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Tools and equipment should be used only for the task they were designed to do.
Always have a safe attitude when using tools and equipment.
Do not use damaged tools; inspect before using, then clean and inspect again before putting them away.
Lockouts and tagouts are meant to prevent technicians from using tools and equipment that are
potentially unsafe.
Many tools and measuring instruments have USCS or metric system markings to identify their size.
Compressed air systems are comprised of a compressor, a pressure regulator, an air hose or fixed piping,
and the tool to be powered.
Standard compressors use a piston to force air into a storage tank, while scroll compressors use rotating
scrolls to compress air.
Always use caution: Compressed air injuries can be fatal.
Many compressed air systems use air driers to remove all traces of moisture from the compressed air.
Automatic oilers provide a regular application of lubricating oil to the stream of compressed air which
then lubricates air tools and equipment.
Chassis dynamometers allow technicians to run vehicles at road speed without leaving the shop.
Threaded fasteners include bolts, studs, and nuts, and are designed to secure vehicle parts under stress.
Torque defines how much a fastener should be tightened.
Bolts, nuts, and studs use threads to secure each part; these threads can be in standard or metric
measures.
Thread pitch refers to the coarseness of the thread; USCS bolts, nuts, and studs are measured in threads
per inch (tpi), classified as coarse (UNC) or fine (UNF).
Fasteners are graded by tensile strength (how much tension can be withstood before breakage).
The SAE rates fasteners from grade 1 to grade 8; always replace a nut or bolt with one of the same grade.
Torque specification indicates the level of tightness each bolt or nut should be tightened to; torque charts
list torque specifications for nuts and bolts.
Torque (or tension) wrenches tighten fasteners to the correct torque specification.
Torque valuethe amount of twisting force applied to a fastener by the torque wrenchis specified in
foot-pounds, inch-pounds, or newton meters.
Torque wrench styles are beam (simplest and least expensive), clicker, dial, and electronic. Each gives an
indication of when proper torque is achieved.
Bolts that are tightened beyond their yield point do not return to their original length when loosened.
Torque-to-yield (TTY) bolts can be torqued just beyond their yield point, but should not be reused.
Torque angle can be used to tighten TTY bolts and requires both a torque wrench and an angle gauge.
Common wrenches include box end, open end, combination (most popular), flare nut (or flare tubing),
open-end adjustable, and ratcheting box end.
Box-end wrenches can loosen very tight fasteners, but open-end wrenches usually work better once the
fastener has been broken loose.
Use the correct wrench for the situation, so as not to damage the bolt or nut.
Sockets grip fasteners tightly on all six corners and are purchased in sets.
Sockets are classified as follows: standard or metric, size of drive used to turn them, number of points,
depth of socket, and thickness of wall.
The most common socket handle is a ratchet; a breaker bar gives more leverage, or a sliding T-handle
may be used.
Fasteners can be spun off or on (but not tightened) by a speed brace or speeder handle.
Pliers hold, cut, or compress materials; types include slip-joint, combination, arc joint, needle nose, flat,
diagonal cutting, snap ring, and locking.
Always use the correct type of pliers for the job.

Cutting tools include bolt cutters, tin snips, and aviation snips.
Allen wrenches are designed to fit into fasteners with recessed hexagonal heads.
Screwdriver types include flat blade (most common), Phillips, Pozidriv, offset, ratcheting, and impact.
The tip of the screwdriver must be matched exactly to the slot or recess on the head of a fastener.
Magnetic pickup tools and mechanical fingers allow for the extraction and insertion of objects in tight
places.
Types of hammers include ball peen (most common), sledge, mallet, and dead blow.
Chisels are used to cut metals when hit with a hammer.
Punches are used to mark metals when hit with a hammer and come in different diameters and different
points for different tasks; types of punches include prick, center, drift, pin, ward, and hollow.
Pry bars can be used to move, adjust, or pry parts.
Gasket scrapers are designed to remove gaskets without damaging surrounding materials.
Files are used to remove material from the surface of an automotive part.
Flat files come in different grades to indicate how rough they are; grades are rough, coarse bastard,
second cut, smooth, and dead smooth.
Types of files include flat, warding, square, triangular, curved, and thread.
Bench vices, offset vices, drill vices, and C-clamps all hold materials in place while they are worked on.
Taps are designed to cut threads in holes or nuts; types include taper, intermediate, and bottoming.
A die is used to cut a new thread on a blank rod or shaft.
Gear and bearing pullers are designed to remove components from a shaft when considerable force is
needed.
Flaring tools create flares at the end of tubes to connect them to other components; types include single,
double, and ISO.
Rivet tools join together two pieces of metal; each rivet can be used only once.
Solder is a mixture of metals, often in the form of a wire, that is melted with a soldering gun or iron to
join metals together.
Measuring tapes and steel rules are commonly used measuring tools; more precise measuring tools
include micrometers, gauges, calipers, dial indicators, and straight edges.
Micrometers can be outside, inside, or depth.
Learn to read micrometer measurements on the sleeve/barrel and thimble; always verify the micrometer
is properly calibrated before use.
Gauges are used to measure distances and diameters; types include telescoping, split ball, and dial bore.
Vernier calipers measure outside, inside, and depth dimensions; newer versions have dial and digital
scales.
Dial indicators are used to measure movement.
A straight edge is designed to assess the flatness of a surface.
Feeler blades are flat metal strips that are used to measure the width of gaps.
Power tools can be stationary or portable, corded or cordless, and are powered by electricity, batteries,
compressed air, a propellant, or a gasoline engine.
Drills are designed to drive a drill bit into metal (or other material) to create a hole; check drilling speed
charts for proper drilling speed.
Portable grinders are designed to grind down metals, but can also be fitted with a cutting disc to cut
sheets of metal.
Air tools use compressed, pressurized air for power; types include the air impact wrench, air ratchet, air
hammer, air drill, and blowgun/air nozzle.
Always wear eye and ear protection when using air tools; never use air nozzles on yourself or other
people.
Pressure washers/cleaners use focused, pressurized water to clean accumulated dirt and grease from
vehicle components; water must be directed properly so as not to damage other parts.
Familiarize yourself with pressure washer operating instructions and waste water disposal regulations.

Spray wash cabinets are designed to clean automotive parts in a sealed cabinet, much like a dishwasher.
Solvent tanks are designed for immersion of vehicle parts to remove oil, dirt, grease, and grime; always
note the type of solvent being used and take necessary precautions.
Brake washers are designed to remove brake dust from wheel brake units and their components.
Sand or bead blasters are designed to clean paint, corrosion, or dirt from metal parts by blasting small
abrasive particles onto the surface.
Thread repair is performed to restore fastening integrity to a damaged fastener.
Threads can be reshaped with a file, or a thread insert may be used.
Oxyacetylene torches are designed to heat, braze, weld, and cut metal by combining acetylene with
oxygen at a high temperature.
Flashback arrestors prevent flames from traveling back up the hose in the event the oxygen and acetylene
ignite inside the torch handle (flashback).
Wear protective clothing and gear when using an oxyacetylene torch and follow all related safety
precautions.
Plasma cutters are designed to cut various thicknesses of metal and are an alternative to oxyacetylene
torches.
A wire feed welder has a filler rod automatically feeding into the welding joint at an adjustable rate.
Battery chargers can be fast or slow, depending on current output; smart chargers calculate and provide
the correct amount of charge needed for the battery.
Vehicle batteries can be dangerous due to their high voltage; hybrid vehicle batteries have extremely
high voltage and current flows.
Batteries should be charged slowly, if possible.
Jump-starting a vehicle places a stress on both vehicles; the current can damage electrical components in
both vehicles.
Keep work area, tools, and equipment clean and organized.