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Ahmad Mo'men Moneib
Zagazig University

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Geolog
y

Firstly Answers of geology of Egypt:


1 Draw a map for Egypt, Highlighting the main provinces and cities.
2 Write the geologic column and the stratigraphic column of GOS, WD,
and Nile delta
3 Mention 5 fields in GOS and mention the horizon of production
In kareem rodies formations

Morgan
Belayim land
Belayim marine
Ramdan
Shoab Ali
Zeit bay

4 what is the major types of traps in GOS


The fields in Gulf of Suez is mainly structural traps though some are
stratigraphic
5 What do you know about miscellaneous reservoirs and what is the
most famous example in Gulf of Suez?
It is reservoir formed from fragment igneous rocks that are found
mainly in GOS province in SUCO Company in Zeit Bay Field.
( fractured basement topped by basement wash )
6 Compare between the Egyptian Precambrian BIF and Phanerozoic
ironstone BIF
-

Definition: alteration between iron and silica layers


Age: Precambrian
Origin: could be metamorphosed
Localities:

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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Geolog
y

umm El Nar
G. El Hadid
Wadi El Dabbah
El Hamra Dome
Umm Khamis El Hamra
Umm Khamis Elzaraga

7 What is the major structure which separate between Tertiary and


Pre-tertiary in Nile Delta.
The Syrian arc fold belt
8 Correct the following statements:
- Umm Bogma formation is related to Cretaceous Age
Early carboniferous
- Jurassic sediments are well exposed in G. Maghara.
- The plant remains are called Trace Fossils.
fossils
- Zeit formation is related to the Pliocene Age.
Miocene
- The Genus may contain many orders.
Many Species
Kingdom Phyla Class Order Family Genus Species.
- Belayim formation is younger than Abu Roash formation. (True)
- Kareem formation is well developed in Abu Gharadig field.
Ras burdan
- Abu Madi formation is well developed in Gulf of Suez (GOS)
In Nile delta
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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- Sudr formation is very thick body of fine Sandstone in Gulf of Suez


(GOS).
Surd chalk
9 choose the correct answer
1. Um Baraka Field is in
a) Nile Delta.
b) Western Desert.
c) Gulf of Suez.
d) Sinai.
2. Known oil seeps exist in
a) AbuMadi.
b) Alamein.
c) Gemsa.
d) Abu Rudeis.
3. Shoaab Ali oil Field present: in
a) Western Desert.
b) Nile Delta.
c) Gulf of Suez.
4. Most of the gold mines in Egypt exist in
a) Western Desert.
b) Eastern Desert.
c) Sinai.
5. Which Oasis has iron ore?
a) El Kharga Oasis.
b) El Bahariya Oasis. ( middle Eocene ) ( el naqb formation)
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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c) Siwa Oasis.
d) Farafra Oasis.
6. Where is the known phosphate mining in Egypt?
a) Edfo.
b) Ras El Dip.
c) Abu Tartoor ) Dakhla- Gharga depression )W.D.
d) Badracheen.
7. Where is the oil shale Present in Egypt?
a) Ras Shukeir.
b) Gebel El Zeit.
c) Abu Tartoor Plateau.
d) Alexandria
8. Nearly the whole land surface of earth was covered by huge
sheet of ice during
a) Cambrian.
b) Precambrian.
c) Cretaceous.
d) Pleistocene.
e) Jurassic.
9. The Dead Sea is located in
a) Rift valley.
b) Canyon.
c) Between chains of mountains.
d) Intermountain plain.
10.
The age of economic coal bearing rocks in Egypt is
a) Cretaceous.
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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y

b) Carboniferous
c) Triassic.
d) Jurassic. .( Maghara, north Sinai, ( Bathonian )
11.
First vertebrates (Fishes( appeared in
a) Paleocene.
b) Devonian. ( Devonian, often known as the "Age of Fishes")
c) Ordovician.
d) Cambrian
12.
The Tethys Sea evaporated completely during
a) Eocene.
b) Middle Miocene.
c) Pliocene.
d) Oligocene.
13.
In which period the Red Sea was opened?
a) Eocene.
b) Tertiary.
c) Mesozoic.
d) Proterozoic
14.
Syrian arc structures in Egypt date back to
a) Paleozoic time.
b) Miocene time.
c) Cretaceous.
d) Jurassic time
15.
The Gulf of Suez rift basin was formed due to:
a) Collision of Eurasia against Africa.
b) Subduction of Africa against Arabia.
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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y

c) Extension between Arabia and Africa.


16.

The Gulf of Suez was formed through:

Early Paleozoic.
Late Triassic.
Early Miocene.
17.

The Syrian Arc Structures are:

Tilted fault blocks.


Shallow Rift Basins.
Asymmetrical folds.
18.

Arrange the following ages chronologically (mark them1 to 5

where 1 is the oldest):


4Tertiary.
1 Cambrian.
2Triassic.
3 Jurassic.
5 Quaternary

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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y

Secondly definitions questions


1. Porosity: is the percentage of volume of pores to total volume of
the rock.
2. Effective porosity: it is the inter-connected pore voids contribute
to the flow of fluids or contribute to permeability in the reservoir.
3. Primary porosity: porosity preserved from deposition through
lithification.
4. Secondary porosity: occur by alteration due to processes like
dolomitization, dissolution, and fracturing.
5. Permeability: is the ability of rock to transmit fluids.
6. Absolute permeability: the ability of rock to transmit fluids when
69
7. Relative permeability: ratio of effective permeability of a
particular fluid at a particular saturation, to the absolute
permeability of that fluid at total saturation.
8. Sedimentary rocks: are rocks formed by sedimentation at the
earth's surface or within bodies of water.
9. Sedimentation: is the process in which * accumulation of
minerals &/or organic materials take place, or * precipitation of
minerals take place.
10.
Sediment: is the particle that accumulates to form the
sedimentary rock.
- Sediment was formed by weathering and erosion at source
area, then being transported to the place of deposition by
water, wind, mass movement and glaciers before being
deposited.
11.
Formation: is the basic unit of nomenclature in stratigraphy,
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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- Is a set of rocks that are common in distinctive features of


lithology and are horizontally continuous and is large enough
to be mapped.
- Can be divided into members and grouped together into
groups.
12.
Sequence: a group of relatively conformable strata, that are
represent a cycle of deposition, and are bounded by
unconformities or correlative conformities.
13.
Unconformity: a buried surface of erosion or non-deposition.
- Angular unconformity: A surface that separates younger strata
from eroded, dipping, older strata and represents a gap in the
geologic record.
- Non conformity: sedimentary strata overlaying igneous or
metamorphic rocks (in an erosion _non-intrusive _contact).
- Dis conformity: an irregular surface of erosion between two
parallel strata.
- Para conformity: a planar surface between two parallel strata
that represents a period of non-deposition but no erosion.
14.
Structure: It is a geologic feature produced by deformation
of the earth's crust, Such as fold or fault.
15.
Fault: It is a fracture or breaking in the rook in which the
rock mass on one side of the fracture moves relative to the rock
mass in the other side
16.
Normal fault: it is a type of fault in which the hanging wall
moves down relative to the foot wall.
17.
Reverse fault: it is a type of fault in which the hanging wall
moves up relative to the foot wall.

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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18.

Geolog
y

Thrust: it a type of reverse fault in which the angle is less

than 15 degree.
19.
Growth fault: Is a fault occur in sedimentary rocks,
contemporaneously and continuously with deposition, usually the
hanging wall thicker than the foot wall.
20.
Clysmic fault: It is a rift like what in the eastern part of the
Gulf of Suez*/8
21.
Fold: fold occurs when one or more of originally flat
surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a
result of plastic deformation.
22.
Structure contour map: A type of subsurface maps, its
contour lines represents the elevation of particular reservoir,
geologic layer, or geologic marker, generally beneath the
surface.
23.
Mud circulation: It is a process of pumping the mud down to
the bit and back up it to the surface in a drilling or work over
operation.
- In mud circulation process the mud starts at the mud tanks,
being pumped to the stand pipe through the pump, then to the
rotary hose, swivel. To Kelly or top drive, the bit and takes its
way to the surface again through annulus to the mud tanks.
24.
Mud log unite: A system that contains sophisticated
computers and sensors used to operate a quick and
comprehensive interpretation and evaluation of fluids, gases, and
cuttings on well site.

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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25.

Geolog
y

Lag time: It is the time between a chip being cut by the bit,

and the time it reaches to the surface where it examined by the


geologist or the mud logger.
26.
Attice oil: It is oil above the bore hole in horizontal well.
27.
Migration:
- Primary migration: the movement of the oil from the source
rock to the reservoiru rock.
- Secondary: from the reservoir to the trap
- Tertiary: from a trap to another, or along the reservoir.
28.
Archie Equation:
Sw = [ (a / m)*(Rw / Rt) ](1/n)
Sw: water saturation
: porosity
Rw: formation water resistivity
Rt: observed bulk resistivity
a: a constant (often taken to be 1)
m: cementation factor (varies around 2)
n: saturation exponent (generally 2)
29.
miscellaneous reservoirs
- It is reservoir formed from fragment igneous rocks that found
mainly in GOS province in SUCO Company in Zeit Bay Field.
( fractured basement topped by basement wash )
30.
Time rock units: A stratigraphic unit based on geologic age
or time of origin. Also known as chronolith; chronolithologic unit;
chronostratic unit; chronostratigraphic unit; time-rock unit.

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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31.

Geolog
y

Syrian arc structures in Egypt: A series of WSW-ENE

trending extensional basins were inverted, creating isolated


uplifted and folded areas known as 'Syrian arc' structures
32.
Mud cake: A caked layer of clay adhering to the walls of the
borehole, formed where the water in the drilling mud filtered into
a porous formation during rotary drilling.
33.
Kerogen: material neither petroleum nor coal but an
intermediate bitumen material with some of the properties of
both.
34.
Bitumen: Petroleum in semi-solid or solid forms.
35.
moh's scale: The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based
on the ability of one natural sample of matter to scratch another
mineral.
36.
Muting: Removing arrivals that are not primary reflections or
make them zero.
37.
Transit time: the time required for a sound pulse to travel a
fixed distance between a transmitter and receiver.
38.
Stacking: Stacking velocity is used to correct the arrival
times of events in the traces prior to summing.
39.
Common mid-point: It is the point at the surface half way
between the source and receiver, shared by numerous source
receiver pairs.
40.
Pull up: A phenomenon of relative seismic velocity strata
whereby, a shallow feature or layer (such as salt domes, salt
layer) of high seismic velocity is surrounded by rock with lower
seismic velocity caused what appears to be a structural high
beneath it.
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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41.

Geolog
y

Ghost multiple: A short path multiple or spurious reflection

that occurs when seismic energy initially reverberates up-ward


from a shallow subsurface and then is reflected downward, such
as between source and receivers and see surface.
42.
Trap
- The place where oil or gas is barred from further movement.
43.
Crest culmination
It is the highest point in the trap
44.
Spill point
It is the lowest point in the trap at which H.C. may be
45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

contained, it lies at a horizontal contour on a horizontal plane


Closure
The vertical distance from the crest to the spill point.
Bottom water
It is the zone immediately beneath the petroleum
Edge zone
It is the zone of the reservoir laterally adjacent to the trap.
The pay
It is the productive reservoir within the trap
Gross pay
It is the vertical distance from the top of the reservoir to the

oil water contact.


50.
Net pay
It is the cumulative vertical thickness of the reservoir from
51.

which H.C. may be produced.


Fossil: a relic, remnant, or representation of an organism

that existed in a past geological age, or of the activity of such an


organism, occurring in the form of mineralized bones, shells, etc,
as casts, impressions, and moulds, and as frozen perfectly
preserved organisms.
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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52.

Geolog
y

Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils are geological records

of biological activity. Trace fossils may be impressions made on


the substrate by an organism: for example, burrows borings
footprints and feeding marks, and root cavities.
53.
Index fossils: They Are fossils that used in defining and
identifying time periods or faunal stages. They must be
commonly found, widely distributed, and limited in time span.
54.
Argillaceous deposits: Containing, made of, or resembling
clay; clayey.
55.
Argillaceous sandstone: sandstone containing much clay.
56.
diagenesis : The physical, chemical or biological alteration
of sediments into sedimentary rock at relatively low
temperatures and pressures that can result in changes to the
rock's original mineralogy and texture.
57.
Erosion: The process of denudation of rocks, including
physical, chemical and biological breakdown and transportation.
58.
Interval velocity:
59.
Reflection coefficient:
60.
Snell's low: (sin0 1/ sin0 2 ) = ( v1/ v2 )
61.
Normal move out (NMO):
62.
Seismic Survey
63.
Seismic waves
64.
Body waves:
65.
P-Waves = Primary waves, the particle motion in the
direction of wave propagation, its faster than S-waves and
propagate through fluids.
66.
S-Waves = Secondary waves, the particle motion is
perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation; its slower
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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y

than P-waves and faster than Surface waves and cant propagate
through fluids.
67.
Surface waves
68.
Seismic noises:
69.
Seismic trace
70.
Seismogram
Third Petroleum geology
1. 1 Define
1. Crest culmination
It is the highest point in the trap
2. Spill point
It is the lowest point in the trap at which H.C. may be
contained, it lies at a horizontal contour on a horizontal plane
3. Closure
The vertical distance from the crest to the spill point.
4. Bottom water
It is the zone immediately beneath the petroleum
5. Edge zone
It is the zone of the reservoir laterally adjacent to the trap.
6. The pay
It is the productive reservoir within the trap
7. Gross pay
It is the vertical distance from the top of the reservoir to the
oil water contact.
8. Net pay
It is the cumulative vertical thickness of the reservoir from
which H.C.S may be produced.
9. Trap
The place where oil or gas is barred from further movement.

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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Geolog
y

10. Source rock: The source rock is a formation structurally and


chronologically placed to provide a source of petroleum for the
reservoir.
11. Formation:
It is the basic unit of nomenclature in stratigraphy,
It is a set of rocks that are common in distinctive features of
lithology and is horizontally continuous and is large enough to
be mapped.
It can be divided into members and grouped together into
groups.
12. Mud logging (Mud logging unite)
A system that contains sophisticated computers and sensors
used to operate a quick and comprehensive interpretation and
evaluation of fluids, gases, and cuttings on well site.
13. Mud circulation
It is a process of pumping the mud down to the bit and back
up it to the surface in a drilling or work over operation.
In mud circulation process the mud starts at the mud tanks,
being pumped to the stand pipe through the pump, then to
the rotary hose, swivel. To Kelly or top drive, the bit and takes
its way to the surface again through annulus to the mud
tanks.
14. Attic oil
It is oil above the bore hole in horizontal well.
15. Lag Time
It is the time between a chip being cut by the bit, and the
time it reaches to the surface where it examined by the
geologist or the mud logger.
16. Migration
Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

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y

Primary migration: the movement of the oil from the source


rock to the reservoir rock.
Secondary: from the reservoir to the trap
Tertiary: from a trap to another, or along the reservoir.
17. Porosity:
is the percentage of volume of pores voids to total volume of
the rock.
18. Effective porosity:
It is the inter-connected pore voids contribute to the flow of
fluids or contribute to permeability in the reservoir.
19. Primary porosity:
Porosity preserved from deposition through lithification.
20. Secondary porosity:
It is occur by alteration due to processes like dolomitization,
dissolution, and fracturing.
21. Permeability:
It is the ability of rock to transmit fluids.
22. Absolute permeability:
It is the ability of rock to transmit fluids when single fluid or
phase is present.
23. Effective permeability:
It is the preferentially ability to transmit a single fluid, when
other immiscible fluids are present in the reservoir.
24. Relative permeability
It is the ratio of effective permeability of a particular fluid at a
particular saturation, to the absolute permeability of that fluid
at total saturation.
2. mention 5 fields in GOS and mention the horizon of production
In kareem-rodies formations

Geo. Ahmed Momen Moneeb

Dec. 2012

Morgan
Belayim land
Belayim marine
Ramdan
Shoab Ali
Zeit bay
3. what is the major type of traps in GOS
- The fields in Gulf of Suez is mainly structural traps
though some are stratigraphic
4. what are the favorable conditions to form oil
Mature source rock rich with organic matter
Reservoir rock with optimal characters of porosity,
permeability, and lateral extension.
Good seal or cap rock to form a trap system
5. What do you know about miscellaneous reservoirs
and what is the most famous example in Gulf of
Suez?
It is reservoir formed from fragment igneous rocks
that found mainly in GOS province in SUCO
Company in Zeit Bay Field. ( fractured basement
topped by basement wash )
6. How do we measure the Mud cake thickness?
Using caliper log.
7. How many geophysical methods are there? (Name
them).
1. Gravity methods
2. Radiometric methods
3. Magnetic methods
4. Electric methods
SP methods
Resistivity
IP methods
5. Electromagnetic methods
VLF
GPR
6. Seismic methods

Seismic reflection
Seismic refraction
7. Well logging methods
1. GR log
2. Electric logs
SP log
Resistivity log
3. Porosity logs
Density log
Neutron log
Sonic log
4. Caliper log
5. Dipmeter log
6. Thermal log
8. Although shale is not regarded as a reservoir because
its permeability is almost nothing, hydrocarbons
might move from the source rock shale by one or
more of the following causes select:
Through shale fissility.
Through micro-permeability caused by sand size
fraction content.
By high pore pressure associating
hydrocarbon maturity and increasing distance
between grain boundaries
9. Porosity of shales for a geologic environment which is
characterized by continuous, uninterrupted
deposition and normal pore pressure:
a) Increases linearly with increasing depth.
b) Decreases linearly with increasing depth.
c) Decreases basically exponentially with increasing
depth.
d) Exhibits an inversely proportional behavior to
density.

e) A and D above.
f) C and D above.
10.

The diagenesis of montmorillonite to illite and

mixed-layer clays:
a) Requires only particular conditions of temperature.
b) Occurs only at depths normally exceeding 5000 ft.
c) Occurs only after most free pore water has been
expelled.
d) Requires particular conditions of temperature and
(somewhat) pressure and the availability of
potass[=ium ions.
e) May occur at relatively shallow depths.
f) B, C and D above.
g) D and E above.
11.

During compaction, particularly shales, free

pore water is expelled:


a) Towards the depositional surface.
b) In any direction including downwards.
c) In a linear fasion.
d) In several stages.
e) A and D.
f) B and C.
12.

The most common reservoirs are:

Sandstone and Carbonate rocks.


Shale and Sandstone rocks.
Anhydrite and Dolomite rocks.
13.

Shale is:

Compaction processing of clay minerals.

Made of Calcium Carbonate and Sodium Sulphate.


Originated in deep marine water.
14.

Anhydrite plays an important role as:

Reservoir potential rocks.


Good source rocks.
As ultimate scaling rocks.
15.

The oil can be trapped in the:

Structure trap only.


Structure and stratigraphic traps.
Stratigraphic traps only.
16.

Briefly explain two criteria to distinguish

between shallow marine and deep marine


environments.
Marine deposits
Life of the Sea zones:
o Littoral or Tidal Zone: Difficult living conditions
because of the strong wave action so organisms
must be attached or buried
o Neritic Zone: It is the most life area in marine,
Sea in this area is lighted & there is abundance
of food
o Bathyal Zone: No light or very little, so plant life
is rare but it has animal population which called
Bottom Living Seavengers
o Abyssal Zone: No light, near freezing temp. &
pressure reach to Ton/inch2 (specialized
creatures can live at this depth)
Marine Sediments:
Marine Shoreline Environments:
Much siliclastic sediments can be deposited in marine
shoreline. Beaches & Barriers developed in areas of

high wave action. Beaches are linear belts of sand


along beach where Barriers are separated from land
by lagoon.
Shallow Marine (Neritic Zone(
Coarser materials are deposited near shore & grade
into finer deposits upward. Shallow marine sediments
are made of sediments derived from land by ways of
Stream, Glaciers or Aeolian Sediments may consist of
remains of organisms & chemical precipitates.
Structural features: usually lenticular beds. Ripple,
currents marks have great variation in trend &
extension. Sea floor has steep slopes, so sediments
may slump &develop crimpled & irregular bedding
planes
Intermediate Seas (Bathyal deposits)
At the continental slope, & covered by fine sediments
of land origin which called Blue Muds. The presence
of Blue
Muds color is due to presence of organic matter &
also to De]Oxided conditions of Iron. Blue Muds may
cover over 20 million Km2 of the ocean basin.
Deep Marine (Abyssal Deposits)
Many types of sediment are Volcanic, pelagic &
meteoric origin. Very poorly sorted, Set in motion by
storms and quakes, Calcareous and siliceous oozes.
In greatest depth of ocean, the bottom is covered by
Fine Red Clay which composed of Calcareous to
siliceous to terrestrial clay, Shells & other organic
matters.
17.
How can you explain presence of dry reservoir
although there is Source rock, Reservoir rock and

Trap?
- Immature source rock
- The hydrocarbon may seep out of the trap
- The trap has been later than the migration of the H.C.
s.
- Migration of the H.C.s to another trap
18.
Write briefly on the types of kerogen and the
composition of generated HC from each.
composition of generated HC from each Kerogen
is a mixture of organic chemical compounds that
make up a portion of the organic matter in
sedimentary rocks.[1] It is insoluble in normal
organic solvents because of the huge molecular
weight (upwards of 1,000 daltons or 1000 Da;
1Da= 1 atomic mass unit) of its component
compounds. The soluble portion is known as
bitumen. When heated to the right temperatures
in the Earth's crust, (oil window ca. 60160 C, gas
window ca. 150200 C, both depending on how
quickly the source rock is heated) some types of
kerogen release crude oil or natural gas,
collectively known as hydrocarbons (fossil fuels).
When such kerogens are present in high
concentration in rocks such as shale they form
possible source...
Type I: Sapropelic: Shows great tendency to
readily produce liquid hydrocarbons.
Type II: Planktonic: Tends to produce a mix of gas
and oil.
Type IIsulfur Similar to Type II produce a mix of
gas and oil. But high in sulfur.

Type III: Humic: Tends to produce coal and gas


(Recent research has shown that type III kerogens
can actually produce oil under extreme conditions
Type IV (residue) mostly decomposed organic
matter in the form of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons. They have no potential to produce
19.

hydrocarbons.
Which of the following is not a stratigraphic oil

trap?
Unconformity.
Reef.
Anticline.
pinch out.
20.
Which of the following is not a hydrocarbon:
Methane.
Pentane.
Acetylene.
None of the above.
All of the above.
21.
The definition: "the pore spaces connected or
disconnected resulting through alteration of a rock,
commonly by processes such as dolimitization,
dissolution or fracturing" belongs to:
Primary porosity.
Permeability.
Secondary porosity.
Effective porosity.
22.
Give an example of a rock with high porosity
and high permeability.
Sand stone

23.

Give an example of a rock with high porosity

and low permeability.


shale
24.
Give an example of a rock with low porosity and
low permeability.
halite
25.
Which of the following is not an evaporite rock:
Gypsum.
Evaporite.
Muscovite.
Salt
26.
Arrange the following environmental zones seaward
a) Bathyal. (3)
b) Neritic. (2)
c) Abyssal. (4)
d) Littoral. (1)
27.

What are the reasons of presence of barren

Trap?
absence of organic matter in the source rock or source rock that is not mature

- the trap may have been formed later than the


migration of H.C.s
28.
Mention the main types of traps
A trap is a geometric configuration of structures and/
or strata, in which permeable rock types (the
reservoir), are surrounded and confined by
impermeable rock types (the seal).
In some cases, traps may be created by
hydrodynamic factors, that is, by the movement of
subsurface waters, but these are relatively rare.

Most traps fall into one of three categories structural,


stratigraphic, or combination traps that have both
structural and stratigraphic aspects.
1. Structural traps
1. Anticline
Compressional anticline (crustal shortening)
Compactional anticline (crustal tensional)
2. Fault traps
2. Stratigraphic traps
1. Primary stratigraphic traps
Sand lenses
Pinch out
Digenetic changes
Carbonate reefs
2. Secondary stratigraphic traps
Unconformities (truncation)

Fourthly true or false


1. True Dip is always smaller than apparent dip (x)
2. True thickness is always smaller than apparent
thickness ()
3. If a normal fault exists in a folded structure, the fault
strike will be parallel to the fold axis (x)
4. A normal fault is a result of tensile stress ()
5. Folds are a result of compressive stress ()
6. Shale is acting as a good seal as well as a good source
rocks for Hydrocarbon ()
7. Source rocks are deposited under reducing environment
()
8. Density of oil is higher than density of water (x)
9. The porosity decreases with depth ()
10. Basement rocks of primary porosity could act as good
reservoir (x)
11. Hydrocarbon could be trapped on both side of the fault
(x)
12. Sound speed in water ()
1. The speed of sound is determined by the density ()
and compressibility (K) of the medium. The speed of
sound is about four times faster in water than in air.
13. Sonic tool is used to determine the primary porosity
()
2. The Sonic tool tends to ignore the effect of fractures
or vugs, which result in secondary porosity. The Sonic
tool therefore measures primary porosity only which
is less than true total porosity if fractures or vugs

exist.
14. Shale is highly porous and permeable rock (x).
15. The arkoses sandstones are highly feldspar content ()
3. 25% or more feldspar grains
16. Ooids or oolith is allochems with clear internal
structure ()

Fifthly other various questions:


1 According to stratigraphic sequence what is the
reservoir geometry
in the down dip?
2 Calculate in steps the scale of your map?
Distance on map / distance on ground
3 How do we measure the Mud cake thickness?
- Using caliper log
5 What is the daily oil production of Egypt?
a) About 100,000 bbls/day
b) About 250,000 bbls/day
c) About 550,000 bbls/day
d) About 1000,000 bbls/day
6 what is the current approximate price of one barrel oil?
a) US $70.
b) US $90.
c) About US $110.
d) $50.
7 Strike slip movement shows
a) Right Lateral.
b) Left Lateral.

c) Clock wise.
d) Anti clock wise.
10 Petro physical Computation is performed on
a (Any data.
b) Raw data.
c) Data after Environmental Correction
12 Although shale is not regarded as reservoir because its
permeability is almost nothing, hydrocarbons might move
from the source rock shale by one or more of the following
causes select:
a) Through shale fissility.
b) Through micro-permeability caused by sand size
fraction content.
c) By high pore-pressure associating hydrocarbon
maturity and increasing distance between grain
boundaries.
1. Indicate whether the following increase (I), decrease
(D) or remain the same (S) with increasing depth in
normally compacted shales:
Porosity. D
Density. I
Seismic velocity. i
Sonic transit time. i
Electrical resistivity. s
Matrix stress gradient. i
Compressive strength. i
2. Porosity of shales for a geologic environment which is
characterized by continuous, uninterrupted
deposition and normal pore pressure:
A. Increases linearly with increasing depth.
B. Decreases linearly with increasing depth.

C. Decreases basically exponentially with


increasing depth.
D. Exhibits an inversely proportional behavior to
density.
E. A and D above.
F. C and D above.
3. The diagenesis of montmorillonite to illite and mixedlayer clays:
A. Requires only particular conditions of
temperature.
B. Occurs only at depths normally exceeding 5000
ft.
C. Occurs only after most free pore water has been
expelled.
D. Requires particular conditions of temperature
and (somewhat) pressure and the availability of
potassium ions.
E. May occur at relatively shallow depths.
F. B, C and D above.
G.D and E above.
4. During compaction, particularly shales, free pore
water is expelled:
A. Towards the depositional surface.
B. In any direction including downwards.
C. In a linear fasion.
D. In several stages.
E. A and D.
F. B and C.

Sixth Log questions


1when SP cannot measure
Because a conductive fluid is needed in the bore hole
for the SP log to operate, it can't measure, when a
non-conductive (oil based) drilling muds are present.
2 what are the favorable conditions to form oil
Mature source rock rich with organic matter
Reservoir rock with optimal characters of porosity,
permeability, and lateral extension.
Good seal or cap rock
Trap system
3 how can you calculate?
A-interval velocity
The velocity, typically P-wave velocity, of a specific layer
or layers of rock, symbolized by vint and commonly
calculated from acoustic logs or from the change in
stacking velocity between seismic events on a common
midpoint gather.
B-reflection coefficient
The ratio of amplitude of the reflected wave to the
incident wave, or how much energy is reflected. If the
wave has normal incidence, then its reflection coefficient
can be expressed as:

4 What type of log do we use for porosity calculation?


a) Density / Neutron.
b) Resistivity.
c) Gamma Ray.
5 What type of log do we use for Lithology identification?
a) Micro spherical.
b) Density.
c) Caliper.
6 How can we differentiate between heavy and light oil
response on resistivity curves?
a) Deep & Shallow readings are the same.
b) Separation between Deep & Shallow readings in good
permeable reservoirs.
c) We can't differentiate.
7 Caliper log helps to determine
a) Oil zones.
b) Hole size.
c) Hole inclination.
8 Dip meter tool measures
a) Oil bearing reservoirs.
b) Bed dips.
c) TWT.
9 We measure shaliness (VSH) from
a) VSP.
b) Sonic.
c) GR.
10 Resistivity is inversely proportional to:
a) Tightness.

b) Oil presence.
c) Formation water salinity.
11 what do you know about
a- Sp log
SP log was one of the earliest electric logs used in oil
industry.
SP log is used to identify impermeable zones such as
shale, and permeable zones such as sand, as well as
several other uses.
The SP log is a record of DC voltage differences
between the naturally occurring potential of a
movable electrode in the well bore and the potential
of the fixed electrode located at the surface.
It measured in millivolts.
Electric currents arising primarily from
electrochemical factors within the bore hole create
the SP log response.
These electro chemical factors are brought about by
differences in salinities between mud filtrate (Rmf)
and the formation water resistivity (Rw), within
permeable beds.
Because a conductive fluid is needed in the bore hole
for the SP log to operate, it can't be used in nonconductive (oil based) drilling muds.
SP log is used to:
- detect permeable beds
- detect boundaries of permeable beds
- determine formation water resistivity RW
- determine the volume of shale in permeable beds.

b- Gr
Gamma ray logs measure natural radioactivity in
formations and because of this measurement, they
can be used for identifying lithologies and correlating
zones.
Shale free sand stones and carbonates have low
concentration of radioactive material. And give low
gamma ray readings. As shale content increase, the
gamma ray log response increase because of the
concentration of radioactive material in shale.
May be used in calculation of volume of shale:
IGR= (GRlog-GRmin)/(GRmax-GRmin)
c- Sonic
The sonic log is a porosity log that measures interval
transit time (t) of a compressional sound wave
traveling through one foot of formation.
The sonic log device consists of one or more sound
transmitters and two or more receivers.
Interval transit time (t) in microseconds per foot is
the reciprocal of the velocity of a compressional
sound wave in feet per second.
The interval transit time is dependent up on both
lithology and porosity. There for, a formation's matrix
velocity must be known to derive sonic porosity
either by chart or by formula
Phisonic = ((t)log-(t)ma) / ((t)f -(t) ma)
d- Neutron
Neutron log is a porosity log that Measures the
hydrogen ions concentration in a formation

In clean formations where the porosity is filled with


water or oil, the neutron log measures the liquidfilled porosity.
Neutrons are created from a chemical source in
the neutron logging tool. The chemical source may
be a mixture of americium and beryllium which will
continuously emit neutrons. The neutrons collide
with nuclei of formation's material result in losing
some of its energy. Because the hydrogen atom is
almost equal in mass to the neutron, maximum
energy loss occurs when neutron collide with
hydrogen atom. So, the maximum amount of
energy loss is a function of hydrogen concentration
because hydrogen in a porous formation, so the
energy loss can be related to the formation's
porosity.
e- Density
The formation density log is a porosity log that
measures electron density of formation.
It can assist the geologist to :
1. identify the evaporate minerals
2. Detect gas bearing zone
3. Determine HC density
4. Evaluate shaly-sand reservoir and complex
lithology.
The density logging device consists of a medium
energy gamma ray source that emits gamma rays
into a formation. The gamma ray source is either
Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137.

Gamma ray collides with electrons in the formation


the collisions result in a loss of energy from the
gamma ray particle.
Scattered gamma rays - which reach the detector
located a fixed distance from the gamma ray source are counted as an indicator of formation density.
The of Compton scattering collisions is a direct
function of the of electrons in a formation (electron
density).
f- Resistivity
Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to:
Determine HC versus water bearing zones.
Because the rocks matrix or grains are nonconductive the ability of the rock to transit a current
is almost entirely a function of water in the bores.
Hydrocarbons, like the rocks matrix, are nonconductive; therefore, as the hydrocarbon saturation
of the bores increase, the rock's resistivity also
increases.
A geologist, by knowing a formation's water
resistivity (RW), its porosity (PHI), and a value for
cementation exponent (m), can determine a
formation water saturation (SW) from the Archie
equation :
The two basics types of logs which are used to
measure the formation resistivity are;
- Induction log
- Electrode log
g- Caliper
A caliper log is a well logging tool that provides a
continuous measurement of the size and shape of a
borehole along its depthThe measurements that are

recorded can be an important indicator of cave ins or


shale swelling in the borehole.
h- Dip meter
A dip log produced by reading of the direction
and angle of formation dip as analyzed from
impulses from a dipmeter consisting of three
electrodes 120 apart in a plane perpendicular
to the borehole.

Seventh structure questions


1. Define or Draw with mentioning type of the force
1. Fault
It is a fracture or breaking in the rook in which the
rock mass on one side of the fracture moves
relative to the rock mass in the other side
2. Normal fault: it is a type of fault in which the hanging
wall moves down relative to the foot wall.(tensile
stress)
3. Reverse fault: it is a type of fault in which the
hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall.
(compression stress)
4. Thrust: it a type of reverse fault in which the angle is
less than 15 degree.
5. Fold: the term fold is when one or more of originally
flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata,
are bent or curved as a result of plastic deformation.
Grabben: cosiderd as a type of normal faults, caused

.6

by tension force (from Normal Faults)


Horest: cosiderd as a type of normal faults, caused by

.7

tension force (from Normal Faults)


Anticline: folded upward and the two
.limbs dip away from the hinge of fold
2. Write briefly on the listric faults and
structure associated with it.
Listric faults can be defined as
curved normal faults in which
the fault surface in concave

.8

upwards; its dip decreases with depth. These


faults also occur in extension zones where there is
a main detachment fracture following a curved
path rather than a planar path. Hanging wall
blocks may either rotate or slide along the fault
plane (eg slumps), or they may pull away from the
main fault, slipping instead only along the low
dipping part of the fault. Roll-over anticlines will
often form between bedding planes and the main
fault plane as a result of the flexing between the
two.
9. The faults can be divided into:
Dextral and sinistral faults.
Normal, reverse, thrust faults.
Regional and tectonic faults.
3. Which of the following is not a fault type:
Strike- slip.
Oblique slip.
Anti- dip.
Dip- slip.

Eighth stratigraphy sedimentary questions


1. Short notes on fossils
There are two main types of fossils: body fossils

and trace fossils


the fossils to be preserved need a rapid burial
it then may be eroded and destroyed
fossils may be un altered or it may be altered
the altered fossils may be due to
permineralization , recrystallization,

replacement, dissolution, and carbonization


the un altered like , tissues, and skills and its
composition may be chitin, calcium carbonates,
silica, or bones calcium phosphate body parts
the body fossils like
the trace fossils may be: tracks, trails, burrows,
impressions, molds and casts
2. Shale is:
Compaction processing of clay minerals.
Made of Calcium Carbonate and Sodium Sulphate.
Originated in deep marine water.
3. Fissility is a rock sample description specific for:
Limestone.
Shale.
Sandstone.
Salt.
4. Which of the following describes a rock with clay
content:
Calcareous.
Fossiliferous.
Arenaceous.
Argillaceous.

o Arenite: when Qz > 90%


o Arkosic sand stone: Feldspar >
25% & exceeds the rock
fragment Content
o Argillaceous S.S.: if Sand
contains Clay
o Calcareous S.S.: if Sand contains
CaCO3
5. Outcrop of strata shown in geological map as parallel
contours indicates
a) Horizontal Strata.
b) Vertical Strata.
c) Inclined Strata.
d) Strata inclined 45.
6. Index fossils are most useful when they cover a large
geological age while exist in a limited geographical
area so that they identify (or date) the rock formation
in which they are found.
True.
False.
7. On a map, which of the following scales is considered
the largest
a) 1:100,000.
b) 1:50,000.
C 1:10,000 (
d) 1:200,000.
8. Time rock units are defined as
a) Lithologic characteristics.
b) Lithologic characteristics and time
boundaries.
c) Lithologic characteristics and fossil content.

9. Cross beds are produced when


a) The Flow direction of current changes gradually.
b) The Flow direction of current changes
suddenly.
c) Velocity of current decrease suddenly.
d) Ripples migrate from one place to another.
10.
Clastic Rocks:
Are formed due to reaction between Calcium and
Sulphate.
Are formed from weathered particles of Sand, Clay
and Silt.
Are formed from chemical precipitation of Calcium
Carbonate
11.
what do you know about erosion, digenesis
o diagenesis : The physical, chemical or biological
alteration of sedimentary rock at relatively low
temperatures and pressures that can result in
changes to the rock's original mineralogy and
texture.
o Erosion: The process of denudation of rocks, including
physical, chemical and biological breakdown and
transportation.

Ninth: What is difference between?


1 fault and joint
Fault: It is a fracture or breaking in the rook in
which the rock mass on one side of the fracture
moves relative to the rock mass in the other side
Joint: A surface of breakage, cracking or
separation within a rock along which there has
been no movement parallel to the defining plane.
2 Marine environmental zones (Bathyal, Neritic,
Abyssal. Littoral (

3 heavy and light oil response on resistivity


curves
a) Deep & Shallow readings are the same.
b) Separation between Deep & Shallow
readings in good permeable reservoirs.
c) We can't differentiate
4 Clastic and non clastic sedimentary rocks

- Sediments consist of fragments of preexisting


rocks being transported and redeposited before
forming other type of rocks.
- Non clastic: (Sedimentary rocks that are created either
from chemical precipitation and crystallization, or by the
lithification once living organic matter. )

A class of

sedimentary rock (crbonates) whose chief


mineral constituents (95% or more) are calcite
and aragonite (both CaCo3) and dolomite
[CaMg(CO3)2], a mineral that can replace
calcite during the process of dolomitization.
Limestone, dolostone or dolomite, and chalk are
carbonate rocks. Although carbonate rocks can
be clastic in origin, they are more commonly
formed through processes of precipitation or
the activity of organisms such as coral and
algae. Carbonates form in shallow and deep
marine settings, evaporitic basins, lakes and
windy deserts. Carbonate rocks can serve as
hydrocarbon reservoir rocks, particularly if their
porosity has been enhanced through
dissolution. They rely on fractures for
permeability.
5 siliciclastic sediment: Silica-based, noncarbonaceous
sediments that are broken from preexisting rocks,
transported elsewhere, and redeposited before
forming another rock. Examples of common
siliciclastic sedimentary rocks include conglomerate,
sandstone, siltstone and shale. Carbonate rocks can

also be broken and reworked to form other types of


clastic sedimentary rocks.
6 Reverse and Thrust Fault
- Reverse fault: is a type of faults where the
hanging wall moves hanging wall moves up
relative to foot wall which moves down in a
compressional force.
- Thrust fault is a type of reverse fault (hanging
wall moves up relative to foot wall which moves
down in a compressional force) where the angle
is less than 45 degree.
7 Dolomite, Anhydrite, Limestone (How to differentiate)
- Dolomite: CaMg (Co3)2
- Anhydrite: CaSo4
- Limestone:Caco3
8 Kerogen and bitumen and oil
- Kerogen: it is an intermediate bitumen material
with some of the properties of each.
- Bitumen: Petroleum in semi-solid or solid forms.
9 Moh's scale minerals
1 Talk
2 Gypsum
3 Calcite
4 Flurite
5 Apatite
6 Feldspar
7 QZ
8 Topaz
9 Qurandum
10Diamond
10Nubia S. St. or Nubian S. St., why?
Continental or marine?
What is the age?
conteinental
Age: Lower Paleozoic and Upper Cretaceous
Fossils are extremely rare

Tenth chemical composition


2 The SaSO4 is known in nature as:
Limestone
Anhydrite.
Gypsum.
None of the above.
Write the Chemical composition of NaCl Dolomite .Anhydrite and Gypsum
classification

Rock name

Chemical
composition

Clastic

.1

rocks
Clay
carbonates

Si2o5

.1

Al,Si3,O8

.2
Limestone

.2

Caco3
50%> caco3
reach to 8090 %
(ionic radius
larger than

Dolomite
chalk
Marl

.4
.5

.3

dolomite.
CaMg(Co3)2
50%> Mg
Caco3
Caco3
(50%.argillico

us, and 50%

Aragonite

caco3)
Caco3

.6

(recent in
formation
than lime

Phosphorite
Evaporates

.3
Gypsum

Halite
Iron stones

.4

Iron oxides

.1

CaSo4.2H2o

.8

Anhydrite

.9

.11

Magnetite

.12

Goethite

.13

Limonite

.14

.2

carbonate
Siderite
Iron

.15

.3

silicate
Chamosite

CaSo4
NaCl

.10

Hematite

Iron

.7

stone)
P2O5

.16

Fe2O3
Fe3o4
FeO(Oh)

Greenlite
Glauconite
Iron

.17
.18

.4

sulphides
Pyrite
Marcasite

FeS2
FeS2

Basic Electronics
1. A meter used to measure voltage in an electrical circuit
is called:
Ammeter.
Ohmmeter.
Odometer. An odometer or odograph

[1][2]

is an instrument that indicates distance

traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or automobile.

Voltmeter.
2. A device used to store electrical charge:
Diode. (The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one
direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction
(the reverse direction).

Capacitor. contains at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric


(insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin
layer of insulating film.

Resistor.

Transistor. is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals


and electrical power.

3. Formula of Ohm's Law:


V=IR..
4. When electrical current is flowing, the circuit being
tested is said to be a "closed circuit". If electrical current is
unable to flow, the circuit is said to be an "open circuit".
With a meter which measures resistivity, which value of
resistivity should you expect in measure in an open
circuit?

0.2 .
2000 .
Infinity .
None of the above.

Math and Geometry


(Calculators are not allowed)
1. Add 788632 + 39678 + 56831 + 21. (Don't use
calculator your sheet has to show all workings).
2. Convert the following fractions into decimal: (Don't
use calculator your sheet has to show all workings).
16/80
1/8
5/16
6/32
3. Multiply 983724 by 79. (Don't use calculator your
sheet has to show all workings).
4. Find the area of a circle 2 inches in diameter. (Don't
use calculator your sheet has to show all workings).
inches 2

5. Find the flat surface area in square


inches of this rectangle 8 3/4 inches x 6 inches.
8
3/4

6
inches