC.

When the system is unloaded, the receiving end current is zero (IR = 0). Therefore we

can rewrite (2.58) as

VS = VS = VR cos

(2.62)

Substituting the above equation in (2.52) and (2.53) we get the voltage and current for the

unloaded system as

V=

VS

cos x

cos

(2.63)

1.41

I=

j VS

sin x

Z C cos

(2.64)

Example 2.4: Consider the system given in Example 2.3. It is assumed that the system

is unloaded with VS = VR = 10 per unit. The voltage and current profiles for the unloaded

system is shown in Fig. 2.9. The maximum voltage of 1.2457 per unit occurs at the receiving

end while the maximum current of 0.7428 per unit is at the sending end. The current falls

monotonically from the sending end and voltage rises monotonically to the receiving end.

This rise in voltage under unloaded or lightly loaded condition is called Ferranti effect.

Fig. 2.9 Voltage and current profile over an unloaded transmission line.

The mid point voltage of a transmission line is of significance for the reactive

compensation of transmission lines. To obtain an expression of the mid point voltage, let us

assume that the line is loaded (i.e., the load angle is not equal to zero). At the mid point of

the line we have x = l/2 such that x = /2. Let us denote the midpoint voltage by VM. Let us

also assume that the line is symmetric, i.e., VS = VR = V. We can then rewrite equation

(2.60) to obtain

VM =

(V + V )sin ( 2)

sin

V + V = V (cos + j sin + 1)

sin

= V 2 + 2 cos tan 1

= 2V cos( 2)( 2)

1 + cos

1.42

we obtain the following expression of the mid point voltage

VM =

V cos( 2 )

2

cos( 2 )

( )

(2.65)

IM =

j (V V ) cos( 2 ) V sin( 2 )

= Z sin( 2 ) 2

sin

Z C

( )

(2.66)

The phase angle of the mid point voltage is half the load angle always. Also the mid point

voltage and current are in phase, i.e., the power factor at this point is unity. The variation in

the magnitude of voltage with changes in load angle is maximum at the mid point. The

voltage at this point decreases with the increase in . Also as the power through a lossless line

is constant through out its length and the mid point power factor is unity, the mid point

current increases with an increase in .

Example 2.5: Consider the transmission line discussed in Example 2.4. Assuming the

magnitudes of both sending and receiving end voltages to be 1.0 per unit, we can compute the

magnitude of the mid point voltage as the load angle () changes. This is given in Table 2.2.

The variation in voltage with is shown in Fig. 2.10.

Table 2.2 Changes in the mid point voltage magnitude with load angle

in degree

20

25

30

VM in per unit

1.0373

1.0283

1.0174

It is of some interest to find the Thevenin equivalent of the transmission line looking

from the mid point. It is needless to say that the Thevenin voltage will be the same as the mid

point voltage. To determine the Thevenin impedance we first find the short circuit current at

the mid point terminals. This is computed through superposition principle, as the short circuit

current will flow from both the sources connected at the two ends. From (2.52) we compute

the short circuit current due to source VS (= V) as

I SC1 =

V

jZ C sin ( 2 )

(2.67)

I SC 2 =

Thus we have

V

jZ C sin( 2 )

(2.68)

1.43

I SC = I SC1 + I SC 2 =

2V cos( 2 )

V + V

=

2

jZ C sin( 2 ) jZ C sin( 2 )

( )

(2.69)

Z TH = jX TH =

( )

Z

VM

= j C tan

2

2

I SC

(2.70)

The power flow through a lossless line can be given by the mid point voltage and

current equations given in (2.66) and (2.67). Since the power factor at this point is unity, real

power over the line is given by

Pe = V M I M =

V2

sin

Z C sin

(2.71)

If V = V0, the rated voltage we can rewrite the above expression in terms of the natural power

as

Pe =

Pn

sin

sin

(2.72)

Z C sin Z C = l lc = l = X

c

(2.73)

1.44

where X is the total reactance of the line. Equation (2.71) then can be modified to obtain the

well known power transfer relation for the short line approximation as

Pe =

V2

sin

X

(2.74)

In general it is not necessary for the magnitudes of the sending and receiving end

voltages to be same. The power transfer relation given in (2.72) will not be valid in that case.

To derive a general expression for power transfer, we assume

V S = V S and V R = V R 0 o

If the receiving end real and reactive powers are denoted by PR and QR respectively, we can

write from (2.52)

V S = V S (cos + j sin ) = V R cos + jZ C

PR jQ R

sin

VR

V S cos = V R cos +

Z CQR

sin

VR

(2.75)

and

V S sin =

Z C PR

sin

VR

(2.76)

Rearranging (2.76) we get the power flow equation for a losslees line as

Pe = PS = PR =

VS VR

Z C sin

sin

(2.77)

To derive expressions for the reactive powers, we rearrange (2.75) to obtain the

reactive power delivered to the receiving end as

2

QR =

V S V R cos V R cos

Z C sin

(2.78)

IS =

j V S cos V R

sin

ZC

(2.79)

1.45

2

V S cos

V S V R

j V S cos V R

PS + jQ S = V S I = V S

j

= j

ZC

sin

Z C sin

Z C sin

Equating the imaginary parts of the above equation we get the following expression for the

reactive generated by the source

2

QS =

V S cos V S V R cos

(2.80)

Z C sin

QL = QS QR

(V

=

+ VR

)cos 2 V

V R cos

Z C sin

(2.81)

It is important to note that if the magnitude of the voltage at the two ends is equal, i.e.,

VS = VR = V, the reactive powers at the two ends become negative of each other, i.e.,

QS = QR. The net reactive power absorbed by the line then becomes twice the sending end

reactive power, i.e., QL = 2QS. Furthermore, since cos 1for small values of , the reactive

powers at the two ends for a short transmission line are given by

QS =

V 2 cos V 2 cos V 2

(1 cos ) = QR

Z C sin

X

(2.82)

The reactive power absorbed by the line under this condition is given by

QL =

2V 2

(1 cos )

X

(2.83)

Example 2.5: Consider a short, lossless transmission line with a line reactance of 0.5

per unit. We assume that the magnitudes of both sending and receiving end voltages to be 1.0

per unit. The real power transfer over the line and reactive power consumed by the line are

shown in Fig. 2.11. The maximum real power is 2.0 per unit and it occurs for = 90. Also

the maximum reactive power consumed by the line occurs at = 180 and it has a value of 8

per unit.

1.46

Fig. 2.11 Real power flow and reactive power consumed by a transmission line.

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