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UniversityofthePhilippines

CollegeofArtsofSciences
DepartmentofHumanKinetics

P.E.1CD1HANDOUT

PhysicalActivityinvolvesanybodilymovementcausedbymuscularcontractionthat
resultintheexpenditureoftheenergy.

Exerciseisaplannedprogramsofphysicalactivitiesdesignedtoimprovephysicalfitness.
PhysicalFitnesstheabilitytoperformonesdailytaskwithvigorandalertnesswithout
unduefatigueandwithampleenergyforleisuretimeactivityandto
meetunforeseenemergency.

PROBLEMSASSOCIATEDWITHINACTIVITY

1.

Obesity

5.Hypertension

2.

Backpain

6.Diabetes

3.

Tensionsyndrome

7.Pronetocardiovasculardiseases

4.

Emotionalinstability

BENEFITSOFPHYSICALACTIVITY
1.

Improvespsychologicalfunctioning.

2.

Improvesappearance.

3.

Increasedefficiencyoftheheartandlungs.

4.

Increasedmusclestrengthandendurance.

5.

Protectionfromlowerbackproblems.

6.

Maintenanceofproperbodyweight.

7.

Possibledelayintheagingprocess.

8.

Reducedtheriskofcardiovasculardiseases.

9.

Reducedstressresponse.

COMPONENTSOFPHYSICALFITNESS
1.

HEALTHRELATEDCOMPONENT

Hasadirectrelationshiptogoodhealthandreducedtheriskof
hypokineticdiseases.
A.

BODYCOMPOSITIONtherelativepercentageofthemuscle,fat,

bone,andothertissuesthatcomprisethebody.
B.

CARDIOVASCULARENDURANCEtheabilityoftheheart,blood

vessels,blood,andrespiratorysystemtosupplyfuelandoxygentothe
musclestoutilizefueltoallowsustainedexercise.
C.

FLEXIBILITYtheabilityofmuscletomovetoeachfullrangeofmotion.

BASICFACTSABOUTFLEXIBILITY
1.

Inactivitycontributestopoorflexibility.

2.

Decreased flexibility with age usually caused by inactivity. Because people become less
activeastheygetolder.

3.

Femalesareusuallymoreflexiblethanmalesofthesameage.Thereasonwhy,theytendto
participatemoreinactivitiesthatpromoteflexibility,suchasdanceandgymnastics.

4.

Excessive body fat usually limits flexibility. Fat deposits acts as a wedge between moving
partsofthebody,thusrestrictingmovement.

5.

Participationinsomeactivitiesimprovesflexibility.

6.

Flexibilityisspecifictoeachjoint.

7.

Poorflexibilitycancontributetopoorposture.

8.

Poorflexibilityisoftenassociatedwithincreasedtensionandpain.

9.

Muscleimbalancemayreduceflexibility.

10. Skilloftendependsonhighlevelofflexibility.
11. Increaseinflexibilityhelpspreventmusclerelatedinjuries.
12. Increaseflexibilityhelpsreducemusclesoreness.
13. Toomuchflexibilitymaybeharmful.Whenjointsareoverstretched,ligamentsandmuscles
tendtoloseelasticityandmayremainlengthenedratherthanreturningtotheiroriginalsize.
Ifthishappens,ajointmaybecomelessstableandbecomemorepronetoinjury.

STRETCHINGincreasesextensibilityandreducestheresistanceofthemuscles.Italsoproducesmore
efficientmusclecontractionsandreducesthechancesofinjuryandsoreness.
BENEFITSOFSTRETCHING
1.

Optimize the athletes learning, practice, and performance of many types of skilled
movements.

2.

Increaseanathletesmentalandphysicalrelaxation.

3.

Promotedevelopmentofbodyawareness.

4.

Reduceriskofjointsprainormusclestrain.

5.

Reduceriskofbackproblems.

6.

Reducemusclesoreness.

7.

Reducemuscletension.
TYPESOFSTRETCHING

1.

Staticinvolvesstretchingtothefarthestpointandholdingthestretch.
Advantages:
a.

Simpletolearnandeasytoexecute;

b.

requireslittleexpenditureofenergy;

c.

permitssemipermanentchangeinlengthandcanindulgemuscularrelaxation
viafirming.

Disadvantage:
d.

Lackofspecificity.

2.

BallisticandDynamicinvolvesbobbling,rebounding,andrhythmic

typesofmovement.
Advantage:
a.Thefunofbouncingmotionwouldinsensiblystretchandhighlight
littlemusclefibersthatwouldhavenototherwise.

Disadvantages:
a.

Failstoprovideadequatetimeforthetissuetoadapttothestretch;and

b.

initiatesthestretchreflexandtherebyincreasesmusculartension,makingit
moredifficulttostretchtheconnectivetissues.

3.Passiveyouarerelaxedandmakingnocontributiontotherangeofmotion.
Stretchwithpartner.

Advantages:
a.

It is effective when the agonist (primary muscle responsible for the


movement)istooweaktorespond;

b.

itpreferredwhentheelasticityofthemusclestobestretched(antagonists)
restrictsflexibility;

c.

itallowsstretchingbeyondonesactiverangeofmotion;

d.

itprovidesareserveforincreasingthejointsactivemobility;

e.

itcanpromoteteamcamaraderiewithathletesstretchwithpartners.

Disadvantage:
a.

Greaterriskofsorenessandinjuryifpartnerappliestheexternal

forceincorrectly.
5.

Activeisaccomplishedusingyourownmusclesandwithoutanyfrom

externalforce.E.g.Freeactivestretchingstandinguprightandlifting
onelegtoa100degree.

Advantages:
a.

Itdevelopsactiveflexibility;

b.

strengthentheweakagonist;

c.

easiertoworkintoastretchingroutinebecauseitdoesnotrequireapartner
orotherequipment.

Disadvantage:
a.

Itmayinitiatesthestretchreflexandthatitmayineffectiveinthe

presenceofcertaindysfunctionandinjuriessuchassevere
sprains,inflammations,orfractures.

8BASICSTRETCHINGEXERCISES
1.

CALFSTRETCH

2.SITTINGSTRETCH
3.

HIPANDTHIGHSTRETCH

4.HAMSTRINGSTRETCH
5.

LEGHUG

6.

TRUNKTWIST

7.PECTORALSTRETCH
8.

ARMSTRETCH

D. MUSCULARENDURANCEtheabilityofmuscletoperformheavyphysicalwork,
continuouslyforanextendedperiodoftime.
Performance of such task depends on the ability of the body to deliver oxygen to the
workingmusclestoextractandusethisoxygen.
PROPERTIESOFSKELETALMUSCLES
1.

Excitability the ability to receive and respond to stimulation from


thenervoussystem.

2.

Extensibility the muscles ability to stretch past its normal resting


length.

3.

Contractibilitytheabilitytodevelopinternalforceortension.

4.

Elasticitythemusclesabilitytoreturntoitsnormallength.

E.MUSCULARSTRENGTHtheabilityofmusclestoexertanexternalforce
ortoliftaheavyweight.

TYPESOFMUSCULARCONTRACTION
1.

Isotonicarethoseinwhicharesistanceisraisedandthen

lowered, as in weight training. (also called dynamic or


phasic).
PHASESOFISOTONICCONTRACTION

a.Concentricshorteningofthemuscle.
b.Eccentriclengtheningofthemuscle.
2.

Isometricarethoseinwhichnomovementtakesplacewhileaforceis

exertedagainstanimmovableobject(alsoknownasstatic
contraction).Musclesremainthesamelength.
3.

Isokinetic isotonic concentric contraction done with a machine that


regulatesmovement,velocity,andresistance.

TYPESOFMUSCLEFIBERS
1.

2.

FastTwitchGlycolytic(FG)Fibers

Anaerobic

Donotdependonoxygenfortheirenergysupply.

Responsibleforpowerand/orspeedactivities(E.g.sprintingandweights).

Forfasthighintensitywork.

Contractsquickly.

Fatigueseasily.

SlowTwitchOxidative(SO)Fibers

Aerobic

Requireoxygenforcontinuouscontraction.

Forenduranceactivities(longdistancerunning,andcyclingtour).

Forslow.Lowintensitywork.

Contractsslowly.

Fatigueresistant.

3.

FastTwitchOxidativeGlycolytic(FOG)Fibers.

Liesomewhereinbetweenbothfibers,butclosertoFG.

NOTE: Individualswithalargerpercentageoffasttwitchfiberwillgenerallyincreasemusclesizeand
strength more readily than individuals endowed with a large percentage of slowtwitch fibers. High
percentageofslowtwitchfiberhasgreaterpotentialformuscularenduranceperformance.Regardlessof
genetics,allpeoplecanimprovetheirstrengthandmuscularendurancewithpropertraining.

WEIGHTTRAININGEXERCISESFORMUSCULARSTRENGTH
1.

Anteriormuscleinupperlegs
o

QuadricepsGroup
a.

RectusFemoris

b.

VastusIntermedius

c.

VastusLateralis

d.

VastusMedialis

Exercises:LegPressHalfSquat
2.

MusclesinChestandUpperArms
a.

PectoralisMinorandMajor

b.

AnteriorDeltoid

c.

Biceps

d.

Triceps

Exercises:BenchPressMilitaryPress
ParallelDipsTwoArmCurl

3.

PosteriorMusclesinUpperLegs
o

HamstringGroup
a.

Semimembranosus

b.

Semitendinosus

c.

BicepsFemoris

Exercises:HipExtension
LegCurls
4.

MusclesAssociatedwithShouldersAndUpperBack
a.

Trapezius

b.

Rhomboids

c.

Deltoids

d.

Latissimus

Exercises:LateralPullDown
BentoverRowing5.
5.PosteriorMusclesinLowerLegs
e.

Gastrocnemius

f.

Soleus

(beneathgastrocnemius)

Exercise:CalfRaise

6.AbdominalMuscles
g.

RectusAbdominis

h.

Internal&ExternalObliqueMuscle

Exercises:VSit
WEIGHTTRAININGGUIDELINES&SAFETY
1.

Warmupshouldprecedeallresistanceexercises.

2.

Muscles must be overloaded that is, exercised against near maximum resistance to increase
strength&endurance.

3.

Theoverloadmustbeprogressivethroughoutthedurationoftheprogram.

4.

Largermusclegroupsshouldbeexercisedbeforethesmallergroups.

5.

Notwosuccessiveliftsorexercisesshouldinvolvethemusclegroup.

6.

Breathingbreatheoutwhileperformingyourliftandbreatheinwhilereturningtothestarting
position.

7.

Trainwithothersforspottingandmotivation.

8.

Speedloweringphase4sec.,liftingphase2sec.

9.

WeightsandCollars.

10. Makeyourexerciseinterestingthemajordifficultiesoffitnessprogramsmaintainingahigh
level of motivation. Poorly designed programs lead to boredom & high dropout rates. Be
creative in setting up your sequence of exercises; that is, set individual goals, rotate types of
strengthexercisesandvarytheprogressionofthevariousexercises.

NOTE:Theintensityofmusclefitnesstrainingisdeterminedusingapercentageoftheamountofweight
youcanliftonetime(1RM).Theamountofresistanceyoucanmove(orweightyoucanlift)onetimeis
called your one repetition maximum (RM). The amount of resistance you can use in a progressive
resistanceprogramisbasedonapercentageofyour1RM.
.SKILLRELATEDCOMPONENT
Issometimescalledfitnessormotorfitness.
a.

Speedtheabilitytoperformamovementinashortperiodoftime.

b.

Agilitytheabilitytorapidlyandaccuratelychangethedirectionofthemovementoftheentire
bodyinspace.

c.

Powertheabilitytotransferenergyintofreeforceatafastrate.

d.

Balancethemaintenanceofequilibriumwhilestationaryormoving.

e.

Coordinationtheabilitytousethesenseswiththebodypartstoperformmotortaskssmoothly
andaccurately.

f.

Reaction Time the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of reaction to that
stimulation.

PRINCIPLESOFTRAINING

Immediately there is a correct dosage of medicine for treating an illness; there is a correct
dosageofphysicalactivityforpromotinghealthbenefitsanddevelopingphysicalfitness.
A.
Overload Principle indicates that doing more than the normal is necessary if
benefitsaretooccur.Inorderforamuscle(includingtheheartmuscle)togetstronger,itmust
beoverloadedorworkedagainstaloadgreaterthanthenormal.
For physical activity to be effective, it must be done with enough frequency and
intensity,andforlongenoughtime.
1.

Frequency(howoften)

2.

Intensity(howhard)

3.

Time/Duration(howlong)

F I T : a formula used to describe the frequency, intensity, and length of time for
physicalactivitytoproducebenefits.(WhenFITTisused,thesecondTreferstothetypeof
physicalactivityyouperform).
B.PROGRESSIONindicatestheneedtograduallyincreaseoverloadto
achieveoptimalbenefits.
C.REVERSIBILITYindicatesthatdisuseorinactivityresultsinlossof
benefitsachievedinoverloading.

D.SPECIFICITYindicatesaneedforaspecificenergysystemand
musclepart.

GeneralAspectsofTrainingSpecificity
1.

2.

Metabolictrainingaspecificenergysystem.
a.

Oxygen System is utilized during endurance exercises


lastinglongertime.

b.

Lactic Acid is utilized during exercise bouts of every high


intensity conducted at a maximal rates for about 1 to 2
minutes.

c.

ATPPC is utilized for quick, maximal exercises, such as


sprinting,lastingabout1to6seconds.

Neuromusculartrainingofspecificmusclegroup.

E.RECUPERATIONrestisessentialifyouwishtobenefityourexercise
program.
Adayortwoisadequate.Excessiveperiodsofrestmayleadtodeteriorationinfitness.
F.WARMUP/COOLDOWNlowlevelexerciseusedtoincreasemuscletemperatureandor
tostretchthemusclebeforestrenuousexercise,followedbyagentlestretching.Itassiststhe
pumpingoftheheartfromtheextremitiesbacktotheheart.
Sudden strenuous exercise may lead to an abnormal heart rhythm that could be
dangeroustosomeonewithhiddenheartproblems.

CARDIORESPIRATORYENDURANCEistheabilityoftheheart,bloodvessels,blood
andthelungstosupplyoxygenandnutrientstoworkingmusclesefficientlyduring
sustainedphysicalactivity.

A. METHODSFORASSESSINGINTENSITYFORCARDIOVASCULARFITNESS
1.

HeartRate

Apersonwhodoesnotexerciseregularly,heartwillbeat7075timesperminute.

Itiscausedbytheimpactofbloodonthearteriesasheartcontracts.

With regular exercise, your heart becomes stronger and more efficient which
resultinareductioninyourrestingheartrate.

Physicallyactiveindividualshavelowerrateduetohigherefficiencyoftheheart
muscleandchangesinthenervoussystem.

Sedentaryindividualshavehigherrestingheartrate.

Theclosingofthevalvesoftheheartcausestheheartsoundsthatmaybeheard
withastethoscope.

Lubbdupp. Lubb, as atrioventricular closes when the contraction of the


ventriclestakesplace.Atthistimetheothertwovalves,theaorticandpulmonary
valvesareopenasbloodisbeingejectedfromtheheart.

dupp closing of the valves in the aorta and pulmonary arteries as the heart
againisfillingwithblood.

Heart murmurs, heart does not function properly abnormal sound may be
heard.

RATING

RESTINGHEARTRATE
(BEATS/MIN)

EXCELLENT

60

GOOD

60 69

AVERAGE

70 79

FAIR

80 89

POOR

89

HEARTRATETRAININGEFFECT
1.

SUBTRACTYOURAGEFROM220
22017=203===ESTIMATEDMAXIMUMHEARTRATE

2.

FINDRESTINGHEARTRATEBYTAKINGYOURPULSEFOR1MINUTE.
SHORTLYAFTERYOURISEINTHEMORNING
Example:80beats/min.

3.

SUBTRACTRESTINGHEARTRATEFROMMAXIMUMHEARTRATE
MULTIPLYTHEDIFFERENCEBY70%
20380=(123)(.70)=86.1==TARGETHEARTRATE

4.

ADDTHEPRODUCTTOTHERESTINGHEARTRATE
86.1+80=166.1==TRAININGEFFECTLEVEL

2.

MAXIMUMOXYGENINTAKE(VO2max)

Oxygenuseismonitoredminutebyminuteasexercisebecomesharderand
harder. When the exercise becomes very hard, oxygen use reaches its
maximum. The highest amount oxygen used in one minute of maximum
intensityphysicalactivityisyourmaximumoxygenuptake.

Thegreaterthepaceorintensityoftraining,thegreaterwillbetheoxygen
consumption.

Thegreaterpercentageofmaximumoxygenconsumptionrequiredduringan
activity,thelesstimeactivitymaybecompleted.

OurrangeofVO2MAXisinheritedbutcanbeimprovedtoitshighestrange
thrutraining.

B. STROKEVOLUMEitistheejectionofbloodastheheartcontracts.

C.

Averagepersonatrest,SVis70ml.Physicallytrainedpersonwithstronger
heartcanpumpasmuchas100mlwitheachcontraction.

CARDIAC OUTPUT amount of blood the heart circulates each minute. 56 liters, it is not
dependentonfitnesslevel.

Example:Untrainedperson
CardiacOutput=HRXSV
=72X70
=5040ml/min.
=5.04L/min.1000ml=1L

NOTE:Astheheartbecomesstrongerwithregularexercise,itcanpumpmoreblood
eachtimeitcontracts,anditthereforedoesnothavetobeatasfrequentlyto
circulatethesameamountofblood.
D. BLOODPRESSUREistheamountofforcethatthebloodexertsagainstthearterywalls.

BLOODPRESSURECLASSIFICATIONFORADULTS*
CATEGORY

SYSTOLICBLOOD
PRESSURE

DIASTOLICBLOOD
PRESSURE

(MmHg)

(MmgHg)

Goal

120

80

Normal

130

85

HighNormal

130139

8589

Stage1Hypertension

140159

9099

Stage2Hypertension

160179

100109

Stage3Hypertension

180

110

SOURCE:NATIONALINSTITUTEFORHEALTH,1997.

NOTE:Nottakingantihypertensivedrugsandnotacutelyill.Whenthesystolicandthediastolicblood
pressurecategoriesvary.Thehigherreadingdeterminesthebloodpressureclassification.

Bloodpressurechangesconstantlyduringcardiaccycle.Eachtimethe
heartcontracts;bloodpressuregoesupasmorebloodisforcedfrom
theheartintothearterialsystem.

SYSTOLICBLOODPRESSUREtheupperbloodpressurenumberoften
called working blood pressure in the arteries at its lowest level
occurringjustbeforethenextbeatoftheheart.(Contractionphaseof
thecardiaccycle)

DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE the lower blood pressure number


oftencalledrestingpressure.Itisthepressureinthearteriesatits
lowest level occurring just before the next beat of the heart.
(Relaxationphaseofthecardiaccycle)

E.

AEROBICANDANAEROBICEXERCISES

AEROBICactivitiesusinglargemusclegroupsatanintensitythatcanbesustainedfor
alongperiodinwhichthebodyisabletoprovidesufficientenergyaerobically.

ANAEROBIC a high intensity activitythatcan be sustained for only a shortperiod in


whichenergydemandsaregreaterthanthecapacityoftheheartandcirculatorysystem
tosupplytheenergy.Lacticacidisproducedwiththisprocess,andanaccumulationof
lacticacidinthebodycontributesmusclefatigue.

HumanEnergySystem
1.

2.

3.

EnergysourcethatinvolvestwoenergyrichcompoundsATP(Adenosinetriphosphate)andPC
(phosphocreatine)thatstoreddirectlyinthemuscletissue.

Whenmuscleisstimulatedthroughexercise,ATPandPCbreakdownandrelease
immediateenergyformuscularcontraction.

EnergyfromATPPCisavailableonlyforabriefperiodbecauseonlyverysmallamounts
ofthesecompoundsarestoredinthemuscle.ThisconceptisknownasAnaerobic
(withoutoxygen).

Energysourceduringexerciseissupportedbysugar,whichisstoredinthemusclesintheformof
glycogen.

Whenglycogenisbreakdown,thereleasedenergyproducesmoreATP.

Whenglycogenisburnedintheabsenceofoxygen,itgivesoffanendproductcalled
LacticAcid,whichresultsinmusclefatigue.

Thisenergysystemislimitedtoactivitiesthatlastapproximatelyonetotwominutes.If
exercisecontinuesbeyondthistime,thebodyisrequiredtodrawuponoxygen,the
thirdenergysourceavailableduringexercise.

TheoxygensystemcanbeusebothglycogenandfatsasfuelfortheproductionofATP.

Lacticacid,alongwiththeaccumulationofcalcium2+(ions)andheat,aremajorfactors
inmusclefatigue.

Whenoxygenisusedthroughacomplexprocessthatoccursinthemusclecells,the
oxygenpreventsthebuildupoflacticacidandpromotestheresynthesisofATPfor
energy.

ThissystemisreferredtoasAerobic(withoxygen)andisusedprimarilyinendurance
activities.

F.

BEFOREEXERCISE
1.

PRINCIPLESTOBECONSIDERED:
a.)

INTENSITY(howhardshouldIexercise?)

Degreeofstressfulnessoftheexercise

Lowintensitylevelforbeginners

Basedonageandfitness:
*pulserateof110to160beats/minformiddle
agedindividuals.
*pulserateof140to160beats/minuteforyoungpeople.

b.)

c.)

DURATION(howlongshouldIexercise?)

Dependsuponthegoalandintensityoftheexercise.

Minimumof1520minutesforbeginners.

Increaseto30minutessofitnesslevelimproves.

FREQUENCY(howoftenshouldIexercise?)

3to4days/weekworkouts

1to2days(2428hours)rest

2.

Strenuous exercise twice a week overstresses the body and


thecardiorespiratorysystemwithoutbenefits.

The more intensive, the longer, and the more frequent is


trainingprogram,thegreaterthecardiorespiratorybenefits.

EXERCISEPRECAUTIONS
a.)

Get a thorough physical examination before the conditioning


program.

b.)

The program is too rigorous if fatigue lasts for 2 hours or more


followinganexercisesession;reducelevelofexercise.

c.)

Alcohol and exercise do not mix because alcohol constricts the


coronaryvesiclesforheartmuscle.

d.)

Cigarette smoking limits oxygen exchange in lungs thus,


preventinghighleveloffitnessattachment.

e.)

Remembertousetheheartrateasaguidetotheintensityofthe
exercise.

f.)

Occasionalexercisemaybedetrimentaltohealth;3to5exercise
sessionsaweekareminimalforoptimumbenefits.

NOTE: IF ANY OF THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE YOUR ARE EXERCISING
STOPANDCONSULTAPHYSICIANBEFORECONTINUINGYOUREXERCISEPROGRAM:

a. Fluttering,palpitation,missedorextraheartbeats,
sudden bursts or rapid heart beat, or a sudden
slowingofrapidpulse.

b. Pressure or pain in the center of the chest, left


arm,fingers,orthroat.

c. Dizziness, fainting, nausea, cold sweat, or light


headedness.

d. Shortnessofbreathorinabilitytoattainsufficient
oxygen.
G.DURINGEXERCISE

a.)STITCHONTHESIDE:painfeltinthelowerpartcausedbylackofblood

supplytotheliver.

b.)SECONDWIND:feelingofrelieffromtheeffectsoffatigue.

H.AFTEREXERCISE

COOLINGDOWNORWARMDOWN

PROBLEMSDUETOOVEREXERCISE
g.)

Soreness

h.)

Feelingofheaviness

i.)

Inabilitytorelax

j.)

Sleepingdifficulties

k.)

Reducedskillperformance

l.)

Jointpains

m.)

Lossofappetite

n.)

Feelingofanxietyandnervousness

I.CARDIORESPIRATORYTRAININGEFFECTSATREST

Pulseistypicallylowerinthetrainedthanintheuntrainedindividual.Theheartbeats
(pulses) fewer times per minute and pumps out a greater volume of blood (stroke volume), as a
consequence,oftraining(particularlytrainingoftheendurancekind).Asaresult,theheartmuscles
usetheenergynecessaryforitscontractionmoreefficiently.

Thesizeoftheheartincreasesasaresultoftraining(hypertrophy).Thoseparticipating
inendurancetypetrainingexperienceanincreaseinsize,particularlyintheleftventricle,thelargest
and the most muscular of the hearts four chambers. In persons whose training stresses relatively
shortperiodsofheightenedeffort(wrestlers,track&field,weightthrowers,andweightlifters),the
wallsoftheleftventriclethicken,butthereisnoincreaseinsize.

Cardiorespiratoryendurancetendstoincreasethefollowing:
1.

LeanBodyMass

2.

Densityandstrengthofbones,ligaments,andtendons.

3.

Sensitivitytoinsulin(helpspreventadultonsetdiabetes).

4.

Abilitytoexerciseduringhotweather.

5.

Performanceinsports,recreational,andwork.

6.

Feelingsofwellbeing.

7.

Selfconcept

CardiorespiratoryEnduranceexercisetendstodecreasethefollowing:
1.

Totalbodyfat

2.

Strainassociatedwithstress

3.

Anxietyanddepression

4.

Risk of death from coronary artery disease, colon cancer, and some types of reproductive
cancers(women).

J.PSYCHOLOGICALEFFECTS:

Chemicalchangesinthebrainduringaerobicexerciseinduceafeelingofeuphoriasimilartoa
druginducedhigh.Thesefeelingsmaybecausedbyamorphinelikesubstancethatisreleasedintothe
bloodstream.

Prolonged, submaximal aerobic exercise increases the betaendorphin levels. Betaendorphins


arenaturalopioiodsthatareproducedinthebrainandcontributetotheregulationofbloodpressure,
painperceptionandcontrolofbodytemperature.

Increase alpha brain waves, which are associated with a relaxed state of mind, alpha waves
appear20minutejogandcanstillbemeasuredafterexercisehasstopped.