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Organic Geochemistry and Petrology of the Tertiary Source Rock in

Mukah-Balingian

by

Munirah Binti Rahim


15298

Progress report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the


Bachelor of Technology (Hons)
(Petroleum Geoscience)

September 2015

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS


Bandar Seri Iskandar
31750 Tronoh
Perak Darul Ridzuan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ 1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 2
1.1

Background of Study ............................................................................................... 2

1.2

Problem Statement ................................................................................................... 8

1.3

Objectives of Study .................................................................................................. 8

1.3.1

Main Objective ................................................................................................. 8

1.3.2

Specific Objectives .......................................................................................... 8

1.4

Scope of Study ......................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 10


2.1

Central Sarawak Basin ........................................................................................... 10

2.2

Geological Structure of Sarawak ........................................................................... 11

2.3

Balingian Province ................................................................................................. 11

2.4

Mukah-Balingian Coalfield.................................................................................... 12

2.5

Mukah Coalfield .................................................................................................... 12

2.6

Balingian coalfield ................................................................................................. 13

2.7

Liang Formation..................................................................................................... 14

2.8

Source Rock ........................................................................................................... 16

2.9

Coal ........................................................................................................................ 16

2.10

Shale....................................................................................................................... 18

2.11

Source Rock Parameter .......................................................................................... 19

2.11.1

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ......................................................................... 19

2.11.2

Typing of Sedimentary Organic Matter ......................................................... 20

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY/PROJECT WORK ........................................ 23


3.1

Flowchart of methodology ..................................................................................... 23

3.2

Field Observation ................................................................................................... 24

3.3

Experimental Analysis ........................................................................................... 25

3.3.1

Total Organic Carbon Analysis...................................................................... 25

3.3.2

Organic Matter Typing Analysis.................................................................... 26

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION ........................................................ 27


4.1

Sedimentary Log and Cross-Section ...................................................................... 27

4.2

Experimental Analysis ........................................................................................... 40

4.2.1

Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC) ........................................................... 40

4.2.2

Organic Matter Typing................................................................................... 42

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION ................................................................................ 48


REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 49
APPENDICES .......................................................................................................... 51

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1-1: Map showing the coal bearing Tertiary basin in Malaysia (Google Earth) 3
Figure 1.1-2: Map showing the location of Mukah-Balingian Basin (Google Earth 4
Figure 1.1-3: Topographic Map and Geological Map of Outcrop C, D and F 6
Figure 1.1-4: Topographic Map and Geological Map of Outcrop E 7
Figure 2.5-1: Geological Map of Mukah Coalfield (S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2011) 13
Figure 2.6-1: Geological Map of Balingian Coalfield (S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2012) 14
Figure 2.7-1: Map showing Liang Formation (after S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2012) 15
Figure 3.2-1: Tools required during the outcrop survey 25
Figure 4.1-1: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop B (Bintulu) 28
Figure 4.1-2: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop C (Mukah) 29
Figure 4.1-3: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop D (Mukah) 30
Figure 4.1-4: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop E (Mukah) 31
Figure 4.1-5: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop F (Mukah) 32
Figure 4.1-6: Outcrop B 34
Figure 4.1-7: Outcrop C 35
Figure 4.1-8: Outcrop D 36
Figure 4.1-9: Outcrop E 37
Figure 4.1-10: Outcrop F 38
Figure 4.1-11: Cross-bedding of sandstone and clay 39
Figure 4.1-12: Cross-bedding trough 39
Figure 4.2-1 43
Figure 4.2-2 44
Figure 4.2-3 44
Figure 4.2-4 45
Figure 4.2-5 45
Figure 4.2-6 46

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.11-1: Parameters of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ................................................... 19
Table 2.11-2: The three maceral groups and their genetic characteristics (After M.
Teichmller, 1989 and after Bertrand and Pradier, 1992) ..................................................... 21
Table 4.2-1: Results of Total Organic Carbon Content ......................................................... 40
Table 4.2-2: Results of Total Organic Carbon Content ......................................................... 41
Table 4.2-3: Organic Matter Type and Thermal Alteration Index for Source Rock at Mukah,
Sarawak .................................................................................................................................. 47

ABSTRACT
Mukah-Balingian coalfield consists of sediments deposited such as Balingian, Begrih,
Liang and Post-Liang formations. The studies of source rock evaluation in Mukah
coalfield and Balingian coalfield have been conducted and are well documented,
however the source rock evaluation of Liang Formation source rock remained
uncertain. The aim of this dissertation is to determine the hydrocarbon potentiality of
the Tertiary source rock of Liang Formation at Mukah-Balingian coalfield. The
objectives are to investigate the quantity and quality of the source rock through
analyses such as TOC and sedimentary organic matter typing analysis. At the end of
this project, we expected to be able to determine the quantity and quality of the source
rock of Liang Formation as well as to correlate with the previous study on the
hydrocarbon generation potential of these source rock.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background of Study
A source rock is a sedimentary rock that contains sufficient organic matter which
when it is buried and heated it will produce oil and gas, or as known as petroleum.
High concentrations of organic matter tend to occur in sediments that accumulate
in areas of high organic matter productivity and stagnant water. Different sort of
organic matter yield different sorts of petroleum. Organic matter which is rich in
soft and waxy tissues, such as found in algae are usually yields oil associated with
gas on maturation, while gas alone is derived from the maturation of woody tissue.
For the particular study, we select coal, coaly shale and shale as the subject of
interest because coal these are the source rock that have been studied as one of the
potential hydrocarbon generator in oil and gas industry.

The Cenozoic coals are very common in Malaysia, which these coals cover a
wide range of chemical and petrographic characteristics (Wan Hasiah 1997, 1999,
2003; Zulkifli et al 2008). The presence of coals are identified at three geological
provinces in Malaysia which are Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, where
these coals occurred at the Tertiary Basins. The coals occurring in Sarawak, eastern
Malaysia, mainly of Tertiary age which is from Oligocene to Early Miocene
(Wolfenden 1960) and of low rank. Coals have been recognised as a source of gas,
which is methane and carbon dioxide. However, its significance as a generator for
oil is difficult to prove long time ago, but not today. Coals are now known as the
potential source of liquid hydrocarbon in several basins in the world.

The presence of Carboniferous and Permian shales and limestones with


occasional carbonaceous or bituminous layers overlain by a basal conglomerate of
the Upper Triassic can be observed in western Sarawak. The Sadong Formation,
from the region of Serian in western Sarawak composed of sandstones, shales and
coaly shales with plant remains and a few thin coal seams with minor amounts of
2

conglomerates, limestones and cherts. Therefore, the occurrence of oil and gas in
Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak in a variety of Tertiary clastic and carbonated reservoir
made these regions to be areas of potential hydrocarbon production (Valencia,
2013).

In this study, we will investigate on the organic geochemistry and petrology of


the Tertiary source rock which is particularly focusing on Tertiary coal formation
from Central Basin Sarawak. The target are that we will focus in this study is
Mukah-Balingian area. The Mukah-Balingian Coal Field consists of Mukah Coal
Basin accommodate the Miocene Balingian Formation and Balingian Coal Basin
accommodate the Pliocene Liang Formation (Sia & Abdullah, 2010).

Figure 1.1-1: Map showing the coal bearing Tertiary basin in Malaysia (Google
Earth)

Figure 1.1-2: Map showing the location of Mukah-Balingian Basin (Google Earth

The Mukah coalfiled is located in the low-lying coastal plain between the
Mukah and the Balingian Rivers, covering an area of about 300 km2 in Sarawak.
The coalfield is underlain by the Balingian Formation of Late Miocene age, which
is in turn unconformably overlain the Begrih Formation of Early Pliocene age.
According to Wolfenden (1960), the contact between these two formations is
marked by a wedge of basal conglomerate, known as the Begrih Conglomerate.
The Balingian coal formation was took place in the Liang Formation during the
Upper Pliocene (Wolfenden, 1990), with sediments supplied by the Belaga
Formation of the Rajang Group from the south (Hall and Nichols, 2002; Mazlan
and Abolins, 1999).

The area of study of Mukah coalfield consists of four outcrops which all of the
located at Mukah, Sarawak. Each outcrops are labelled alphabetically. Outcrop C,
D and F are located at Kg. Kuala Bedengan, Mukah and outcrop E is along the
Mukah road. Outcrop C, D and F are the composition of Balingian Formation
which aged from Middle to Upper Miocene. Outcrop E is the Liang Formation,
aged Pliocene as shown in Figure 1.1-3 and 1.1-4.

The study of organic chemistry and petrology of the Tertiary Source Rock will
be conducted through several laboratory experiments and assessments including
determining the type of coal maceral of the Tertiary coal and to identify whether
the Tertiary coal from Mukah Formation, Balingian Formation and Liang
Formation is an excellent source rock or poor source rock.

Figure 1.1-3: Topographic Map and Geological Map of Outcrop C, D and F

Figure 1.1-4: Topographic Map and Geological Map of Outcrop E

1.2

Problem Statement
The source rock evaluation and characterisation has been conducted previously
and well documented which covered the Mukah-Balingian coalfield particularly
the Balingian Formation and Begrih Formation. However, the Liang Formation
coalfield study remains uncertain on the hydrocarbon potential. There are limited
publications upon this study area. Therefore, this project will be conducted based
on the limitation that have been analysed from the previous research.

1.3
1.3.1

Objectives of Study
Main Objective
To determine the hydrocarbon potentiality of Tertiary source rock from the
Liang Formation, of Mukah-Balingian coalfield in the Central Sarawak Basin.

1.3.2

Specific Objectives
1. To investigate the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC) for the quantity of
the source rock of the study area.
2. To determine the type of kerogen and maceral of the Tertiary source rock
for the quality of the possible hydrocarbon potential.
3. To determine the maturation history of the potential source rock of the
study area.

1.4

Scope of Study

The fieldwork was conducted on 7 September 2015 until 19 September 2015. The
research was carried out on the sedimentary rock and coal minerals of Nyalau
Formation and Liang Formation that were exposed extensively at Kg. Jepak, Bintulu,
(Nyalau Formation) and Mukah (Liang Formation).

During the outcrop survey, the study was emphasised on the description of
sedimentological characteristics such as lithology, grain size, texture, mineralogy,
primary sedimentary structures and fossils. The primary data consists of the
stratigraphy logs and cross section of the outcrop were performed during the outcrop
survey which include identification and classification of the lithofacies. Rock samples
have been taken from the outcrops for further investigation and validation of the
outcrop observation.

The study was emphasize on the sedimentology description, classification and


interpretation of the sedimentary rock and coal minerals found at Nyalau Formation
and Liang Formation.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

Central Sarawak Basin


Petroleum in Sarawak is mainly produced from the Neogene rocks that occur
mostly in the offshore areas of the Sarawak Basin. The exploration and production
started in the eastern part of Sarawak Basin, significantly in the West Baram Delta,
followed by the Balingian and Central Luconia provinces. The SW Sarawak
Province is the least explored of the eight provinces, therefore little data is
available from it.

Sarawak continental margin forms part of the Sunda Shelf which structurally
connects Borneo with Peninsular Malaysia and the rest of continental Southeast
Asia (PETRONAS, 1999). The geological age of Sarawak Basin is of Late Eocene
to Recent age. The Pre-Oligocene Rocks that form the basement of the Sarawak
Basin are exposed to the south in the crescentic Rajang Fold-Thrust Belt of Late
Cretaceous to Late Eocene, as shown in Figure 2.1. It consists of low grade
metamorphosed deep-marine rocks, together with older rocks in the western
continental of Borneo, contain the economic basement with regard to petroleum
exploration (PETRONAS, 1999).

Figure 2.1: Tectonic elements of Sarawak and adjacent continental


margins (PETRONAS, 1999)
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2.2

Geological Structure of Sarawak


Sarawak is divided into three tectonostratigraphic zones that represent the
decreasing stratigraphic and structural complexity towards the east. The zones are
Kuching Zone, Sibu Zone and Miri Zone. The deposition and deformation young
generally from west to east and from south to north. According to PETRONAS
(1999), the Kuching Zone, which is located in westernmost Sarawak is believed to
be the peripheral part of the continental basement of Borneo which extends
southwards into Kalimantan. In this part of state, Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic
rocks are mostly crop out. In central and northern Sarawak, which is the east of
Batang Lupar, it is found that the rocks are almost exclusively Late Mesozoic and
Cenozoic. Besides that, the Sibu Zone is significantly formed by Upper Cretaceous
to Upper Eocene deepwater sediments of the Rajang Group which have been
deformed into a fold and thrust belt or as known as the Rajang Fold-Thrust Best.
The Miri Zone, which located at the further east and north, underlain by Upper
Eocene to Recent strata, represents the youngest of the three tectonostratigraphic
zones.

2.3

Balingian Province
Balingian Province located in a collisional/wrench zone between the Central
Luconia Province to the north, and the onshore Tinjar Province and the Rajang
Fold-Thrust Belt to the south. Three sub-provinces were accommodate in the
Balingian Province which have different structural styles and histories, East,
Southwest and Northwest sub-provinces (Swinburn, 1994). Furthermore, there are
three major depocentres aligned in a north-south orientation at the centre of the
Balingian Province. The depocentres are the Acis, South Acis and Balingian subbasins. These areas have significantly higher subsidence rates and are interpreted
as a good hydrocarbon kitchen.

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Balingian Province an area of about 27000 km2. 30% of the area is on land
whereas 70% is offshore. The province is bounded to the north by the Central
Luconia Province, to the west by the West Balingian Line and to the south by the
NW-trending Anau-Nyalau Fault Zone which connects with the Tatau Horst. It
was chosen as the study area due to the recognizable gas prone source rocks with
coals and organic-rich clays combined with sandstones representing a multiple
source and reservoir rocks (Rosmalia D. et.al, 2014).

2.4

Mukah-Balingian Coalfield
Mukah-Balingian coalfield consists of coals which occurs in the low-lying coastal
plain between the Mukah and Balingian Rivers, bounded the south by the SibuBintulu trunk road and in the north by the South China Sea. Located about 260 km
northeast of Kuching, the more hilly hinterland to the south composed of stronglyfolded Palaeocene rocks which underlie and define the landward extent of the
Neogene depositional basin. In the Mukah-Balingian basin, there are depositions
of the Balingian, Begrih, Liang and Post-Liang Formations sediments. The Liang
Formation will be the primary objective for this project to evaluate the maturity
and characteristics of the source rock.

2.5

Mukah Coalfield
Mukah coalfield is located in the low-lying coastal plain between the Mukah and
the Balingian Rivers, covering an area of about 300 km2 in Sarawak. The coalfield
is underlain by the Balingian Formation of Late Miocene age, which in turn
unconformably overlain by the Begrih Conglomerate of Early Pliocene age. The
contact between these two formations is marked by a wedge of basal conglomerate,
known as Begrih Conglomerate (Wolfenden, 1960).

12

Figure 2.5-1: Geological Map of Mukah Coalfield (S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2011)

2.6

Balingian coalfield
The accumulation of Balingian coalfield took place in the Liang Formation during
the Upper Pliocene (Wolfenden, 1960), with sediments supplied by the Belaga
Formation of the Rajang Group from the south (Hall and Nichols, 2002; Mazlan
and Abolins, 1999). The Balingian Formation unconformably overlies the Lower
Pliocene Begrih Formation in the north and Eocene Belaga Formation in the south
as illustrated in Figure. It is made up of thick and massive clays, sands, tuffs, coal
seams and gravel lenses. A brackish-water environment of deposition in the coal
zone was suggested due to faunas identified in situ. However, outside the coal
zone, the sediments were deposited in a very shallow, near-shore type of marine
depositional environment (Lietchi et. al., 1960; Wolfenden, 1960).

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Figure 2.6-1: Geological Map of Balingian Coalfield (S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2012)

2.7

Liang Formation

Liang Formation is one of the sediments deposited in Mukah Balingian Basin.


Balingian, Begrih, and Liang formations are gently folded whereas the Post-Liang is
hardly disturbed. These formations, including Liang consists of primarily alternations
of sand and clay with some conglomerate, however coal occurs mainly in the Miocene
Balingian Formation in the north and the Pliocene Pleistocene Liang Formation in the
east and south. Furthermore, the Liang Formation unconformably underlain by the
Pliocene Begrih Formation in the north and by the Eocene Belaga Formation in the
south (Hutchison, 2005).
The thickness of Liang Formation is approximately 950 meter and the formation
is made up of thick and massive clays, sands, tuff, coal seas and gravel lenses.
According to Hutchison (2015), the sediments outside the coal zone are deposited in a
very shallow, near-shore type of marine depositional environment. Four (4) main areas
of coal known in the Liang Formation are the Penareh, Lenai, Bawan and Balingian
areas.

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Figure 2.7-1: Map showing Liang Formation (after S.G. Sia, W.H. Abdullah, 2012)

15

2.8

Source Rock
Source rock is a type of fine grain sedimentary rock that has the capacity to
generate and expel enough hydrocarbon to form an accumulation of commercial
oil and gas. The source rock particularly in Balingian Province composed of coal,
coaly shales and shales. These source rocks are the main contributor to the
hydrocarbon generation potential in Sarawak.

2.9

Coal
Coal is a complex combustible rock made up of organic and inorganic components.
By definition, coal may contain up to 50% by weight and 70% by volume of noncarbonaceous materials (Schopf, 1956). The concentration of elements in coal
depends on the properties of the country rocks, depositional environments, and
diagenesis and coalification process. Littke and Leythaeuser (1993) have
summarised observations that indicate there could have been important petroleum
generation form coals as follows:

Coals may contain significant quantities of the hydrogen rich and


hydrocarbon-generating maceral group, liptinite.

When heated, coals produce petroleum-like pyrolysis products.

Bituminous coals contain bitumen that can be easily released by extraction


using common solvents.

Coals are a major source of methane.

Some gas and oil accumulations occur in close proximity to coal seams.

The maturation sequence of terrestrial organic matter through peat,


bituminous coal and anthracite implies a significant loss of volatile
products, including hydrocarbons.

Ronald and Simon (2002) stated that there is possibility that some coals are oilprone, whereas others are incapable of generating liquid hydrocarbons whatever
the coalification conditions. Therefore, understanding the worldwide variations in
coal properties and how they influence the generation and expulsion of oil from
coal must also be an important subject of inquiry.
16

According to Abdullah (1996), most of the geochemists in the mid 90s took a
more open view on the role of coal without no preconceived notions on whether or
not coals can generate oil. There are significance findings by the workers who
studying coals in the SE Asia region and Australia regarding the association of coal
measures and oil pools. Cited by Abdullah (1996), Khorasani (1987) demonstrated
that within the Surat Basin, Australia, the type of flora and certain favourable
biochemical transformations such as the dysaerobic conditions, in addition to other
factors such as the environment of deposition and climate, could alter the organic
matter during burial and early diagenesis, thus give rise to oil-prone coals of an
authocthonous origin. Besides that, the Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Sarawak
which consist of abundant coal seams of Oligocene and Lower Miocene age had
attracted many researches to investigate the potential of Tertiary coals as liquid
hydrocarbon generator or the source rock. A number of studies and researches had
been conducted by the geochemists from Universiti Malaya and other institutions
to solve the debate on the potential of coals to generate hydrocarbon. However,
based on the previous researches which related to the coals from Mukah Formation
and Balingian Formation, there are several limitations that occurred such as the
researches is mainly focus on the concentrations of minerals-forming elements and
trace elements from both coalfields. A minimum data available that shows the
Total Organic Carbon of the coals to indicate whether the coals of Mukah and
Balingian are a good source rock or not.

A study conducted by Wan Hasiah (1996) on the Tertiary coals from the Bintulu
and Merit-Pila coalfield shows that the relation of the type of common liptinitic
constituents of the coals and their relation to oil generation and expulsion.
However there is a limitation in this study which is the study did not take into
consideration of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content to determine the quantity
of source rock of the coal. Therefore, it is important to prepare for this dissertation
to determine the quantity and quality of the Tertiary coals in Sarawak by referring
to the common parameters given.

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2.10 Shale
Shale is the most abundant sedimentary rock, which make up about 70% of all
sedimentary rocks in Earths crust. It composed of a high percentage of clay
minerals, substantial amounts of quartz and smaller amounts of carbonates and
other minerals.

The oils in the Balingian Province were generated from coals and coaly shales
in the Oligocene-Lower Miocene coastal plain sequence. It shows that the potential
hydrocarbon generated source rock in Balingian Province is not only coal, but
coaly shales as well. These source rocks are deposited particularly in coastal and
inland peat swamps, as overbank muds deposited on floodplains and delta tops,
with the transgressive marine muds deposited during sea-level highstands
(PETRONAS, 1999). The potential source rocks of Balingian Province are most
likely marine shales. This is due to part East Balingian was covered by shallow sea
during Early Miocene.

Based on the source rock studies conducted to the source rock of Balingian
Province, the carbonaceous shales are the richest source rock, along with coal, and
tend to contain the most oil-prone organic matter. The kerogen quality between
lean/mediocre shales and coals/carbonaceous shales are different in the East
Balingian. The hydrogen indices of East Balingian colas which is less abundant
that in west Balingian shows a good source potential for oil (PETRONAS, 1999).

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2.11 Source Rock Parameter


2.11.1 Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
Total Organic Carbon is an analysis to determine the quantity of the organic matter.
It can be determined by the combustion of samples that have been treated with acid
to remove the inorganic carbon. TOC usually reported in units of weight fraction.
The weight fraction of TOC represents the quality of source rock from poor to
excellent, as shown in the Table 2.11-1.

Table 2.11-1: Parameters of Total Organic Carbon (TOC)


Quality

TOC (wt%)

Poor

< 0.5

Fair

0.5 to 1

Good

1 to 2

Very good

2 to 5

Excellent

>5

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2.11.2 Typing of Sedimentary Organic Matter


Chemistry is unable to determine the heterogeneity of the organic matter.
However, the optical methods allow the researcher to observe the components in
the complexity, to identify the percursors, microfauna, pollen, spores, tissue
fragments, etc, and to reconstruct the environment of deposition of the organic
matter as well (Bertrand & Pradier, 1992). Optical methods permit the isolation of
specific components for further chemical analyses and it is also important because
this method provide maturity assessment of the organic matter such as vitrinite
reflectance, thermal maturation index and fluorescene.

Typing of sedimentary organic matter is a method which emphasize on the


observation in incident light, historically derived from Coal Petrology is employed
using polished sections. There are two different lights, white light and Ultra Violet
(UV) light. White light allows the observation of images which are formed by
reflectance contrast and Ultra Violet (UV) light or blue light incident excitation
shows images formed by fluorescence emission.

The UV light induces an

electronic excitation of the aromatic structures (chromophores) of the molecules.


The petrographic components that are observed with incident light (reflectance and
fluorescence) are defined as macerals.

Macerals are the microscopic components of the organic matter observed in


incident light. In incident light, the parameter that is used to describe the organic
matter is the maceral description developed for Coal Petrography (Stopes-Heerlen
System). The main maceral groups presented together with their genetic
characteristics are presented in Table 2.11-2.

20

Table 2.11-2: The three maceral groups and their genetic characteristics (After
M. Teichmller, 1989 and after Bertrand and Pradier, 1992)
Maceral groups and macerals
Group

Maceral

Telinite

Cell walls

Collinite

Amorphous (gel/gelified)

Vitrinite

Liptinite

Characteristics

telo

Gel tissue

destro (desmo)

Gel detritus

Corpocollinite

Cell fillings

Vitrodetrinite

Detritus

Sporinite

Spores, pollen

Cutinite

Cuticles

Suberinite

Suberinized cell walls

Fluorinite

Plant oils

Resinite

Resins, waxes, latex

Alginate

Algae

Bituminite

Amorphous (bacterial, algal, faunal


remains)

Inertinite

Chlorophyllinite

Chlorophyll

Liptodetrinite

Detritus

Exudatinite

Secondary exudates

Fusinite

Cell walls (charred, oxidized)

Semifusinite

Cell walls (partly charred, oxidized)

Sclerotinite

Fungal cell walls

Macrinite

Amorphous gel (oxidized, metabolic)

Inertodetrinite

Detritus

Micrinite

Secondary relics of oil generation

21

The characteristics of most maceral change radically through the diagnetic


evolution of the maceral-bearing rocks; consequently the diagnosis is based upon
the rank assessment of the rock itself.

The huminites (in brown coals) and vitrinites (in hard coals) are gelified
materials which mainly derived from botanic tissues. Vitrinite exists in two
principal forms, structured tellinite and structureless collinite. Vitrinite can be
found in highest concentrayion in sediment of terrestrial origin such as coals and
deltaic shales. It is nearly absent in most carbonates.

The liptinites (in brown coals) and the exinites (in hard coals) are derived from
the lipidic resistant parts of the organisms such as spore and pollen exine, cuticles
and variety of vegetal secretions. Due to the similar reflectance and fluorescence
properties, the algae and algal fragments are also in this maceral group as the
secondary macerals generated from kerogen through its thermal evolution. These
thermally generated macerals are of the main important for the petroleum geologist
as they are direct indicator of oil generation.

The inertinites are the most often macerals which have undergone pre- or synsedimentary alteration. Their precursors are plant tissues (fusinite, semifusinite,
inertodetrinite) and sometimes fungal mycelia. Inertinite may also originated from
reworked material, which is an already thermally mature material which has been
eroded and redeposited.

In general, liptinites and exinites show the lowest reflectance and the highest
fluorescence (Bertrand & Pradier, 1992). Besides that, inertinites are highly
reflecting and non-fluorescing macerals. The vitrinites show a reflectance
intermediate between the liptinite/exinites and that of the inertinites; they are nonfluorescing. The macerals characterisation of coals is conducted through point
counting or by automatic methods using computerized image analysis. Macerals
are useful for source rock diagnosis. It is because macerals are mainly related to
biological units and they allow one to better reconstruct the depositional
environment of the source rocks.
22

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY / PROJECT WORK
3.1

Flowchart of methodology
Research methodology for this project has been divided into three categories
which are field work, analysis and documentation. During the outcrop survey,
six outcrops comprised of two outcrops at Bintulu and four outcrops at Mukah
has been studied in terms of structures and stratigraphy. The studies includes
taking strike and dip readings, identifying the sedimentary structures and
lithology description for logging purposes. Stratigraphic logs are produced for
the outcrops at Bintulu and Mukah that represents the Nyalau Formation and
Liang Formation and a possible correlation has been identified. Moreover,
bedding thickness is taken in order to construct the stratigraphic log as part of
the outcrop analysis. In this research, sampling technique of the rocks has been
conducted at different outcrops and beds. The sandstone samples have been
taken to study the lithofacies and coal samples are taken for the study of
potential source rock.

Analysis part of this research involving the coal samples to identify the
potential of hydrocarbon generation. For Total Organic Carbon (TOC), the
samples are crushed to powder form and dried. TOC conducted of coal and
shale rocks to determine the potential source rock within the area of study.
TOC analysis acted as the preliminary analysis where the samples are analysed
to determine the carbon content before proceed to the next analysis which is
the Organic Matter Typing (OMT). OMT analysis was done at Biostratex Sdn
Bhd to determine the type of macerals in the samples particularly coal samples
and thus categorized the macerals into vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite.

Documentation part of this project involving the construction of


topographic map and geological map that distinguish the lithology boundaries
of the area of study. Moreover, after the constructing the maps, a geological
23

cross-section is produced from the geological maps to investigate the lithology


of each study areas.

3.2

Field Observation
The preliminary study has been conducted to guide the author on how to
describe the sedimentary rocks in the field. The study includes the recognition
of lithologies, texture, grain, and primary sedimentary structure and how to
take measurements in the field were discussed in this chapter.

During the field work, the common elements to observe and recorded
are lithologies, rock texture, grain size, primary sedimentary structures, colours
of the sediment, the geometry and relationships of the adjacent beds rock. The
equipment that n are GPS, hand lens, Bruntton compass and geological
hammer to take the samples from the outcrop. Sampling method that will be
used is the bench-by-bench sampling method. The sampling interval will be
decided on the basis of changes in coal lithotypes, with each sample
representing a single bench sample with a bench thickness of not more than 1
m. Pictures of outcrops were taken by using camera.

Sampling is one of the very important steps during conducting a field


work. Samples are retrieved from the particular outcrop(s) must be handled
carefully and the procedures must be followed systematically so that the
sampling activity will not be affected by other disturbance. One of the common
sampling techniques that is used by several researches in studying the Tertiary
coals of Sarawak is bench-by-bench channel sampling. Channel sampling
provides material for grade determination only (Kennedy, 1990). It is
important to equally sample all portions of the zone of interest through this
technique.

24

Geological
Hammer

Hand
Lense

Compass

GPS device

Figure 3.2-1: Tools required during the outcrop survey

3.3

Experimental Analysis
To achieve the objective of the research which is to determine the hydrocarbon
generation potential of the source rock of Liang Formation, two laboratory
analysis were conducted in order to determine the potentiality of the source
rock. The analyses are Total Organic Carbon content (TOC) and Organic
Matter Typing (OMT) analysis. TOC was conducted at the Geochemistry Lab,
Petroleum Geoscience Department, UTP while OMT was conducted at
Biostratex Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur.

3.3.1

Total Organic Carbon Analysis


Procedures:
1. The collected samples were crushed into fine powder (<150m).
2. The crushed sample were placed in the crucible and weighed for
approximately 100mg.
3. The samples were then placed in the oven for three hours to dry.
4. After three hours, the samples were weighed again to determine the weight
of carbon that have lost.
5. After determining the weight of lost carbon, the samples are placed in the
TOC machine and the weight of the lost carbon is inserted into the program.
6. The result of the TOC is represented in a form of graph and percentage of
the total organic carbon.

25

3.3.2

Organic Matter Typing Analysis


Procedures:
1. Samples are crushed to at least 30g.
2. Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) is introduced to the samples for 24 hours to remove
Silica minerals.
3. The samples were dilute for three times.
4. Hydrochloric Acid (10%) was introduced to remove carbonate minerals for
24 hours.
5. Then, dilute again three times
6. The samples are then put into the centrifuge and ZnBr2 is added.
7. Then, cleaning the excessive water and prepare the slide.
8. After the slides are prepared, the OMT analysis can be perforemed by using
the microscope Optica B-350 and several parameters were referred during
the analysis.

26

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1

Sedimentary Log and Cross-Section


The sedimentary logs at Kg. Jepak, Bintulu, Mukah coalfields and MukahBintulu Highway were produced by conducting stratigraphy log columns at
each outcrops. Each logs represents different lithofacies of each layer at the
outcrops.
In general, massive coal beds were observed at most of the outcrops,
especially at Mukah coalfield which are outcrop C, D, E and F. The thickness
of the coal layer are generally up to 5 meter. Other features that can be found
are conglomerate and white clay which is cross-bedded with the sandstone at
Mukah-Bintulu Highway.

27

Figure 4.1-1: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop B (Bintulu)

Description
-Sandstone interbedded with shale
-Fine-grained sediments towards the top of the
layer.
-Alternation between sand dominated and shale
dominated layer.
-Coal
-Very black coal probably due to higher organic
content
-Brittle, easy to break
-Coaly shale
-Dark-grey to light-grey colour
-Very fine-grained
-Sandstone interbedded with shale
-Presence of planar lamination
-Massive sandstone layer consists of boulders
-Maximum diameters of boulder is 70 cm

-Sandstone interbedded with shale


-Shale in light-grey colour
-Very fine-grained

-Highly-weathered and highly-fractured clay


-Light-grey colour

28

Figure 4.1-2: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop C (Mukah)

Description

-Carbonaceous shale.
-Light grey
-Fissile texture
-Easily break when force applied to it

-Shaly coal interbedded with coal, where coal is dominant.


-Fissile texture
-The rock can break easily
-Very fine-grained and well-sorted

-Coaly-shale
-Heavier than carbonaceous shale and coal
-It is a layer of shale dominated by coal
-The facies has darker colour and very fine-grained like silt
-Gradational contact at top and bottom

29

Figure 4.1-3: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop D (Mukah)

Description

-Probably carbonaceous shale


-Light grey colour
-Very fine-grained

-Shaly-coal interbedded with coal.


-Light grey colour

-Massive coal layer


-Very dark colour

30

Figure 4.1-4: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop E (Mukah)

Description

-Massive sandstone layer


-Medium/coarse grained

-Massive coal layer


-Very brittle coal layer

-Carbonaceous shale
-Gradational contact between top and
bottom

-Massive coal layer


-Alternation of darker and lighter coal
can be observed at outcrop

31

Figure 4.1-5: Stratigraphy Log of Outcrop F (Mukah)

Description
-Conglomerate with sand
-Coarser grained
-Gradational contact on top and bottom
-Conglomerate with clay
-Conglomerate is the dominant facies
-The overall layer is mud-like and lighter grey colour

-Sandstone interbedded with white-clay


-Texture of white clay is very soft
-Sandstone is a bit gritty
-Cross-bedding structure between sandstone and clay is
present

-Coarse-grained conglomerate
-Presence of thin coal seam inside the conglomerate

-Greyish-black clay
-Very fine-grained
-Sharp contact at the top and bottom

32

Legend

Conglomerate

Sandstone

Clay

Coal

Shale/Carbonaceous shale

Coaly Shale

Cross-bedding structure

33

Figure 4.1-6: Outcrop B

136

316

B
F

18.75 meter

Layer A has thickness approximately 3.5 to 4 meter. It is highly weathered and highly
fractured clay. Layer B is a sandstone layer with a thickness of 1.3 meter. The
sandstone layer has some boulders around 10 cm -15 cm in diameter. There is shale
lamination in this sandstone layer. The thickness of each laminations is 0.1 to 0.5 cm.
Shale is fine-grained and greyish. Layer C consists of sandstone boulders. Maximum
diameter of the boulders is 0.7 meter. Layer D is sandstone interbedded with shale.
The thickness of Layer D is approximately 2.50 meter. Shale is clay-like and very finegrained. Sandstone has fine-grained also and harder and ductile. In Layer D, there is
alternate layers between sand-dominated layer and shale dominated layer. Layer E
consists of coal. The coals are divided into 2 types, represented by E1 and E2. The
bottom layer is E2, with a thickness of 30 cm. E2 is assumed to be very fine-grained
coaly shale. On top of E2 is E1 with a thickness of 17 cm. It is a very black coal. These
coal is brittle and easy to break. The coal also more exposed out than the sandstone in
other layer. It is probably due to its less resistance to weathering.
34

Figure 4.1-7: Outcrop C

134

312

10 meter

This is the first outcrop we observed at SE3. The dimension of the outcrop is
approximately 7 meter height and 10 meter wide. Based on our observation, we found
that there are 3 different lithology in this outcrop which are coaly shale, shaly coal
interbedded with coal and carbonaceous shale. Whereas the upper part is assumed to
be brown sandstone. The bottom layer is inferred as the coaly shale, with a thickness
of 30 cm. Coaly shale appeared similar to coal however it is more to shale than coal
itself. This lithology is heavier than carbonaceous shale and coal. The middle layer is
shaly coal interbedded with coal. It has the properties of shaly coal which are fissile
structure and light grey in colour. Whereas the coal are very black and has shining
appearance. The coal are brittle and easy to break. Other than that, it can be observed
that the layer has a lot of small fractures. The interbedding layer is approximately 60
to 90 cm thick. The uppermost layer is assumed to be carbonaceous shale. The physical
appearance of the carbonaceous shale is light grey in colour and very fine-grained. The
thickness of carbonaceous shale in this outcrop is approximately 5.6 meter to 6 meter.

35

Figure 4.1-8: Outcrop D


94

272

7.5 meter

This is the second outcrop at SE3. It consists of massive coal layer, shaly coal and
carbonaceous shale. The dimension of the outcrop is around 7 meter height and 7.5
meter wide. The bottommost part of the outcrop is a layer of massive coal where the
coal is very black in colour and brittle. The thickness of the coal layer is approximately
3.20 meter (the persons height around 1.6 meter). On top of the coal layer is a layer
of shaly coal interbedded with coal. The thickness of this layer is approximately 0.15
meter. The upper layer is consists of carbonaceous shale. This layer is the thickest
layer for this outcrop. The thickness is approximately 5 meter.

36

Figure 4.1-9: Outcrop E


336

158

17.5 meter

The dimension of the outcrop is 6.4 meter height and 17.5 meter wide. The outcrop
consists of a massive layer of coal. It can be observed that the coal have alternation of
colour between dark black and light black. The structure of the coal is brittle and easy
to break. The darker coal probably have higher amount of organic matter than the
lighter coal.
At the most right part of the outcrop has a lithology that is assumed to be carbonaceous
shale. It is light grey in colour. On top of the carbonaceous shale is a coal layer. It can
be observed that the coal layer has a thin-white line across it. It is known as tuff. Tuff
is a type of rock that is made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic
eruption.

37

Figure 4.1-10: Outcrop F

156

336

17.5 meter

The outcrop is situated along the road of Mukah-Bintulu Highway. The dimension of
the outcrop is 10 meter by height and 17.5 meter wide. Based on our observation, we
assumed that there are 5 layers of different lithology occurred in this outcrop. The most
right part of the outcrop is assumed to be clay. It is fine-grained, greyish-black clay.
The thickness of the clay is 0.5 meter. Next to the clay layer is a massive conglomerate.
There is a presence of thin coal seam in the conglomerate. Our initial interpretation is
the conglomerate is probably from the Begrih Formation. The thickness of the
conglomerate is 10.13 meter.
The third layer (Layer 3) is sandstone interbedded with clay. It can be observed that
there are several sets of cross-bedding of white clay with red sandstone. This layer has
a thickness of 3.30 meter. The white clay are very soft, mud-like and very fine-grained.
The sandstone is in red colour, probably due to oxidation process.

38

Figure 4.1-11: Cross-bedding of sandstone and clay

From Figure 4-11, it can be clearly seen that the cross-bedding of sandstone
and clay. The sedimentary structure that resembles the cross-bedding is crossbedding trough, as shown in Figure 4-12.

Figure 4.1-12: Cross-bedding trough

39

4.2
4.2.1

Experimental Analysis
Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC)
A total of 25 samples consists of coal, shaly coal and shale samples have been
analysed through Total Organic Carbon. According to Bordenave (1992), TOC
is the first screening parameter for source rock appraisal. Rocks that have TOC
lower than 0.5-1% are known as organically lean rocks, which indicates as
having no source rock potential. Therefore, no further analyses are quested for
such rocks.
The table below shows the result of the TOC analysis and the results
will help the author to identify whether the samples are good, fair, better or
excellent source rock quality.

Table 4.2-1: Results of Total Organic Carbon Content

Locality

Mukah

Bintulu

Potential Source

Sample ID

TOC (%)

Quality

ME/1

17.70

Excellent

Potential Source rock

ME/2

67.50

Excellent

Potential Source rock

ME/3

15.10

Excellent

Potential Source rock

HM/4

64.40

Excellent

Potential Source rock

HM/5

53.70

Excellent

Potential Source rock

J1/6

2.17

Very good

Potential Source rock

J1/7

6.78

Excellent

Potential Source rock

J1/8

5.15

Excellent

Potential Source rock

J1/9

13.00

Excellent

Potential Source rock

J1/10

1.36

Good

Potential Source rock

J1/11

0.73

Fair

Non-source rock

J1/12

1.77

Good

Potential Source rock

J2/13

56.50

Excellent

Potential Source rock

40

Rock

Table 4.2-2: Results of Total Organic Carbon Content

No

Bintulu

Mukah

Potential Source

Sample ID

TOC (%)

Quality

J2/14

22.60

Excellent

Potential source rock

J2/15

5.97

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM1/16

1.80

Good

Potential Source rock

SM1/17

70.90

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM1/18

71.10

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM1/19

27.80

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM1/20

17.70

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM2/21

74.20

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM2/22

7.57

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM2/23

74.70

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM2/24

13.60

Excellent

Potential Source rock

SM2/25

64.90

Excellent

Potential Source rock

Rock

In order to form a good source rock, the TOC value of the rock sample must
be lies in between 1% to more than 5%, below than that would be a non-source rock.
Moreover, to confirm whether the source is potential to generate hydrocarbon or not,
other analyses must be conducted to further verify the value. Therefore, based on the
table above, it can be summarised that most of the coal and shale samples in Mukah,
Balingian, and Bintulu are potential source rock that yields higher TOC values, which
indicates these rocks might able to generate hydrocarbon.

41

4.2.2

Organic Matter Typing


Based on the Organic Matter Typing analysis that was conducted at Biostratex
Sdn. Bhd., the author have identified the organic matter through the thin section
observation under the microscope. The optical magnification that was used to
observe the thin section is 20x/0.4.
For the OMT analysis, eight coal samples from three different outcrops
which are ME, SM1 and SM2 have been sent to Biostratex Sdn. Bhd. For a
period of three weeks including preparation of the thin section. After the thin
sections have been prepared, the author was able to observe the type of organic
matter present in the coal samples under transmitted light and ultraviolet (UV)
light microscope.
The organic matter or specifically macerals, are classified into three
categories which are liptinite, vitrinite and inertinite. Each macerals are were
represents by specific organisms that can be observed under the microscope.
Liptinite is represented by pollen, spores and algae. Under a microscope, the
shape of pollen is round, spores is similar to bean shape and algae has a green
colour on it. Vitrinite is represented by brown wood and inertinite is
represented by black wood.

42

Figure 4.2-1
Sample preparation for Organic Matter Typing (OMT)
analysis. Above: Picture shows the crushed samples in the
centrifuge and undergone kerogen isolation before the
samples were placed in he slide for slide preparation. Below:
The slides are being heated on the hot plate for 55C to dry
before examine under the microscope
Pictures from Biostratex Sdn Bhd

43

Figure 4.2-2

Taken from coal sample ME/3. Red circle shows pollen, which indicates the maceral is
a liptinite. Magnification 20X/0.4

Figure 4.2-3
Taken from coal sample ME/3. Red circle (1) shows cuticle and red circle
(2) shows woody tissue. Cuticle indicates liptinite and woody tissue indicates
vitrinite. However, it depends on which organism is abundance in the coal
sample. Magnification 20X/0.4
44

Figure 4.2-4
Taken from coal sample SM1/20. Red circle shows brown
wood, which indicate vitrinite maceral. Magnification
20X/0.4

Figure 4.2-5
Taken from coal sample SM1/19. Red circle shows spores,
which indicates the maceral is liptinite. Magnification 20X/0.4

45

Figure 4.2-6
Type of organic matter found in the coal samples of Mukah. (1) Black wood with brown edge,
(2) Spores, (3) Spores and (4) Cuticles. Pictures from Biostratex Sdn. Bhd.

46

Table 4.2-3: Organic Matter Type and Thermal Alteration Index for Source Rock at Mukah, Sarawak

Amorphous OM
No.

Sample

1
2

ME/1
ME/2

ME/3
SM
1/17
SM
1/19
SM
1/20
SM
2/23
SM
2/24

4
5
6
7
8

Lithology

NonFluorescing

Fluorescing

Coal
Coal
Shaly
Coal
Shaly
Coal
Shaly
Coal
Shaly
Coal

50
43

2
3

45

43

43

Organic Matter Type (%)


Liptinite
Pollen
Vitrinite
Resinite Cuticles
&
Spores
40
43
1
1
1
41

43

44

42

42

Coal

45

44

Shaly
Coal

41

43

47

Maturity
Thermal
Alteration
Index

Algae

Dinocyst

8
8

2-

2-

2-

2-/2

2-/2

2-/2

Inertinite

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Based on the preliminary result that the author have obtained through
geological survey and laboratory analysis, it can be conclude that the source rock from
Mukah coalfield has the potential to generate hydrocarbon as refer to the Total Organic
Carbon content values. However, more analysis and discussion have to be conducted
to further the analyse the potentiality of the source whether it is good enough to expel
hydrocarbon.

48

REFERENCES
Abdullah, W. H. (1996). Common liptinic constituents of Tertiary coals from the
Bintulu and Merit-Pila coalfield, Sarawak and their relation to oil generation
from coal. Bulletin of The Geological Society of Malaysia, 41, 85-94.

Abdullah, W. H., et al. (2011). Organic-rich sequences of the Miri Formation, Sarawak
Implication for oil-generating potential. National Geoscience Conference. The
Puteri Pacific Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia: 52-53.
A. Law, C. Vitrinite Reflectance. Exploring for Oil and Gas Traps. Retrieved 18 June,
2015, from http://wiki.aapg.org/Vitrinite_reflectance
Automated Research Miscroscope for Materials Science Leica DM6000M. Retrieved
18 June 2015, from http://www.leica-microsystems.com/products/lightmicroscopes/industrial-materials/upright-microscopes/details/product/leicadm6000-m/
Bordnave M. L. (1992). Applied Petroleum Geochemistry. France: TOTAL

Chien, S. P. (1986). Coal potential and exploration in Sarawak. Bulletion of The


Geological Society of Malaysia, 20, 649 - 665.
Hakimi, M. H., Abdullah, W. H., Sia, S.-G., & Makeen, Y. M. (2013). Organic
geochemical and petrographic characteristics of Tertiary coals in the northwest
Sarawak, Malaysia: Implications for palaeoenvironmental conditions and
hydrocarbon generation potential. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 48, 31-46.
doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.07.009
Hakimi, M. H. and W. H. Abdullah (2012). "Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential
from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern
Malaysia." International Journal of Earth Sciences 102(1): 333-348.
Kennedy, B. A. (1990). Surface Mining, Second Edition: Society for Mining,
Metallurgy and Exploration (U.S).
Osvald, P. and I. Sykorova Merit Pila Coal Basin, Malaysia - Geology and Coal
Petrology: 17.
Othman, N. F. and M. H. Bosrooh (2007). "Pyrolysis of Sarawak coals_MERIT-PILA
and MUKAH BALINGIAN." Jurnal Mekanikal No. 24: 47-55.

Petrography, P. C. (2015). Maceral Analysis.


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http://www.coalpetrography.com/blog1/services/maceral-analysis/
49

PETRONAS. (1999). The Petroleum Geology and Resources of Malaysia. Kuala


Lumpur, Malaysia: Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS).
Rosmalia, D. N., et. al. (2014). Tertiary coal-bearing heterolithic packages as low
permeability reservoir rocks in the Balingian Sub-basin, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Bulletion of the Geological Society of Malaysia, 40, 85 - 93.

Sia, S.-G., & Abdullah, W. H. (2010). Preliminary Assessment of the Coalbed


Methane Potential of the Mukah-Balingian Coal Field, Sarawak. Geology
Society of Malaysia(302-304).
Sia, S.-G. and W. H. Abdullah (2011). "Concentration and association of minor and
trace elements in Mukah coal from Sarawak, Malaysia, with emphasis on the
potentially hazardous trace elements." International Journal of Coal Geology
88(4): 179-193.
Sia, S.-G. and W. H. Abdullah (2012). "Enrichment of arsenic, lead, and antimony in
Balingian coal from Sarawak, Malaysia: Modes of occurrence, origin, and
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SR Analyzer.com. Retrieved 18 June, 2015, from http://www.sranalyzer.com/

50

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: GANTT CHART FOR FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1
Month/Week No.
MAY

Agenda
1

JUNE
2

JULY
5

Selection of Project Topic


Meeting with lecturer
Preliminary research work
Submission of draft of
extended proposal
Submission of Extended
Proposal
Dry-run of Proposal Defence
Proposal Defence
Analysis of Literature Review
Submission of Interim Draft
Report
Submission of Interim Report

Key Milestone

51

10

AUGUST
11

12

13

14

APPENDIX 2: GANTT CHART FOR FINAL YEAR PROJECT II


Month/Week No
SEPT

Agenda
1

OCTOBER
2

NOVEMBER

Project work continues


Field Trip
Submission of draft of
progress report
Submission of progress
report
Sample preparation
Interpretation
Pre-SEDEX
Submission of draft Final
Report
Submission of Dissertation
(soft bound)
Submission of Technical
Paper
Viva
Submission of Project
Dissertation (hard bound)

Key Milestone
52

DECEMBER
10

11

12

13

14

APPENDIX 3: FINAL YEAR PROJECT KEY MILESTONES

53