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A 4-STORIES BUILDING ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM

By
HADEEL OMER DAFA' ALLAH OMER
INDEX NO. 064088

Supervisor
Dr. Abdurrahman Ali Karrar

A REPORT SUBMITTED TO
University of Khartoum
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
B.Sc. (HONS.) Electrical and Electronic Engineering
(CONTROL ENGINEERING)
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
July 2011

Any attempt at any level can't be satisfactorily completed without the support and
guidance of learned people. I would like to express my immense gratitude to our
final year project supervisor Dr. Abdurrahman Ali Karrar for his constant
support, motivation, patience and effective assistance that has encouraged us to
come up with this project.

Besides that, I gratefully acknowledge all help and valuable information from my
friends and mates in the process of this project. The precious and endless opinions
from them really helped us in the whole process.
I also would like to express my gratitude to technician Mr. Abbas for the help and
efforts he presented in my project.

Special thanks to Mr. Khalid Mohammad for his appreciable assistant.


Last but not least, thanks are given to my family for their flawless love and always
supporting me during undergo of my project.

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Abstract

This project is developed by using a Programmable logic controller (PLC) to


control a 4-stories building elevator. The project system is running by calling each
floor using the push buttons available at each floor and inside the car and the PLC
would service your call as fast as possible. Floor sensors determine the current
position of the elevator car and determine its direction (up or down). The program
downloaded in the PLC determines whether the car would go up or down
according to the last visited floor. As a result the car moves up and down according
to the issued call and the last visited floor. After the program was tested a
prototype developed and tested.

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. .
" " .

. ".

.relay

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Specially dedicated to
my beloved father, mother, my family and those people who have guided and
inspired me throughout my journey of education

Acknowledgemwnt.ii
Abstrsactiii
....iv
Dedication.v
Table of contents.vi
Table of figures..viii
1

CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1

Overview....................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2

Problem Statement ...................................................................................................................... 2

1.3

Objectives ..................................................................................................................................... 2

1.4

Project Scope ................................................................................................................................ 2

1.5

Thesis Layout ................................................................................................................................ 2

CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................................ 4
2.1

Overview....................................................................................................................................... 4

2.2

Background................................................................................................................................... 4

2.2.1

History .................................................................................................................................. 4

2.2.2

Elevator Designs ................................................................................................................... 6

2.2.3

Safety .................................................................................................................................. 10

2.2.4

Control modes .................................................................................................................... 11

2.2.5

How do elevators work?..................................................................................................... 12

2.3

2.3.1

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) ................................................................................ 14

2.3.2

Ropes: ................................................................................................................................. 17

2.3.3

Limit switches: .................................................................................................................... 17

2.3.4

Relays:................................................................................................................................. 18

2.4

The Components: ....................................................................................................................... 14

Software ..................................................................................................................................... 19

2.4.1

Micro/win32: ...................................................................................................................... 19

2.4.2

S7-200 simulator: ............................................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER 3 .......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.1

Overview..................................................................................................................................... 20

3.2

SOFTWARE DESIGN .................................................................................................................... 20

3.2.1

Software tools: ................................................................................................................... 20


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3.2.2
3.3
4

HARDWARE DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 32

CHAPTER 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 36
4.1

Overview .................................................................................................................................... 36

4.2

Software testing: ......................................................................................................................... 36

4.2.1

Test case 1: ......................................................................................................................... 37

4.2.2

Test case 2: ......................................................................................................................... 40

4.2.3

Test case 3: ......................................................................................................................... 42

4.2.4

Test case 4: ......................................................................................................................... 42

4.3
5

Software design .................................................................................................................. 20

Hardware results ........................................................................................................................ 43

CHAPTER 5 .......................................................................................................................................... 44
5.1

Performance ............................................................................................................................... 44

5.2

Difficulties................................................................................................................................... 44

5.2.1

Hardware ............................................................................................................................ 44

5.2.2

Software ............................................................................................................................. 45

5.3

Future work ................................................................................................................................ 46

References.47

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Figure 2.1: Steam driven elevator in the 1800s ........................................................................................... 5


Figure 2.2: The elevators in the 1900s ......................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2.3: Elevators today ........................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2.4: Hydraulic elevator ...................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.5: Roped elevator ........................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 2.6: A governor design .................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 2.7: Brakes system ........................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 2.8: Elevator Doors .......................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 2.9: Different PLC types ................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2.10: limit switch ............................................................................................................................. 17
Figure 2.11: how relays work ..................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 3.1: Floor sensor .............................................................................................................................. 22
Figure 3.2: Floor call ................................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 3.3: Last visited floor ....................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 3.4: Pulley up ................................................................................................................................... 26
Figure 3.5: Pulley down .............................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 3.6: Motor stop ............................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 3.7: Motor stop resetting pulley up and pulley down..................................................................... 28
Figure 3.8: Motor stop Timer ..................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 3.9: Door open/close ....................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.10: Door hold/close ...................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.11: 7-segment display driver inputs ............................................................................................. 31
Figure 3.12: the skeleton ............................................................................................................................ 32
Figure 3.13: : the elevator car dimensions ................................................................................................. 32
Figure 3.14: Push buttons and 7-segment outside the car ........................................................................ 33
Figure 3.15: Push buttons and 7-segment inside the car ........................................................................... 33
Figure 3.16: motor-pulley combination ..................................................................................................... 34
Figure 3.17: overall system ........................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 4.1: PLC simulator window .............................................................................................................. 36
Figure 4.2: Case 1-1 .................................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 4.3: Case 1-2 .................................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 4.4: Case 1-3 .................................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 4.5: Case 1-4 .................................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 4.6: Case 1-5 .................................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 4.7: Case 2-1 .................................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 4.8: Case 2-2 .................................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 4.9: Case 2-3 .................................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 4.10: Case 2-4 .................................................................................................................................. 41
Figure 4.11: Case 3-1 .................................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 4.12: Case 4-1 .................................................................................................................................. 42

viii

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

1.1 Overview
An elevator is a platform, either open or enclosed, used for lifting people or freight to
upper floors within a building. Elevators are a standard part of any tall commercial or
residential building.
Manually operated elevators were used for lifting freight in warehouses and
manufacturing plants as early as the 1600s. The modern elevator is a direct descendant of
a design first shown by Elisha G. Otis at the New York World's Fair in 1853. A notable
feature of the Otis elevator, and the principal reason for its popular acceptance, was a
safety device that immediately engaged and held the elevator in the event the hoisting
cables broke. The first elevators were operated by steam power to turn the cable drums.
In the 1800s, the first hydraulic elevators were introduced using water pressure as the
source of power. At first the hydraulic rams were one-piece, which meant a hole had to
be dug under the elevator shaft as deep as the elevator was to be high. Later multiplesection, telescoping hydraulic rams allowed shallower holes. The first commercially
successful electric elevator was installed in 1889, and electricity quickly became the
accepted source of power.
Electric-powered elevators offered two significant advantages. First, electric power was
clearly becoming universally available, and any building likely to be equipped with an
elevator would also have electric power. Second, hydraulic elevators were severely
limited in the height to which they could rise, while electric elevators, using a simple
cable and pulley system, had virtually no height limit. For many years, electric elevators
used either direct current (DC) motors or alternating current (AC) motors.
Control systems on early elevators required human operators to regulate the speed of the
lift and descent, to stop the elevator at each floor, and to open and close the doors. In the
1950s automatic pushbutton control systems replaced manual controls. In the 1970s
electromechanical controls were gradually replaced with solid state electronic controls.

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

1.2 Problem Statement


It is required to design an elevator control algorithm for 4 storey (24 inputs minimum)
using PLC. Prototype model with motorized door is to be built for demonstration.

1.3 Objectives
The main objective of this project is to develop an intelligent motorized 4 levels elevator
which is controlled by a PLC. The movement of the elevator is controlled using sensors
and switches. In addition, the door of the elevator should be motorized. To accomplish
these aims, the following works are carried out:

Development of control algorithm

To design a hardware model of the elevator with a motorized pulley for the car

To design a motorized door for the elevator's car

Implement and testing of the system

1.4 Project Scope


This project is to be tested on the designed model. The movement of the elevator's car is
up and down and of the elevator's door is left and right- using DC motors.

1.5 Thesis Layout


After the testing and design procedures were done, the thesis was written in well planned
manner. In this thesis, the discussions were mainly about the designed model as well as
the control algorithm.

Chapter 1 aims to tell the objectives of this project. a brief history of the elevators
development is reviewed. Besides that the works of completing this project are also
introduced.

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Chapter 2 which is the Literature Review part, few subtopics discussed. Firstly it is the
review on the background and history of elevators. Secondly, it is the review of types of
elevators; its specifications and safety are reviewed. Next the control modes for elevators
are reviewed. Then the PLC and other system components were reviewed.

Chapter 3, which is the Methodology part, the whole design process and design concept
and the algorithm are discussed.

Chapter 4, which is the testing part, more emphasize on discussion of the hardware and
simulation results.

Finally, the last chapter is Chapter 5, Discussion and Conclusion part. Here the difficulties and
successes well as the system performance are discussed as and there are recommendations for
future works.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

2.1 Overview
In this chapter, reviews are done on the background of elevators and its history. Also the design
of elevators and how do they work is reviewed. Other than that, reviews are done on components
and software chosen to be used.

2.2 Background
An elevator (or lift) is a vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods
between floors (levels) of a building, vessel or other structure. Elevators are generally powered
by electric motors that either drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, or
pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack (1).

2.2.1 History
The first reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported
that Archimedes built his first elevator probably in 236 BC.
In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England
and France.
The elevator as we know it today was first developed during the 1800s and relied on steam or
hydraulic plungers for lifting capability. In the latter application, the cab was affixed to a hollow
plunger that lowered into an underground cylinder. Liquid, most commonly water, was injected
into the cylinder to create pressure and make the plunger elevate the cab, which would simply
lower by gravity as the water was removed. Valves governing the water flow were manipulated
by passengers using ropes running through the cab, a system later enhanced with the
incorporation of lever controls and pilot valves to regulate cab speed. The traction elevators first
appeared during the 19th century in the U.K., a "lift" using a rope running through a pulley and a
counterweight tracking along the shaft wall. Elevators then developed to be driven by steam as
shown in figure (2.1) (2).

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Figure 2.1: Steam driven elevator in the 1800s

The power elevator debuted mid-19th century in the U.S. as a simple freight hoist operating
between just two floors in a New York City building. By 1853, Elisha Graves Otis was at the
New York Crystal Palace exposition, demonstrating an elevator with a "safety" to break the cab's
fall in case of rope failure, a defining moment in elevator development. By 1857, the country's
first Otis passenger elevator was in operation at a New York City department store, and, ten
years later, Elisha's sons went on to achieve mass production of elevators. Various other elevator
designs appeared on the landscape, including screw-driven and rope-geared, hydraulic models.
Later in the 1800s, with the advent of electricity, the electric motor was integrated into elevator
technology by German inventor Werner von Siemens. With the motor mounted at the bottom of
the cab, this design employed a gearing scheme to climb shaft walls fitted with racks. In 1887, an
electric elevator was developed in using a revolving drum to wind the hoisting rope, but these
drums could not practically be made large enough to store the long hoisting ropes that would be
required by skyscrapers.
Motor technology and control methods evolved rapidly. In 1889 came the direct-connected
geared electric elevator, allowing for the building of significantly taller structures. By 1903, this
design had evolved into the gearless traction electric elevator, allowing hundred-plus story
buildings to become possible and forever changing the urban landscape. Multi-speed motors
replaced the original single-speed models to help with landing-leveling and smoother overall
operation. Electromagnet technology replaced manual rope-driven switching and braking. Pushbutton controls and various complex signal systems modernized the elevator even further. Safety
improvements have been continual, including a notable development by Charles Otis- son of
original "safety" inventor Elisha- that engaged the "safety" at any excessive speed, even if the
hoisting rope remained intact. Figure (2.2) shows an elevator in the 1900s (2).
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Figure 2.2: The elevators in the 1900s

Today, there are intricate governors and switching schemes to carefully control cab speeds in any
situation. "Buttons" have been giving way to keypads. Virtually all commercial elevators operate
automatically and the computer age has brought the microchip-based capability to operate vast
banks of elevators with precise scheduling, maximized efficiency and extreme safety. Figure (2.3)
shows today's elevators (1).

Figure 2.3: Elevators today

2.2.2 Elevator Designs


There are two major elevator designs in common use today: hydraulic elevators and roped
elevators.

Hydraulic elevator systems lift a car using a hydraulic ram, a fluid-driven piston mounted
inside a cylinder as shown in figure (2.4).

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Figure 2.4: Hydraulic elevator

The cylinder is connected to a fluid-pumping system (typically, hydraulic systems like this use
oil, but other incompressible fluids would also work). The hydraulic system has three parts:

A tank (the fluid reservoir)

A pump, powered by an electric motor

A valve between the cylinder and the reservoir.

The pump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder. When the valve is
opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return to the fluid reservoir.
But when the valve is closed, the pressurized fluid has nowhere to go except into the cylinder. As
the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the elevator car.
When the car approaches the correct floor, the control system sends a signal to the electric motor
to gradually shut off the pump. With the pump off, there is no more fluid flowing into the
cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder cannot escape (it can't flow backward
through the pump, and the valve is still closed). The piston rests on the fluid, and the car stays
where it is.
To lower the car, the elevator control system sends a signal to the valve. The valve is operated
electrically by a basic solenoid switch (Solenoid switches are used to switch high power circuits
on and off using a much smaller electrical control signal to actuate the switching). When the
solenoid opens the valve, the fluid that has collected in the cylinder can flow out into the fluid
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

reservoir. The weight of the car and the cargo pushes down on the piston, which drives the fluid
into the reservoir. The car gradually descends. To stop the car at a lower floor, the control system
closes the valve again.
The main advantage of hydraulic systems is they can easily multiply the relatively weak force of
the pump to generate the stronger force needed to lift the elevator car (3).

Limitations of Hydraulic Elevators:


This system is incredibly simple and highly effective, but it does have some drawbacks. The
main problem is the size of the equipment. In order for the elevator car to be able to reach higher
floors, you have to make the piston longer. The cylinder has to be a little bit longer than the
piston, of course, since the piston needs to be able to collapse all the way when the car is at the
bottom floor. In short, more stories mean a longer cylinder.
The problem is that the entire cylinder structure must be buried below the bottom elevator stop.
This means you have to dig deeper as you build higher. This is an expensive project with
buildings over a few stories tall.
The other disadvantage of hydraulic elevators is that they are fairly inefficient. It takes a lot of
energy to raise an elevator car several stories, and in a standard hydraulic elevator, there is no
way to store this energy. The energy of position (potential energy) only works to push the fluid
back into the reservoir. To raise the elevator car again, the hydraulic system has to generate the
energy all over again (3).

In roped elevators, the car is raised and lowered by traction steel ropes rather than pushed
from below as shown in figure (2.5).

The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave ("3" in figure (2.5)). A
sheave is just a pulley with grooves around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes,
so when the sheave rotates, the ropes move too.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Figure 2.5: Roped elevator

The sheave is connected to an electric motor ("2" in figure (2.5)). When the motor turns one way,
the sheave raises the elevator; when the motor turns the other way, the sheave lowers the elevator.
In gearless elevators, the motor rotates the sheaves directly. In geared elevators, the motor turns
a gear train that rotates the sheave. Typically, the sheave, the motor and the control system ("1"
in figure (2.5)) are all housed in a machine room above the elevator shaft.
The ropes that lift the car are also connected to a counterweight ("4" in figure (2.5)), which
hangs on the other side of the sheave. The counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled
to 40-percent capacity. In other words, when the car is 40 percent full (an average amount), the
counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced.
The purpose of this balance is to conserve energy. With equal loads on each side of the sheave, it
only takes a little bit of force to tip the balance one way or the other. Basically, the motor only
has to overcome friction -- the weight on the other side does most of the work. To put it another
way, the balance maintains a near constant potential energy level in the system as a whole. Using
up the potential energy in the elevator car (letting it descend to the ground) builds up the
potential energy in the weight (the weight rises to the top of the shaft). The same thing happens
in reverse when the elevator goes up.
Both the elevator car and the counterweight ride on guide rails ("5" in figure (2.5)) along the
sides of the elevator shaft. The rails keep the car and counterweight from swaying back and forth,
and they also work with the safety system to stop the car in an emergency.
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Roped elevators are much more versatile than hydraulic elevators, as well as more efficient.
Typically, they also have more safety systems (3).

2.2.3 Safety
Elevators are built with several redundant safety systems that keep them in position. The first
line of defense is the rope system itself. Each elevator rope is made from several lengths of steel
material wound around one another. With this sturdy structure, one rope can support the weight
of the elevator car and the counterweight on its own. But elevators are built with multiple ropes
(between four and eight, typically). In the unlikely event that one of the ropes snaps, the rest will
hold the elevator up.
Even if all of the ropes were to break, or the sheave system was to release them, it is unlikely
that an elevator car would fall to the bottom of the shaft. Roped elevator cars have built-in
braking systems, or safeties, that grab onto the rail when the car moves too fast.
Safeties are activated by a governor when the elevator moves too quickly. Most governor
systems are built around a sheave positioned at the top of the elevator shaft. The governor rope is
looped around the governor sheave and another weighted sheave at the bottom of the shaft. The
rope is also connected to the elevator car, so it moves when the car goes up or down. As the car
speeds up, so does the governor. Figure (2.6) shows one representative governor design.
In this governor, the sheave is outfitted with two hooked flyweights (weighted metal arms) that
pivot on pins. The flyweights are attached in such a way that they can swing freely back and
forth on the governor. But most of the time, they are kept in position by a high-tension spring.

Figure 2.6: A governor design

As the rotary movement of the governor builds up, centrifugal force moves the flyweights
outward, pushing against the spring. If the elevator car falls fast enough, the centrifugal force
will be strong enough to push the ends of the flyweights all the way to the outer edges of the
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

governor. Spinning in this position, the hooked ends of the flyweights catch hold of ratchets
mounted to a stationary cylinder surrounding the sheave. This works to stop the governor.
The governor ropes are connected to the elevator car via a movable actuator arm attached to a
lever linkage. When the governor ropes can move freely, the arm stays in the same position
relative to the elevator car (it is held in place by tension springs). But when the governor sheave
locks itself, the governor ropes jerk the actuator arm up. This moves the lever linkage, which
operates the brakes. This is shown in figure (2.7).
In this design, the linkage pulls up on a wedge-shaped safety, which sits in a stationary wedge
guide. As the wedge moves up, it is pushed into the guide rails by the slanted surface of the
guide. This gradually brings the elevator car to a stop.

Figure 2.7: Brakes system

Elevators also have electromagnetic brakes that engage when the car comes to a stop. The
electromagnets actually keep the brakes in the open position, instead of closing them. With this
design, the brakes will automatically clamp shut if the elevator loses power.
Elevators also have automatic braking systems near the top and the bottom of the elevator shaft.
If the elevator car moves too far in either direction, the brake brings it to a stop.
If all else fails and the elevator does fall down the shaft, there is one final safety measure that
will probably save the passengers. The bottom of the shaft has a heavy-duty shock absorber
system, typically a piston mounted in an oil-filled cylinder. The shock absorber works like a
giant cushion to soften the elevator car's landing (3).

2.2.4 Control modes


Of the two different control modes: dumb control, or intelligent control, the dumb control is
not popular because it is not practical. It is usually used for transporting material and equipment
in buildings, where all the floors have to be visited sequentially and continuously. On the other
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

hand, the intelligent control responds to requests placed by users by ordering and processing
them in an intelligent manner. This type of control is used in most applications requiring modern
elevators. Hence only the intelligent mode was designed and implemented.
The intelligent control is based on taking all requests and ordering them in an intelligent manner
such that a compromise between energy consumption and speed of response is met (4).

2.2.5 How do elevators work?


Many modern elevators are controlled by a computer. The computer's job is to process all of the
relevant information about the elevator and turn the motor the correct amount to put the elevator
car where it needs to be. In order to do this, the computer needs to know at least three things:

Where people want to go?

Where each floor is?

Where the elevator car is?

Finding out where people want to go is very easy. The buttons in the elevator car and the buttons
on each floor are all wired to the computer. When one of these buttons is press, the computer
logs this request.
There are lots of ways to figure out where the elevator car is. In one common system, a light
sensor or magnetic sensor on the side of the car reads a series of holes on a long vertical tape in
the shaft. By counting the holes speeding by, the computer knows exactly where the car is in the
shaft. The computer varies the motor speed so that the car slows down gradually as it reaches
each floor. This keeps the ride smooth for the passengers.
In a building with many floors, the computer has to have some sort of strategy to keep the cars
running as efficiently as possible. In older systems, the strategy is to avoid reversing the
elevator's direction. That is, an elevator car will keep moving up as long as there are people on
the floors above that want to go up. The car will only answer "down calls" after it has taken care
of all the "up calls" (intelligent mode). But once it starts down, it won't pick up anybody who
wants to go up until there are no more down calls on lower floors. This program does a pretty
good job of getting everybody to their floor as fast as possible.
More advanced programs take passenger traffic patterns into account. They know which floors
have the highest demand, at what time of day, and direct the elevator cars accordingly.
In one cutting-edge system, the elevator lobby works like a train station. Instead of simply
pressing up or down, people waiting for an elevator can enter a request for a specific floor. Based
on the location and course of all the cars, the computer tells the passengers which car will get
them to their destinations the fastest.
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

Most systems also have a load sensor in the car floor. The load sensor tells the computer how full
the car is. If the car is near capacity, the computer won't make any more pick-up stops until some
people have gotten off. Load sensors are also a good safety feature. If the car is overloaded, the
computer will not close the doors until some of the weight is removed (3).

2.2.6 The Doors


The automatic doors at grocery stores and office buildings are mainly there for convenience and
as an aid for handicapped people. The automatic doors in an elevator, on the other hand, are
absolutely essential. They are there to keep people from falling down an open shaft.
Elevators use two different sets of doors: doors on the cars and doors opening into the elevator
shaft. The doors on the cars are operated by an electric motor, which is hooked up to the elevator
computer. This is shown in figure (2.8).

Figure 2.8: Elevator Doors

In one scheme the electric motor turns a wheel, which is attached to a long metal arm. The metal
arm is linked to another arm, which is attached to the door. The door can slide back and forth on
a metal rail.
When the motor turns the wheel, it rotates the first metal arm, which pulls the second metal arm
and the attached door to the left. The door is made of two panels that close in on each other when
the door opens and extend out when the door closes. The computer turns the motor to open the
doors when the car arrives at a floor and close the doors before the car starts moving again.
Many elevators have a motion sensor system that keeps the doors from closing if somebody is
between them.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

The car doors have a clutch mechanism that unlocks the outer doors at each floor and pulls them
open. In this way, the outer doors will only open if there is a car at that floor (or if they are
forced open). This keeps the outer doors from opening up into an empty elevator shaft.
In a relatively short period of time, elevators have become an essential machine. As people
continue to erect monumental skyscrapers and more small buildings are made handicapaccessible, elevators will become an even more pervasive element in society. It is truly one of
the most important machines in the modern era (3).

2.3 The Components:


2.3.1 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used
for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly
lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines.
Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output
arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to
vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in batterybacked or non-volatile memory. Figure (2.9) shows different PLC types (5).

Figure 2.9: Different PLC types


2.3.1.1 History of PLC

Before PLC was created, all production activities in industries were helped by so-called relay
based machine control systems. For years, industrialists were dealing with this inflexible and
expensive tool. Inflexible, because in upgrading the production system using the relay based
machine control also means whole production system changing. Thus, it was somewhat
expensive for whole production system changing costs lots of money.
The PLC history was all started with an industrialist named Richard E. Morley, who was also
one of the founders of Modicon Corporation. In 1960s, General Motors (GM) issued a kind of

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

proposal toward the replacement of relay-based machines. Bradford Associates was appeared to
be the winner of the proposal. In the Process Bradford changed its name into The Modicon
Corporation. One of the founders, Morley, finally created the PLC. It is now known as digital
electronic device which is used to memorize specific-function instructions. The PLC created by
Morley of which code is 084, was the first PLC in PLC history.
Since the first PLC was created, a sturdy development of it got a major role in industrialization
rapid development (5).
2.3.1.2 Development of PLC

Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs were programmed in
"ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. This program
notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other early PLCs
used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver.
Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic to more traditional
programming languages such as BASIC and C.
Many early PLCs did not have accompanying programming terminals that were capable of
graphical representation of the logic, and so the logic was instead represented as a series of logic
expressions in some version of Boolean format, similar to Boolean algebra. As programming
terminals evolved, it became more common for ladder logic to be used. Newer formats such as
State Logic and Function Block (which is similar to the way logic is depicted when using digital
integrated logic circuits) exist, but they are still not as popular as ladder logic. A primary reason
for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence, and ladder logic
allows the programmer to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more easily than
would be possible in other formats (5).
2.3.1.3 PLC features

2.3.1.3.1 I/O modules


The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such
as dust, moisture, heat, cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements.
These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLCs read limit switches, analog process
variables (such as temperature and pressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems.
On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic
relays, solenoids, or analog outputs. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into
the PLC (5).
2.3.1.3.2 User interface
PLCs may need to interact with people for the purpose of configuration, alarm reporting or
everyday control.
A Human-Machine Interface (HMI) "also referred to as MMIs (Man Machine Interface)" is
employed for this purpose.
A simple system may use buttons and lights to interact with the user. Text displays are available
as well as graphical touch screens. More complex systems use programming and monitoring
software installed on a computer, with the PLC connected via a communication interface (5).
2.3.1.3.3 Communication
PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232 (serial binary single-ended data
and control signals), but optionally RS-485 or Ethernet. Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually
included as one of the communications protocols. Other options include various fieldbuses such
as DeviceNet or Profibus.
Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer
running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system or web browser.
PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between
processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while
allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communication links
are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations (5).
2.3.1.3.4 Programming
PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, and then
downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in
the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a
single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays.
PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. A graphical
programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable
16

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

controllers. Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming, a model which
emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and coils of relays) which
PLCs replaced. This model remains common today.
currently five programming languages are defined for programmable control systems: FBD
(Function block diagram), LD (Ladder diagram), ST (Structured text, similar to the Pascal
programming language), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC (Sequential
function chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations (5).

2.3.2 Ropes:
When installed on a traction lift, the rope length should be such that when the car on its
buffers and the buffers are compressed, the counterweight is clear of the underside of top
of the lift shaft or any other obstruction. When the counterweight resets on its fully
compressed buffers, no part of the car may touch the top of the shaft or any obstruction in
it (6).

2.3.3 Limit switches:


The function of a limit switch is to produce electrical signals corresponding to the position of
the mechanical member to be detected. Limit switches have operating heads which incorporate
some type of lever arm or plunger mechanism as shown in figure (2.10); the selection of which is
application dependent. When a limit switch has positive opening of the normally closed contact
(a.k.a. Direct Opening Action) it is typically suitable for use in Machine Safety applications (7).

Figure 2.10: limit switch

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

2.3.4 Relays:
A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set of contacts.

There are four parts in every relay:

Electromagnet
Armature that can be attracted by the electromagnet
Spring
Set of electrical contacts

Figure (2.11) shows how a relay works. In this figure, you can see that a relay consists of two
separate and completely independent circuits. The first is at the bottom and drives the
electromagnet. In this circuit, a switch is controlling power to the electromagnet. When the
switch is on, the electromagnet is on, and it attracts the armature (blue). The armature is acting as
a switch in the second circuit. When the electromagnet is energized, the armature completes the
second circuit and the light is on. When the electromagnet is not energized, the spring pulls the
armature away and the circuit is not complete. In that case, the light is dark (8).

Figure 2.11: how relays work

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

2.4 Software
2.4.1 Micro/win32:
For programming the PLC ladder diagram programming language was used. Micro/WIN32
program was used to write the algorithm.
In Micro/WIN32 the programming software can be run Off-line or On-line. Offline
programming allows the user to edit the ladder diagram and perform a number of maintenance
tasks. The PLC does not need to be connected to the programming device in this mode. On-line
programming requires the PLC to be connected to the programming device. In this mode
program changes are downloaded to the PLC. In addition, status of the input/output elements can
be monitored. The CPU can be started, stopped, or reset.

2.4.2 S7-200 simulator:


It is a program for simulation through PC for the programmable robots of SIEMENS S7_200
OR it is a useful application that was designed in order to provide a way to simulate in a PC the
operation of the programs created for the robot.

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

3.1 Overview
In this chapter the design of the whole system is reviewed and discussed in details. First the
software design and software tools are discussed in the first section. Then the hardware design is
reviewed.

3.2 SOFTWARE DESIGN


3.2.1 Software tools:
1- STEP 7- Micro/WIN, version 4.0:
STEP 7- Micro/WIN is programming software package for the S7 PLC provides a user-friendly
environment to develop, edit, and monitor the logic needed to control your application
The micro/win is used in the program to develop the logic which control PLC using the ladder
diagram language

2- S7-200 simulator:
It is a program for simulation through PC for the programmable robots of SIEMENS S7_200 OR
it is a useful application that was designed in order to provide a way to simulate in a PC the
operation of the programs created for the robot.

3.2.2 Software design


3.2.2.1 Overview

The output of the PLC controls the motor hoisting the elevator car and the motor that open, stay
open and close the elevator door after ten seconds at each floor after being called. The input of
the PLC is sensors used to indicate the position of the elevator car. The intelligent mode is used
to ensure minimum energy consumption and fast response. The entire system included a master
start-stop circuit to ensure that the operation could be completely shut down for emergencies.
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DESIGN

Chapter 3

3.2.2.2 Detailed design

With the system started the floor sensors could operate as in figure (3.1). When a sensor senses
the car, its output coil activates indicating the floor in which the car is, with I0.0 as the first floor
sensor, I0.1 as the second floor sensor, I0.2 as the third floor sensor and I0.3 as the fourth floor
sensor. Each sensor input sets a memory output and resets three memory outputs. The memory
outputs are used because sensors are used in other sensitive functions that would require the
current state.
After that the floor calls are represented in figure (3.2).

The first floor could be called from inside the car (I0.4) or from outside the car from the second
floor by pushing the down button (I1.0).
Similarly, the second floor could be called from inside the car (I0.5) or from outside the car from
the first floor by pushing the up button (I1.1), or from outside the car from the third floor by
pushing the down button (I1.2).

The third floor could be called from inside the car (I0.6) or from outside the car from the second
floor by pushing the up button (I1.3), or from outside the car from the fourth floor by pushing the
down button (I1.4).

The fourth floor could be called from inside the car (I0.7) or from outside the car from the third
floor by pushing the up button (I1.5).
Each of these inputs activates a memory output for future use.

21

DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.1: Floor sensor

22

DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.2: Floor call

The last visited floor is important to accomplish intelligence. It is accomplished using the floor
sensor and the motor stop (it is the last visited floor if the motor stops at it). This is done by
ANDing each floor sensor with the motor stop signal as shown in figure (3.3).

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.3: Last visited floor

24

DESIGN

Chapter 3

After that the "Pulley up" function is introduced. The pulley should go up in one of the following
cases:

If the car is in the first floor and a call to the second, third or fourth floor occurred. This
is represented by ANDing the first floor sensor (represented with the memory M0.0) with
the second, third and fourth floor calls ORed (represented by memories M1.1, M1.2 and
M1.3 respectively).

If the car is in the second floor and a call to the third or the fourth floor occurred with no
call to the first floor or with a call to the first floor but the last visited floor was the
second floor (the pulley is already going up therefore applying the intelligent mode). This
is represented by ANDing the second floor sensor (M0.1) with the ORed third and fourth
floor calls (M1.2 and M1.3 respectively) and the ORed inverted first floor call "no first
floor call" (M1.0) and the ANDed first floor call (M1.0) with the first floor as the last
visited floor (M0.5).

If the car is in the third floor and a call to the fourth floor occurred with no call to the first
and second floors or with a call to the first floor but the last visited floor was the second
or the third floor or with a call to the second floor but the last visited floor was the third
floor (the pulley is already going up therefore applying the intelligent mode). This is
represented by ANDing the third floor sensor (M0.2) with the fourth floor call (M1.3)
and the ORed inverted first floor call "no first floor call" (M1.0) ANDed with the
inverted second floor call "no second floor call" (M1.1) and the ORed first floor call
(M1.0) and second floor calls ANDed with the first floor OR the second floor as the last
visited floor (M0.5 and M0.6 respectively). This is shown in figure (3.4).

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.4: Pulley up

Then the "Pulley down" function is introduced. The pulley should go down in the following
cases:

If the car is in the fourth floor and a call to the first, second or third floor occurred. This
is represented by ANDing the fourth floor sensor (M0.3) with the second, third and
fourth floor calls ORed (M1.0, M1.1 and M1.2 respectively).

If the car is in the third floor and a call to the second or the first floor occurred with no
call to the fourth floor or with a call to the fourth floor but the last visited floor was the
fourth floor (the pulley is already going down therefore applying the intelligent mode).
This is represented by ANDing the third floor sensor (M0.2) with the ORed first and
second floor calls (M1.0 and M1.1 respectively) and the ORed inverted fourth floor call
"no fourth floor call" (M1.3) and the ANDed fourth floor call (M1.4) with the fourth
floor as the last visited floor (M1.4).

If the car is in the second floor and a call to the first floor occurred with no call to the
third and fourth floors or with a call to the fourth floor but the last visited floor was the
fourth or the third floor or with a call to the third floor but the last visited floor was the
fourth floor (the pulley is already going down therefore applying the intelligent mode).
This is represented by ANDing the second floor sensor (M0.1) with the first floor call
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DESIGN

Chapter 3

(M1.0) and the ORed inverted fourth floor call "no fourth floor call" (M1.3) ANDed with
the inverted third floor call "no third floor call" (M1.2) and the ORed fourth floor call
(M1.3) and third floor (M1.2) calls ANDed with the fourth floor OR the third floor as the
last visited floor (M1.4 and M0.7 respectively). This is shown in figure (3.5).

Figure 3.5: Pulley down

After that the motor stop function is represented. The motor should stop for two reasons:
if the called floor is reached and if the emergency stop signal is activated. Hence, the
motor should stop at the first floor when the first floor sensor (M0.0) AND the first floor
call (M1.0) are both high OR when the second floor sensor (M0.1) AND the second floor
call (M1.1) are both high OR when the third floor sensor (M0.2) AND the third floor call
(M1.2) are both high OR when the fourth floor sensor (M0.3) AND the fourth floor call
(M1.3) are both high OR when the emergency stop (I0.6) is high. This is shown in figure
(3.6).

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.6: Motor stop

When the motor stops it should wait until the door opens and closes before it starts
moving again therefore the motor stop signal should reset both the pulley up and pulley
down signals. This is shown in figure (3.7).
Since the motor would need time to stop (it will not stop as soon as the motor stop signal
is issued), a timer is used to indicate this time to ensure that the door will not open until
the motor has completely stopped. This is shown in figure (3.8).

Figure 3.7: Motor stop resetting pulley up and pulley down

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.8: Motor stop Timer

After the motor has come to a complete stop at the called floor, the door of the elevator
should open. This is represented by the signal Q0.3. The motor stop timer T37 activates
the door open signal Q0.3 and activates a timer T38 that indicates the time it will take the
motor to open the door then the door close signal is reset. T38 also activates the timer
that defines the time in which the door will remain open (T39) before the door close
signal Q0.4 is activated. After this time ends the door close signal is activated and the
door closes after the timer indicating the time it will take the door to close (T40) ends
counting and the door close signal Q0.4 is reset. This is shown in figure (3.9).
Additional Signals:

While the car is at the desired floor and the door opens it may be needed for the door to
remain open for a while longer or close before its reset time. This is accomplished using
the door hold (I2.0) and door close (I2.1) signals. Using this scheme, the timer that
indicates the time the door will remain open T38 is ANDed with the inverted hold input
(the hold input is not pressed) and ORed with the door close input to activate the door
close signal. This is shown in figure (3.10).

In order for the passenger to know the floor that the car is currently at 7-segment
displays are used. The 7-segment display driver input indicates the floor -using the floor
sensor as the input- and it is displayed at the 7-segment. The input to the driver consists
of three bits A,B and C. The values of these bits indicate the floor number. For the first
floor their values are 001, for the second 010, for the third 011 and for the fourth it is
100. Therefore the first floor sensor sets C (Q1.0) and resets A (Q0.6) and B (Q0.7), the
second floor sensor sets B (Q0.7) and resets A (Q0.6) and C (Q1.0), the third floor
sensor sets B (Q0.7) and C (Q1.0) and resets A (Q0.6) and the fourth floor sensor sets A
(Q0.6) and resets B (Q0.7) and C (Q1.0). This is shown in figure (3.11).

29

DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.9: Door open/close

Figure 3.10: Door hold/close

30

DESIGN

Chapter 3

Figure 3.11: 7-segment display driver inputs

31

DESIGN

Chapter 3

3.3 HARDWARE DESIGN


The model was designed as follows:

First the skeleton was constructed using iron bars that were welded to form the
skeleton shown in figure (3.12). the dimensions shown in the figure were chosen in
accordance to the following specifications:
* The floor height is
*The car height is
so that the car and the other components such as the sensors would have a suitable
space.

Figure 3.12: the skeleton

Then the car was welded with the dimensions shown in figure (3.13).

Figure 3.13: the elevator car dimensions


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DESIGN

Chapter 3

The components were placed in the outer body of the skeleton. These components are:
Push buttons for calling the car to the desired floor and other functions.
LEDs to show that the request has been issued.
7-segment displays to show the current position of the car.
Limit switches: a mechanical limit switch is a mechanical device which can be
used to determine the physical position of equipment.
These are the sensors that would determine the current position of the car.
The Push buttons were placed in the call positions (up or down outside the car) as
shown in figure (3.14). Figure (3.15) shows the Push buttons inside the car.

Figure 3.14: Push buttons and 7-segment outside the car

Figure 3.15: Push buttons and 7-segment inside the car

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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Limit switches were placed between the skeleton and the car so that the car
movement would determine the mechanical arm movement and close the circuit
and therefore send the sensing signal.

The motor was chosen according to the following specifications:


It should have a small size so that it could be placed above the shaft.
Small speed to move the car slowly.
High torque to be able to lift car and the counterweight.
It can work with 24VDC and a small current to fit the PLC output specifications.
After that an aluminum pulley was made with a 2in diameter and connected to the
motor with a shaft. Grooves were made in the pulley to create a path or the rope.
The motor-pulley combination was then welded above the shaft as shown in figure
(3.16).

Figure 3.16: motor-pulley combination

The counterweight was calculated to be weighing about the same as the car filled with
40% capacity which is equal to 700g.
The counterweight was made after that of iron and guide rails for the counterweight
were welded at the side of the skeleton so that it will not sway.
After that the rope was chosen so that its material is strong enough to hold both the car
and the counterweight without the rope snapping.
The car's door was made next. It should be noted that only one set of doors was made.
The doors were made at the car and the floors do not have doors.
A 6VDC motor was placed above the car. The motor rotates a circular gear which moves
a straight gear that is connected to the door and therefore moves the door to the left
and right which results in opening and closing the door.
Relays were used in order for both the motors (the pulley and door motors) to rotate in
both directions to move the car up and down and to open and close the door.
The program was downloaded in the PLC by connecting it to the computer using a PPI
cable.
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DESIGN

Chapter 3

Finally the whole system was integrated and the PLC's inputs and outputs were
connected in the appropriate manner and a bypass circuit containing the signals not
included in the PC ladder was connected. Figure (3.17) shows the system layout.

Figure 3.17: overall system

35

CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

4.1 Overview
In this section the results of testing the system are reviewed. These results include the
software testing results taken from the program simulation and the hardware testing results
taken after testing the prototype and its components.

4.2 Software testing:

Figure 4.1: PLC simulator window

Block A (outputs):
0: Pulley up signal

1: Pulley down signal

2: Motor stop signal

3: Door open signal

4: Door close signal

6: Bit 2 in BCD (floor number)

7: Bit 1 in BCD (floor number)


Block B (outputs):
0: Bit 0 in BCD (floor number)
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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

Block C (inputs):
0: 1st floor limit switch

1: 2nd floor limit switch

2: 3rd floor limit switch

3: 4th floor limit switch

4: inner call to 1st floor

5: inner call to 2nd floor

6: inner call to 3rd floor

7: inner call to 4th floor

Block D (inputs):
0: call from 1st floor (going up)

1: call from 2nd floor (going up)

2: call from 2nd floor (going down)

3: call from 3rd floor (going up)

4: call from 3rd floor (going down)

5: call from 4th floor (going down)

4.2.1 Test case 1:


Moving from 1st to 2nd floor:

Figure 4.2: Case 1-1

The car is at 1st floor so the first floor limit switch input is high and the output to the 7segment is set to drive it to show (1) [001] binary.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

Figure 4.3: Case 1-2

While at the 1st floor, a call to the 2nd floor occurred; 2nd floor call input is set high. The PLC
set the pulley up signal high. The 7-segment still display floor No.1 as the floor at which the
car resides.

Figure 4.4: Case 1-3

The car reached the 2nd floor so the limit switch signaled the PLC; then the PLC signaled the
pulley motor to stop. The 7-segment now indicates that the car is at the 2nd floor; showing (2)
[010] binary.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

Figure 4.5: Case 1-4

After the motor stops and the first counter indicating the time needed for the car to rest after
the motor stops signals, the PLC sets the door open signal high, and the second counter
indicating the time needed to open the door starts counting. The 7-segment still indicates
that the car is currently at the 2nd floor.

Figure 4.6: Case 1-5

The moment the second counter signals the PLC signals the door to close. A third counter
starts counting the time needed for the door to close, once it signals the pulley can move if a
call occurred. These counters insure that the pulley doesnt move while the car in loading or
unloading passengers.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

4.2.2 Test case 2:


Moving from 2nd to 3rd floor

Figure 4.7: Case 2-1

The car is currently at the 2nd floor as the 7-sement display indicates [010]; And since a call
to the 3rd floor is asserted the PLC signals the pulley motor to go up.

Figure 4.8: Case 2-2

The car reached the 3rd floor so the limit switch signals the PLC; then the PLC signals the
pulley motor to stop. The 7-segment now indicates that the car is at the 3rd floor; showing (3)
[011] binary.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

Figure 4.9: Case 2-3

After the motor stops and the first counter indicating the time needed for the car to rest after
the motor stops signals, the PLC sets the door open signal high, and the second counter
indicating the time needed to open the door starts counting. The 7-segment still indicates that
the car is currently at the 3rd floor.

Figure 4.10: Case 2-4

Similar to case (1-5) the moment the second counter signals the PLC signals the door to close.
A third counter starts counting the time needed for the door to close, once it signals the
pulley can move if a call occurred. These counters insure that the pulley doesnt move while
the car in loading or unloading passengers. The 7-segment still indicates that the car is
currently at the 3rd floor.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

4.2.3 Test case 3:


Moving from 3rd to 2nd floor

Figure 4.11: Case 3-1

While at the 3rd floor, call to the second floor occurred; 2nd floor call input is set high. The
PLC set the pulley down signal high. The 7-segment still display floor No.3 as the floor at
which the car resides.
Once the car reaches the 2nd floor, the limit switch signal the PLC and the motor stop, door
open & door close sequence is generated, as in figures(4.4),(4.5) and (4.6) respectively.

4.2.4 Test case 4:


Moving from 2nd to 1st floor

Figure 4.12: Case 4-1

While at the 2nd floor, a call to the 1st floor occurred; 1st floor call input is set high. The PLC
asserts the pulley down signal high. The 7-segment at this point displays floor No.2 as the
floor at which the car resides.
Once the car reaches the 1st floor, the limit switch signal the PLC and the motor stop, door
open & door close sequence is generated, as in previous cases.

42

CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

4.3 Hardware results


The PLC operation was first tested without wiring it to the system and it operated properly; each
system component including limit switches, LEDs, push buttons, 7-segment displays, pulley and
door motors and relays were also tested separately before wiring them to form the system.
All these components performed well before wiring except the limit switches which showed poor
performance.
After wiring the system the PLC and associated components -excluding limit switches- were
once again tested with the same sequential use cases tested in simulation testing, and the system
performed as expected except the door which showed poor performance.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

5.1 Performance
The software system performance was satisfactory; it performed all required tasks successfully
during testing.
The prototype build showed relatively poor performance during testing due to low equipment
reliability.
The pulley DC motor showed an impressive performance. It had very high torque and law speed,
the high performance of this motor originates from the gears used to reduce its speed. Reduced
speed led to the very required high torque.

5.2 Difficulties
5.2.1 Hardware
5.2.1.1 Mechanical problems

Finding the appropriate motor for the prototype:


The following motors were tried and both the torque and speed were taken into
consideration:
9V motor with high speed but poor torque
12V motor with high speed and better but still poor torque
12V motor with high speed and suitable torque ( dish washer motor) but its driving
current was too high (3A) that non of the available power supplies could drive it.
Finally 24V, 105mA printer motor was found to be the appropriate motor in terms of
both torque and speed.
The torque and speed relate with the following equation:
Power = Torque * Speed
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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

A pulley with grooves was first tried but did not fit in the design because it was fixed to
be only hanged down, and the design requires the pulley to be fixed on top of the shaft.

An aluminum rode was shaped, and used as a pulley that met the designs requirements.

The diameter of the pulley was controversial mater because the diameter of the pulley
controls the speed of the elevators car; which is a vital part of the success of the system.
But there was no strict constrains on that speed it only had to be slow enough for the limit
switch to signal, the motor to stop before the car reaches the next floor and fast enough
for the movement to be sufficient and smooth the diameter was chosen to be 2 inches.
The first pulley used diameter was 1 inch. It required more rounds to lift the car the same
length than the ones taken by the pulley with 2 inches diameter.

The technique used to limit the movement of the counter weight and prevent it from
swaying back and forth was to cage it in a box, it only stopped it from interfering with the
cars movement, unfortunately bad welding added friction which obstructed the system
movement.

5.2.1.2 Electrical problems

Proximity switches were the first choice to sensor floor levels; but they were not available in the
market which forced the use of available limit switches, they fitted in the application and
performed the same task. But its reliability was questionable and they had poor performance;
therefore they were dropped of the project and during testing its task was performed manually.

5.2.2 Software
The project aim was to develop an elevator control system with at least 24 inputs. This aim was
met at software level; but when it was time to apply the system on an actual PLC (not
simulation), financial difficulties came into picture; and the only PLC available at universities
labs (S7-200 CPU 224) had 14 inputs.
As a result the algorithm was modified to accommodate the new restriction and take in only 14
inputs; a bypassing circuit was used to accommodate the inputs taken out from the algorithm.

45

CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

5.3 Future work

Expand the system to control elevators for more than four story buildings, and with more
features than those offered in this system; to do so few changes are required:

Use a PLC with more inputs than the one used -with only 14 inputs-to be able to add
features such as door hold within the system without the need for an external circuitry
like the one used.

Control motor speed basing using sensors and gears; this will improve the performance of
the elevator system for multistory buildings -minimize the service time-.

Replacing the limit switches with single light sensor or magnetic sensor on the side of the
car and a series of holes on a long vertical tape in the shaft; when the sensors passes by
holes it counts them to determine which floor is the car at. This is more economic and
also minimizes the number of inputs required from the PLC.

Use a load sensor that will set on a signal whenever the weight of the passengers exceeds
the limit set by the designer; as long as the overload signal is set the car does not move
and the doors do not close-this will maintain the gears, the pulley and the motors in shape
and it will minimize the failures of the system due to hardware problems.

Use motion sensors to prevent the door from closing while there is an object that is not
entirely in the car -this increases the safety of the system-.

Use more advanced logic that takes passenger traffic patterns into account. To know
which floors have the highest demand, at what time of day, and direct the elevator cars
accordingly. Elevator traffic simulation software can be used to model complex traffic
patterns and elevator arrangements that cannot necessarily be analyzed by RTT (round
trip time) calculations.

Use two sets of doors; one attached to the car (inner) and one at each floor (outer). The
car doors have a clutch mechanism that unlocks the outer doors at each floor and pulls
them open. In this way, the outer doors will only open if there is a car at that floor (or if
they are forced open). This keeps the outer doors from opening up into an empty elevator
shaft. Also front and rear sets of doors could be used.

A breaking system must be added to insure safety and quality of services.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter 5

References:
1. Elevator. Wikipedia. [Online] September 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elevator.
2. Elevators history. Inventors. [Online] http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelevator.htm.
3. How elevators work. How Stuff Work. [Online] http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/enginesequipment/elevator.htm.
4. Al-Mulla, L. Cheded and Maan. Control of a four-level elevator system using a programmable logic
controller. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia : Saudi Aramco.
5. Programmable Logic Controller. Wikipedia. [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLC.
6. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineering. Transportation systems in buildings.
London : D J Strokoe, 1993. ISBN 0 9009 53 57 8.
7. Limit Switch. Partminer. [Online] http://www.partminer.com/glossaryhtml/limit_switch.html.
8. Relay. Wikipedia. [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay.

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