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Another reason would be the Romanians - hospitable, welcoming, a special experience,

very different.
The Danube Delta, with its 5,600 km2 is natural ecological landscape of global
importance. Here live more than 300 species of birds. Delta can be accessed using boats, canoes
and boats with sail.
Another rare treasure of ecological space is the Romanian Carpathians area lying across
the country as a huge arc of 900 km. Nowhere in Western and Central Europe exist a compact
wooded land so large. The Carpathians are home to over a quarter of all wolves, bears and
lynxes in Europe. Romania has more than 800 protected lands, including 11 national parks and 6
natural parks. Delta Dunarii, Muntii Retezat, Muntii Rodna were declared biosphere reserves.
Piatra Craiului and Parcul National Retezat are just two of the most developed targets which
give the name "eco" a new dimension and quality. To these are added the more than ten thousand
caves in the country, headed by the Muntii Apuseni and Southwest Carpatian Mountains
(Mehedinti) are ecological attractions of an intact landscape that inspires the viewer.
Romania is, undoubtedly, a place close to all hikers and travelers that wish to spend their
holiday in the middle of the intact nature. As a result, the number of tourists coming from Central
European markets is growing continually. Many of them want to enjoy the holiday in the
authentic farmhouse. Rural tourism is the only way to get extra income for the country
population. Along with the development in the local communities of many individual structures
accommodation in farmhouses, are developing simultaneously more and more local, regional,
and national organizations of promotion of tourism offer of different areas.
The offer of active holidays also record higher rates of growth. More and more people
that are on vacation come to Romania for hiking, trekking, climbing, horse riding, cycling
tours, mountain biking, trails off-road, canoeing and kayaking, walking rafting,
paragliding, hiking visiting the caves and mines and so on. Organizers, small companies
usually, flexible, specialized that are offering active holidays, are diversifying and there are
more and more on the market.
And last but not the least, a few words about cultural tourism. When you talk about
cultural tourism in Romania, it immediately comes to your mind the medieval monasteries of
Bucovina with their beautiful exterior frescoes, which are considered cultural heritage universal
and is under UNESCO protection: Voronet, Moldovita, Sucevita, Humor, Arbore, Dragomirna as
example. No less important are the beautiful medieval towns in Transylvania, as Brasov, Sibiu,
Sighisoara (one of the best preserved medieval cities throughout Europe), Targu Mures, Cluj and
Dracula castle wrapped in legend. We must not forget the fortified medieval churches from
Transylvania as well, which are also protected by UNESCO as a universal cultural heritage.
These churches are the evidence of Saxon culture over 800 years in Transylvania.
Bucharest, Paris of the East, with its varied cultural offer and feverish nightlife, cannot
remain forgotten within cultural tourism. The city was transformed in recent years from socialist
gray city, in a real jewel.

In order to visit cultural places, cities, monasteries, fortress churches and many other
cultural attractions there are performing a large number of circuits and tours, which enjoys of an
increasing popularity. This became possible due to permanent improvement of infrastructure.
Many things were accomplished in tourism and there are even more to be accomplished.
But efforts will certainly continue, because they are justified. Of course, there are still many
concerns about the tourist activity, which should be addressed, and we will now refer to some of
them.
Only 10% of Romanian seaside hotels have effective management, most units having
problems in terms of organization, quality of service, relations with customers and contract
partners. Representatives of travel agencies explain that Romania cannot attract foreign tourists
given that prices are twice than those offered by other destinations such as Spain and Bulgaria,
and the service quality is lower. An example in this regard is the evolution of the number of
charter flights to seaside resorts. If from Belgium to Bulgaria were announced for summer 2005
four charters per day for four months to the Romanian seaside resorts have been contracted by
the end of February 2005 no such flight departing from Belgium. The hotels were bought mostly
by people who have no common with tourism. Having a seaside hotel is a hobby for them and
they dont know how to run such a unit, says representatives of travel agencies. (Finance
Newspaper, 24.02.2005)
Driving forces with the most obvious influences, both on trade and on tourism, can be
considered currently:
innovations in marketing, especially through the renewal and diversification of
distribution channels;

Forele motrice cu cele mai evidente influene, att asupra comerului ct i asupra
turismului, pot fi considerate, la ora actual:
inovrile n marketing, mai ales prin nnoirea i diversificarea canalelor de distribuie;
intrrile unor firme mari pe piaa romneasc, att n turism (Hilton, Marriot,
Howard&Johnson, Crown Plazza, Accor, Golden Tulip, etc.) ct i n comer (Metro, Carrefour,
Cora, Sellgros,, Esplanada, Polus Center, Mol etc.). Este previzibil c, odat cu aderarea
Romniei la structurile europene, s-i fac simite influenele i alte fore motrice: schimbrile
pe termen lung a ratei de cretere, schimbri n structura cumprtorilor i n gama de utilizare a
produselor, inovarea produselor, modificri n politica guvernamental i n cadrul legislativ.
Piaa firmei de turism se caracterizeaz prin faptul c, fiind concomitent
productoare/prestatoare i distribuitoare de servicii, este mai complex, constituind un mixaj
ntre caracteristicile firmei de producie i cea de comer.

Definit ca locul de ntlnire al confruntrii cererii cu oferta, al cumprtorilor cu


vnztorii i de stabilire a preului - presupune o analiz a principalelor componente i
caracteristici n vederea delimitrii i caracterizrii ei. Componentele pieei specifice firmei care
intereseaz direct din punctul de vedere al managementului strategic sunt:
- cererea, respectiv volumul total care poate fi achiziionat de un grup de consumatori,
dintr-o arie geografic, ntr-o anumit perioad de timp, n funcie de pre. Un prim element de
analiz l constituie identificarea elasticitii cererii n funcie de pre i de venit. Identificarea
factorilor de influen reprezint un demers important n delimitarea i caracterizarea cererii:
sezonalitatea, moda, presiunea produselor de substituie etc.
Spre exemplu, datele furnizate de Institutul Naional de Cercetare i Dezvoltare n Turism
arat o cretere a cererii pentru serviciile de turism la nivelul anului 2004 comparativ cu 2003.
Romnia a fost vizitat de 1,6 milioane turiti strini fa de numai 1 milion n 2003. Cu toate
acestea, ncasrile Romniei din turism au stagnat fa de 2003, situndu-se la 750 milioane euro.
(Ziarul Financiar, 20.12.2004)
Din punctul de vedere al firmei, nivelul cererii este puternic influenat de nivelul
cheltuielilor de marketing, fiind considerat chiar o funcie a acestor cheltuieli. Creterea
cheltuielilor de marketing determin o cretere a nivelului cererii, dar relaia nu este direct
proporional. Cererea poate crete pn la un anumit nivel, limitat de potenialul pieei (nivelul
cel mai nalt al cererii la un moment dat). ntruct cererea este variabil n timp sub influena unei
mulimi de factori, cu aciune direct sau indirect, ea trebuie studiat ca nivel i mod de
manifestare, n permanen;
- oferta, respectiv cantitatea dintr-un bun economic pe care un productor sau toi
productorii pot i sunt dispui s o vnd n decursul unei perioade de timp, la un anumit pre
unitar. Oferta poate fi influenat de nivelul preurilor, respectiv al costurilor unitare, nivelul
veniturilor, numrul competitorilor-juctori pe aceeai pia, nivelul preurilor produselor de
substituie etc. Factorii specifici cu influen major trebuie monitorizai permanent i anticipai
ca evoluie;
- cota de pia reprezint cererea satisfcut de firm. Mrimea cotei de pia depinde de
raportul calitate-pre, de percepia consumatorilor asupra valorii adugate, de capacitatea de a
face fa concurenei, de orientarea n raport cu nevoile implicite i explicite ale consumatorilor;
- cota relativ de pia se stabilete ca raport ntre cota de pia a firmei i cea a
principalului concurent. n cazul firmelor cu poziie de lider, cota relativ de pia se calculeaz
prin raportare la concurentul urmtor ca poziie;
- poziia pe pia - n funcie aceasta, firma poate fi: lider al pieei, component a grupului
firmelor de vrf, urmritor al liderului, firma osta, firma periferic, nou venit agresiv.

- concurena presupune o analiz mai detaliat deoarece cunoaterea tipului,


mecanismului i intensitii ei este esenial pentru proiectarea unui anumit comportament
strategic.
Tipul concurenei se refer la concurena exercitat pe piaa de tip monopolistic, de
monopol, de oligopol etc.
Intensitatea concurenei, analiz efectuat, de regul, potrivit modelului lui M. Porter,
prin cele cinci fore competitive:
- potenialii competitori i ameninarea ptrunderii lor pe pia;
- furnizorii i puterea lor de negociere;
- cumprtorii i puterea lor de negociere;
- produsele de substituie i ameninarea pe care o reprezint pentru produsele firmei;
- intensitatea rivalitii dintre firme.
Profesionalismul i competenele manageriale au un rol important n fundamentarea i
aplicarea unor strategii de succes.
Pentru fundamentarea strategiei se poate folosi analiza matricial n vederea radiografierii
situaiei de ansamblu - interne i externe - i identificrii orientrilor i opiunilor majore care pot
fi adoptate de firm.
Analiza SWOT. Acest model de analiz utilizeaz atu-urile i slbiciunile firmei paralel
cu ansele i pericolele generate de mediu pentru a indica un tip de strategie care s se
potriveasc cerinelor mediului extern i capabilitilor strategice ale firmei.
Combinarea celor patru categorii de informaii n cadrul unei matrici - n care pe axa Ox
ce plaseaz aspectele interne, iar pe Oy aspectele externe - ofer posibilitatea identificrii
opiunilor strategice celor mai adecvate, comparativ cu capabilitile strategice ale firmei i cu
exigenele mediului extern.

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