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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

RAYMOND LEMAIRE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION


KASTEELPARK ARENBERG 1 BUS 02431
B-3001 LEUVEN (HEVERLEE)

KATHOLIEKE
UNIVERSITEIT
LEUVEN

Advanced Master of
Conservation of Monuments and Sites

Master Thesis

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION:
PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Promoters:
Co-promoters:
Assessor:

Dr. Minja Yang


Prof. Luc Verpoest
Dr. Shikha Jain
Prof. Dominique Vanneste

Leuven, September 2012

Toelating tot bruikleen


De auteur geeft de toelating deze eindverhandeling voor consultatie beschikbaar te stellen en
delen ervan te kopiren voor eigen gebruik. Elk ander gebruik valt onder de strikte beperkingen
van het auteursrecht; in het bijzonder wordt er gewezen op de verplichting de bron uitdrukkelijk te
vermelden bij het aanhalen van resultaten uit deze eindverhandeling.
Leuven, 2012
Permission for Use of Content
The author herewith permits that the present dissertation be made available for consultation;
parts of it may be copied, strictly for personal use. Every other use is subject to strict copyright
reservations. Particular reference is made to the obligation of explicitly mentioning the source
when quoting the present dissertations results.
Leuven, 2012
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L' auteur autorise la mise disposition du prsent mmoire pour consultation; il est permis de
copier des parties, strictement pour usage personnel. Toute autre utilisation est strictement
soumise aux restrictions prvues par le droit dauteur; tout particulirement, il doit tre tenu
compte de lobligation de citer explicitement la source lorsquil est fait rfrence aux rsultats de
ce mmoire.
Leuven, 2012

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
Overview on tourism scenario: issues, data and
theoretical framework
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Global Tourism
1.3 Sustainability

7
8
10

1.3.1 Social Impact

1.4 Heritage tourism


1.5 Heritage Tourism Management
CHAPTER 2
Heritage Interpretation
2.1 Theoretical issues

14

16
19

23

2.1.1 Why interpreting?

23

2.1.2 Interpretation features

24

2.1.3 Threats

25

2.1.4 Challenges

26

2.2 Methodology planning


2.3 Media
CHAPTER 3
International and Indian legal and policy framework for
heritage interpretation
3.1 International legal provisions

27

29

34

3.1.1 Tourism field

34

3.1.2 Heritage field

36

3.2 Indian tourism/heritage authority structure and legal provisions

38

3.2.1 Asia and Pacific Regional Level

38

3.2.2 National Level

39

3.2.3 State Level

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 4
Interpretation of a WH site: Jantar Mantar, Jaipur
4.1 What is Jantar Mantar?

48

4.1.1 History

51

4.1.2 Restoration and interventions

52

4.2 The interpretation of Jantar Mantar


4.3 The Plan: structure and strategies
4.4 Challenges: integration with the urban context
CHAPTER 5
The Walled City of Jaipur
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Historical development
5.2.1 Theories about the urban layout

5.3 Urban description


5.4 The Built Heritage of Jaipur
5.5 Intangible Heritage
5.6 Jaipur today
5.7 Authorities, Legal Framework And Urban Planning Tools
CHAPTER 6
Proposals for the Interpretation Plan for the Walled city of Jaipur
6.1 Why: vision and objectives of the plan
6.1.1 Strategic approach and methodology

6.2 What: selected features and messages


6.3 Who is it for: audience typology
6.4 How: Message Media Matrix and media
6.5 Interpretation Centre
6.6 Community participation and Previous initiatives: the role of NGOs
6.7 Additional recommendations
6.8 Preconditions for effective Interpretation plan

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56
61

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68

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78
83
85
89

97
99

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104
105
114
120
122
124

CONCLUSION

127

SOURCES

129

BIBLIOGRAPHY

130

INTERNET SOURCES

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to the many people for their support, guidance and patience,
which helped me throughout the study and preparation of my master thesis.
First of all I would like to thank my promoter dr. Minja Yang, dr. Shikha Jain and prof. arch. Luc
Verpoest.
Furthermore I would like to thank architects working at DRONAH office, for their generosity,
support and help.
Gratitude also goes to other people who made time for me to share their knowledge and
experience:
Prof. Noel Salazar member of the Faculty of Anthropology, at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
for his intellectual contribution;
I especially would like to thank Davide Leone for his comments, suggestions, patience and love.
Finally I would like to thank my family, my friends and my flat mates for their understanding and
patience during this busy and stressed year.

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

INTRODUCTION

The present study reflects on the important role that heritage interpretation plays for heritage
preservation within a sustainable urban development. The study is based on the conviction that
awareness of both tourists and local communities, about values and significance of cultural and
natural heritage, is an essential support to address planned actions aiming to integrate heritage
conservation and management with developing issues, through inclusiveness initiatives. For this
reason interpretation is seen as one of the most adapt tool to carry out those purposes.
The study looks at the case of the Interpretation Plan of Jantar Mantar World Heritage site in
Jaipur, India, and at the Walled city of Jaipur. The case of a World Heritage site - Jantar Mantar located in the core of a historical site (the walled city) provides an example in which the
interpretation plan concerning the latest can works in a mechanism of mutual support and
enhancement for the whole city heritage management and interpretation.
The relationship between the two sites - Jantar Mantar and the walled city - is analyzed within both
spatial and interpretive levels.
The choice of the case study has been motivated by the three months internship experience in
DRONAH office in Jaipur. The work carried out during the internship period focused on the draft of
the Interpretation, Use and Visitors Management Plan of Jantar Mantar in Jaipur. This provided a
first practical approach with subjects such as heritage management, tourism and the combination
of the two of them.
From those observations, proposals and recommendations for an interpretation plan concerning
the Walled City of Jaipur will be developed as final part of the present study.
The ideal interpretation plan should give an input in achieving a holistic vision of integration of the
three major issues related to city management: heritage conservation, tourism management and
urban development.
In order to get closer to the case study, information and figures about India or South Asia are
showed since the first chapter.
As heritage interpretation it is inevitably linked to tourism, and more specifically to sustainable
tourism, chapter 1 introduces the subject of tourism in those declinations (global, sustainable,
heritage, management tourism), that are pertinent to the topic of heritage interpretation. It gives an
integrative approach that reflects on the fields of research about heritage tourism and, through the
gathered general data and information about tourism scenario, provides the fundamental notions
for a background and a general framework about tourism field to better approach the topic of
interpretation.
For the academic year 2011-2012, the Raymond Lemaire Centre for Conservation of Monuments
and Sites within the first year of the Master in Conservation of Monuments and Sites collaborate
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

with the organization of the Master in Tourism to create the first seminar about Heritage and
sustainable tourism development. Students on tourism and students on heritage conservation
confronted their own background and attended specific lessons that showed them their own
subject (tourism and heritage) from new perspectives.
The opportunity to attend the seminar provided a first time insight to heritage tourism as academic
topic, disclosing it in some of the most important issues that characterize the actual debate.
It seems here remarkable that within the schedule of lectures, those about heritage interpretation
opened the seminar almost highlighting how strong the connection between heritage, interpretation
and tourism is.
Chapter 2 specifically addresses towards the interpretation topic, briefly summarizing the main
references, its origins and definitions such as the debate around it and the possible methodologies
and strategies applicable for effective interpretation plans.
Chapter 3 will provide an overview over the international legal framework and over the Indian
tourism authority structure and legal provisions underlining, for both cases, existing policies related
to sustainable tourism development and interpretation as an opportunity, where they are already
existing, to develop and make strategic actions legally supported and motivated and as a point of
weakness where they are missing.
Chapter 4 is partially borrowed from the Nomination Dossier, the Management Plan and from the
Interpretation, Use and Visitors management Plan of the site of Jantar Mantar, Jaipur. The
statement of the Universal Outstanding Value of the World Heritage site through the criteria
defined by UNESCO are followed from a brief revue of the history of the site and from the
interpretation given within the draft of the report for the Interpretation, Use and Visitors
management Plan. The plans structure is explained and analyzed finally pointing up the
connections between the Jantar Mantar and the rest of the Walled City of Jaipur.
The following chapter 5 zooms out from the World Heritage property of Jantar Mantar to focus on
the Walled city of Jaipur. The chapter illustrates the history of the citys foundation and the different
theories about the origin of the urban layout. It also provides the description of its actual features
such as a brief overview over its tangible and intangible heritage. Legal provisions regarding the
heritage management and the city development will be reported and analyzed in order to provide a
wider understanding of the subject.
The last chapter encompasses the proposals for an effective interpretation plan of the Walled city
of Jaipur suggesting the methodology to follow and, step by step, providing guidelines to define
most pertinent interpretative strategies and appropriate media in order to achieve a successful
communication of interpretation and a stable platform of dialogue among the different
stakeholders, local authorities, NGOs and tourism industry.
The present study gathers and illustrates policies, legal provisions and part of the work previously
carried out by scholars, professionals, public administrations and local NGOs working on the
heritage field. The research showed the potentiality of professional, human and cultural resources
available for developing a framework that could lead to a sustainable heritage based development
of Jaipur.

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 1
Overview on tourism scenario: data, issues and
theoretical framework

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 1
Overview on tourism scenario: data, issues and
theoretical framework

1.1 INTRODUCTION
As cultural heritage extension is more and more spread over different scenarios (from urban to
rural, from built to natural, from social to scientific), the so called cultural tourism became one of
the most important categories of tourism.
More in general, since couple of decades, following the important repercussions that the
phenomenon had on different fields, heritage tourism became an independent subject within
specific academic fields (economy, sociology, geography, anthropology, etc.). Nevertheless a real
mutual exchange between experts in tourism and experts in the other different sectors which
tourism deals with, has never been very much implemented. The study of heritage tourism is
fragmented and lacking of strong theoretical and conceptual directions informing better practices.
This is due, in part, to the vast interdisciplinary domain in which is situated the study and in part, it
is due to intradisciplinary tension among competing research paradigms (Jamal and Kim, 2005).
Therefore, while heritage tourism is a widely studied subject within the tourism discipline, the
approach of professionals dealing with theories and techniques of heritage conservation is often
neglected. The perspective about heritage value and the relative attitude towards its protection,
which is the basic line from where grows the tourists demand toward a heritage destination, can
be distorted or preconditioned by conceptual over-structures. Of course, the same happens from
the opposite side which explains why many heritage managers are not well prepared about tourism
management issues and so, why many heritage sites are threatened by tourism impact.
Indeed, one of the real threats generated by the lack of exchange between tourism operators
dealing with heritage and heritage experts is the different interpretation that both give to the same
object. For the formers heritage is a product, created ad hoc for the touristic market, good for
consumption and generator of a part of the tourist economic sector revenue. While conservators,
archaeologists and heritage professionals, see heritage as a no-renewable resource and witness
of historical, cultural and scientific data that need to be conserved and protected. From this point of
view tourists appear mainly as a threat for heritage protection than an opportunity.
The present chapter aims to fill up the gap existing between the disciplines of heritage
management and conservation and tourism, acknowledging synthetically and in a pertinent way,
the main issues that address an efficient tourism management and more specifically an effective
interpretation for any heritage sites.

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

1.2 GLOBAL TOURISM


The first sentence that comes out from the broad amount of available sources approaching the
topic of tourism highlights the growing importance of its role on the world economy. Although
among the countries there is a variation in the tourism attitude.
The tourisms phenomenon has had an exponential growth over the past half century. It emerged
as mass phenomenon since 1959 with 25 million international visitors arrival that grew to an
estimated 650 million people by the year 2000 (Roe et al, 1997). Several factors have contributed
to this rise in consumer demand in recent decades. This includes an increase in the standard of
living of developed countries, greater allowances for holiday entitlements and declining costs of
travel. This basically means that until now, especially for international travels, tourism activity has
been practiced mostly by the richest part of the world.
The website of the United States World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), one of the most
authoritative organization at the international level, constantly upgrades figures related to tourism
factors that help to better understand the dimensions of this phenomenon and so its potential
impacts (both in positive and negative terms).
Over 2010 the worldwide growth of international tourist arrivals has been estimated of 4, 4%, while
for 2012 WTO forecasts a growth in international tourist arrivals of between 3% and 4%. A long
term projection of WTO acknowledges that in 2020 the number of international arrivals will reach 1,
6 billion.

Fig. 1: Remarkable how the diagram seems to lean towards the infinity. (Source: UNWTO)

Despite the financial crisis of late 2008 and 2009, in 2010 the international tourist arrivals
increased by 6, 7% with a positive growth in all regions of the world. The main drivers of growth are
the emerging economies where, indeed, the growth recovered the crisis-related losses faster than
other countries (Asia was the first region to recover and was that with strongest growth, estimated
in 13%, in 2010). Developing countries are becoming more and more new privileged destination for
international tourism as well as countries of growing important sources of tourists. Indeed,
according with a recent Goldman Sachs report, two thirds of global economic growth over the next
five years will take place in Brazil, Russia, India, and China (whose initials form the acronym

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

BRIC). This growth will result in an increase in the middle classes of those countries, and
consequently in a rise in their tourism. 1
But the international mass tourism market is dominated for about its 80% by powerful transnational corporations (TNCs). Those companies creates within the market financial leakages, for
instance, importing foreign building material, skilled labour and luxury products and packaged
travels arranged with TNCs. Those factors limit levels of revenue retention in the destination or
host countries. It has been estimated that, on average, at least 55% of tourism expenditure flows
back out of the destination country (Ashley et al. 2000).
Economic gains have been the major driving force for the growth of tourism especially in
developing countries, as tourism has been recognized by both development institutions, such as
the World Bank, as well as by governments, as a key activity for generating foreign exchange and
employment.
Indeed the huge flow of people that temporarily leave their own place to experience different
environments generates complex dynamic processes that involve several sectors, feeding
economical mechanisms. The potential growth of tourism is considered to be such that as World
Travel & Tourism Organization states on the home page of its website according to research by
the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), [] Travel & Tourism industry is expected to directly
contribute $2 trillion to the global economy and sustain some 100.3 million jobs. When the wider
economic impacts of the industry are taken into account, Travel & Tourism is forecast to contribute
some $6.5 trillion to the global economy and generate 260 million jobs or 1 in 12 of all jobs on the
planet. Therefore tourism industry undoubtedly shows a positive impact in creating new job
positions which is an important opportunities especially for developing countries. Official estimates
from 2002 suggest that India had 23, 7 million jobs associated to tourism.
Mass tourism is highly competitive, and usually dominated by large number of suppliers who have
little commitment to a destination. They are less likely to use local suppliers. However the segment
does generate jobs and negative impacts are not always spread beyond immediate localities.
While budget and independent tourists, particularly backpackers, are more likely than luxury
tourists to use the cheaper guest houses, home-stays, transport and eating services provided by
local people. They tend to stay longer at a destination than groups of tourists and interact more
with the local economy, but also spend less per day, often bargaining over prices.
The Indian case study chosen for the present research makes the following concept about global
tourism phenomenon a remarkable point. Globalization, in the form of world markets, free trade,
and global tourism, provides endless opportunities for the cultural interaction. Ideally, the cultural
exchange guaranteed from global tourism is one of the most effective and equitable tool to the
attainment of a socially and environmentally sustainable society through cultural diversity.
The current push for globalization, however, is overwhelmingly characterized by the assumption
that Western culture is the most suitable model for progress. Therefore, cultural interaction in the
current global framework inhibits the opportunity for a real cultural exchange and instead gives rise
to cultural domination.
The West meets the rest of the world in a contradictory attitude of need of change and, at the same
time, need of comforts standard. Ironically, tourism which is often driven by a search for variation
in an increasingly homogenized world becomes an instrument for the expansion of homogeneity!
1

Lopez-Sanchez Y, Pulido-Fernandez J.I., Tourism: Analysis of a Global Phenomenon from a perspective of


sustainability, 2011

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

One of the typical mechanisms, called cultural pollution, is generated by limited contacts of Eastern
local communities with Western lifestyle. The hosting communities often do not have opportunities
for a complete overview of their western hosts lifestyle that includes positive and negative aspects
knowing about the stress, the loneliness, the fear of growing old, the environmental decay, inflation
or the rampant poverty, crime and violence and all negative issues that are prevalent in Western
societies. The idea about Western lifestyles lies in a false and limited vision of richness and
happiness that generates false terms of comparison. From their point of view their modest life
standards result as losers. This leads for somebody to a sense of inferiority, and to ultimately reject
age-old traditions in favour of empty symbols of modernity (Norberg- Hodge 1991, 97-8). This
phenomenon can be described as the submergence of the local society by the outside cultural
patterns of seemingly more affluent and successful tourists (Inskeep 1991, 373). Cultural pollution
is characterized by the abandonment of local traditions and values, and the wholesale adoption of
foreign conventions.
Cultural dialogue is effective only when each participant views the other as equals. The language
of globalization, using for instance terms like developed versus developing in regard to Western
and non-Western countries, reflects the idea that Western construction of civilization is inherently
better (i.e., more developed).
Until genuine respect and legitimacy is given to non-Western cultures, the juxtaposition of cultures
represents more of a threat to non-Western cultures existence than a benefit to the global cultural
pool.
1.3 SUSTAINABILITY
The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) adopted a definition of sustainable
development as follows:
Sustainable development is improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying
capacity of supporting ecosystems [] if an activity is sustainable, for all practical purposes it can
continue forever.
In 2004 World Tourism Organization stated that:
Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism
development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to
guarantee its long-term sustainability.
Indeed, the concept of sustainability is born as environmental matter to evolve and involve other
kind of resources including cultural ones.
It can be argued that tourism creates an incentive for environmental conservation. Indeed with the
increasing of urbanization, destinations with significant natural features, scenery, cultural heritage
or biodiversity are becoming increasingly popular tourist destinations. But environments where
human interaction has been minimal or timely limited are often fragile. As the scale of tourism
grows, the use of resources is likely to become unsustainable. With a degraded physical
environment, the destinations are in danger of losing its original attraction, increasing the levels of
cheaper mass tourism and forcing more tourism to move onto new destinations, which are likely to
be even more inaccessible and fragile. Undoubtedly, this is a destructive process hence, from this
point of view, we can say that sustainable tourism includes alternative forms for mass tourism.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Efforts to preserve and enhance the natural and the cultural - environment should be a high
priority for the industry and for governments within a long-term tourism-economic growth. But the
reality follows different logics. The consequences are that short term economic gain clearly incurs
long term environmental and social costs (European Parliament 2002).
A report drawn up in occasion of the Earth Summit in 2002 well summarizes the different kinds of
impacts that tourism development and operational activities can include from an environmental
point of view:

Threats to ecosystems and biodiversity e.g. loss of wildlife and rare species, habitat loss and
degradation,
Disruption of coasts e.g. shoreline erosion and pollution, impact to coral reefs and fish
spawning grounds,
Deforestation loss of forests for fuel wood and timber by the tourist industry also impact on
soil and water quality, bio-diversity integrity, reducing the collection of forest products by local
communities,
Water overuse as a result of tourism / recreational activities e.g. golf courses, swimming
pools, and tourist consumption in hotels,
Urban problems - Congestion and overcrowding, increased vehicle traffic and resultant
environmental impacts, including air and noise pollution, and health impacts,
Exacerbate climate change from fossil fuel energy consumption for travel, hotel and
recreational requirements,
Unsustainable and inequitable resource use - Energy and water over consumption, excessive
production of wastes, litter and garbage are all common impacts.

Indeed, the depletion of natural


resources is already caused by the
increasing of population and growth
rates
worldwide
which
are
conditioning
their
availability.
Declining of oil production with a
dramatic increase in demand will
translate into higher fuel costs,
generating a growing concern for
energy efficiency and greater
investments in renewable energies.
The adaptation to the environmental
Picture from a recent article online speaking about water overuse in luxury hotels
located in developing areas. Source: http://www.tourismconcern.net/
constraints that the sector of
transportation have to face in the next future represents its main challenge. Constraints will ask for
a permanent reduction in the social and environmental costs associated with travel.
Therefore sustainable tourism implies minimizing the negative and maximizing the positive effects
of all forms and activities linked to:
a. Environment
b. Local Communities
c. Heritage (cultural, natural, built, oral, intangible)
d. Inclusive economic growth

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Tourism is primarily driven by the private sector, with a multiplicity of stakeholders whose sizes
range from micro enterprises to large transnational corporations. The actions of these players,
along with those of tourists and the local communities determine the overall impact of tourism on
the environment, whether positive or negative. Therefore one of the primary functions of the
Government in enhancing sustainable tourism is to create an environment that enables or
influences the private sector to operate more sustainably, and influences patterns of visitor flows
and behaviour to optimize the impact of tourism. 2
Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry was written in 1996 by the World Trade
Organisation, the World Travel and Tourism Council and Earth Council to try and fill this gap. It
noted that with a growing standing in the world economy the tourism industry has a moral
responsibility in making the transition to sustainable development. It also has a vested interest in
doing so. The document highlights the vital importance of environment as the main base upon
which the market relies. These and other initiatives have supported a growing awareness of the
positive and negative impacts of tourism also on the livelihoods of communities living in destination
areas.
As already mentioned, while sustainability referred originally to the natural environment nowadays
it also covers the social, economic and cultural spheres as well as built heritage. Today it is well
recognized that without sustainability there cannot be development that generates bene
t to all
stakeholders, solves serious and urgent problems such as extreme poverty, and preserves the
precious natural and man-made resources on which human prosperity is based.
In front to this challenge the tourism sector admitted its own responsibilities such as its potential
role in changing the actual negative trend and impact.
Therefore, all the main international tourism organizations developed programmes, strategies,
guidelines and recommendations to address stakeholders practices towards sustainable tools.
World Tourism Organization (WTO) focuses its advisory and technical assistance services on
policies, development guidelines, management techniques and measurement instruments that
allow national and local governments, as well as the tourism industry, to incorporate sustainability
principles into their decision making process and day-to-day operations.
This is why the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has initiated a programme that
aims at integrating environmental sustainability into decision making in the tourism industry and
into consumers purchasing choices, by disseminating technical know-how and building business
networks to catalyze sustainability in the tourism sector.
In 2005 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UNWTO brought out a publication
entitled Making Tourism More Sustainable A Guide for Policy Makers. This lists the following
aims of an agenda for sustainable tourism:
a. Economic Viability
b. Local Prosperity
c. Employment Quality
d. Social Equity
2

Cfr. Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India Ministry of Tourism, Government of India 1 November 2011

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e. Visitor Fulfilment
f. Local Control
g. Community Wellbeing
h. Cultural Richness
i. Physical Integrity
j. Biological Diversity
k. Resource Efficiency
l. Environmental Purity
According to the purposes of this study is remarkable to underline that cultural richness is among
those criteria that drive the tourism activities towards a sustainable future.
During the recent Roundtable on World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism, held in Miami on 19
March 2012, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova underlined the importance of better
integrating cultural heritage preservation and sustainable tourism. Under the recently developed
UNESCO World Heritage Sustainable Tourism Programme, the Director-General underscored that
UNESCO seeks to create an international framework for the cooperative and coordinated
achievement of shared and sustainable outcomes related to tourism at World Heritage properties.
The Programme seeks to link up national and local authorities, site practitioners, tourism sector,
and local communities to integrate a sustainable tourism perspective into the mechanisms of the
World Heritage Convention. Then idea is to promote broad engagement in the planning,
development and management of sustainable tourism that follows a destination approach and
focuses on empowering local communities. The Programme also seeks to provide World Heritage
stakeholders with the capacity and the tools to manage tourism efficiently, responsibly and
sustainably based on the local context and needs. 3
World Monuments Fund, took the initiative of the Sustainable Tourism Pledge 4, stating that
unmanaged tourism can damage cultural sites. Visitors can make a difference. In order to travel
responsibly ten simple guidelines have been provided:
1. Know the History
2. Reduce Your (Carbon) Footprint
3. Be Eco-Friendly
4. Respect the Local Culture
5. Go Off the Beaten Path
6. Be Gentle in Your Travel
7. Dont Be Flashy with Photos
8. Buy Local
9. Join the Cause
10. Educate

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/singleview/news/unesco_committed_to_stronger_links_between_world_heritage_and_tourism/
4

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/singleview/news/unesco_committed_to_stronger_links_between_world_heritage_and_tourism/

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Nevertheless, looking at the websites of the most important tourism international organizations
such as at those referring to national, regional or local tourism authority of some country (among
those, India), as well as at the main policies concerning tourism, the impression is that sustainable
tourism is most of the time considered only as a specific category or, better, a specific way in which
stakeholders should deal with this activity. Therefore the concept of sustainability does not seem to
pervade the whole and general approach to tourism. And a lot of different interpretations are given
to sustainable tourism being sometime identified with natural / eco-tourism. While sustainable
tourism is not a discrete or special form of tourism. Rather, all forms of tourism should strive to be
more sustainable.
From the point of view of this study, the multidirectional impact of tourism phenomenon calls for an
application of the sustainability concept in each activity being part of the process. Therefore, it is
necessary to consider as resource also tangible and intangible heritage as, like natural resources,
they are not replicable or renewable. Hence, conservation, management and within the latest,
interpretation, are useful tools to carry out concrete actions toward a general sustainable heritagebased development.
Indeed it is recommendable a stronger recognition of the weight of the local communities role, for
their valuable knowledge and understanding of local circumstances, as well as for their strong
vested interest in preserving a sustainable system. Establishing partnerships with local
communities is being increasingly recognized as necessary for sustainable tourism. Therefore the
trend now is moving towards more integrated approaches, which include communities working with
governments.
1.3.1 SOCIAL IMPACT

Indeed as pointed out by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives:
Tourism [] can be a major source of degradation of local ecological, economic and social
systems. The intrusion of large numbers of foreigners with high-consumption and high-waste
habits [] into towns with inadequate waste management infrastructure can produce changes to
those areas at a rate that is far greater than imposed by local residents. These tourism-related
changes [], resulting economic losses, can encourage socially deleterious economic activities
such as prostitution, crime, and migrant and child labour (ICLEI 1999).
Tourism development often stops people from having the right of access to land, water and natural
resources. Adverse social impacts also include poor working conditions, low wages, child labour
and sex tourism. The International Labour Organisation and International Confederation Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU) note that some parts of the tourist industry still degrades labour and drives
workers to the lowest levels, exhibiting the worst side of unsustainable production (Gardiner et al,
2002).
Going deeper on the tourism job creation subject, the local cash income that tourism can generate
can be framed in four different types, involving four distinct categories of people (Gardiner et al,
2002):

Wages from formal employment that may only be available to a minority of people, and not the
poor

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Earnings from selling goods, services, or casual labour (e.g. food, crafts, building materials,
guide services) is more widely spread, and may be enough, for instance, to cover school fees
for one or more children

Dividends and profits arising from locally-owned enterprises.

Collective income: this may include profits from a community-run enterprise, dividends from a
private sector partnership and land rental paid by an investor.

Local participation in the tourism industry can be categorised into three different categories: the
formal sector (such as hotels), the informal sector (such as vending) and secondary enterprises
that are linked to tourism (such as food retail and telecommunications).
As a destination is developing, accommodation for tourists can be as simple as offering home
stays at the early stage, with lodges, guest houses and hotels replacing more basic options and
some of these may include foreign companies. Once luxury resorts start to develop, the scenario
becomes more complex with international investors beginning to play a much more dominant role.
High-status jobs in resorts typically go to non-locals, expatriate staff or foreign-trained nationals.
The potential for employment of local staff seems to improve as one move away from the luxury
resorts.
The informal sector often provides an easy entry into the industry for the poor, especially for
women. The incomes can be substantial but unreliable as it is often a seasonal activity. However it
can still provide a substantial boost to the income of the poor.
Causal labour and self-employment provide major opportunities for local communities to enhance
their livelihood opportunities from tourism. Unlike formal employment, self-employment tends to
highlight the entrepreneurial spirit of village communities. Villagers are used to stringing together a
livelihood from a diverse variety of sources, often giving them a knack for enterprise.
This is just an example that explains the intricate outcomes of tourism phenomenon in those fields
impacted by it.
The already mentioned effect of the western tourism on
the eastern cultures has been described in his negative
outcomes. But we also said that the interaction within
different cultures is one of the factors for a sustainable
development when the equality between participants is
the main conductor of the cultural debate. Indeed
cultural exchange helps to break down stereotypes and
to affirm human rights against traditional beliefs and
practices. Tourism development in remote areas can be
positive however, bringing with it infrastructure, health
services and education facilities. Nevertheless, rapid
tourism development can come at a price and often
creates its own unique problems. Generally speaking
communities visited by tourists can (or have to) adapt
surprisingly quickly. For example, they rapidly adopt
businesslike attitudes to maximise profits. They are
creative in inventing and staging events to entertain and
Dancing performance (photo. V.Megna)

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

provide information on their culture. 5 For one hand, if the appreciation of traditional performances
as well as of traditional craft products, could lead to a revitalization of traditional arts, festivals,
languages and all that constitutes the intangible heritage of a community, for the other hand the
threat of commodification becomes stronger as much stronger it is the economical feedback
coming from this initiatives and activities. The heritage commodification phenomenon is not only
something against tourists who buy something pretending it is a printed hand-made textile while it
comes out that it is not. But it is also about tourists enjoying in a restaurant a traditional dance
performed by young girls that perhaps beyond the colourful and rich dancing costume, live in a
slum, earn a poor reward and are a perfect example of exploitation.
In brief, each of the impacts that tourism has in different fields gives positive and/or negative
effects. Here is a summary of effects generated by tourism related to social impact factors:
IMPACT FACTORS ASSOCIATED
WITH TOURISM

USE OF CULTURE AS TOURIST


ATTRACTION

DIRECT CONTACT BETWEEN


RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS

CHANGES IN JOBS AND ECONOMIC


STRUCTURE

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURIST
FACILITIES

INCREASED POPULATION FROM


TOURISM AND ASSOCIATED
DEVELOPMENT

POSITIVE EFFECTS

NEGATIVE EFFECTS

Increased support for


traditional cultures and
displays of ethnic identity
Revitalization of traditional
arts, festivals and language

Changes to traditional
activities and arts to suit
production for tourists
(commodification)
Disrupting and crowding of
traditional activities

Breakdown of negative
stereotypes
Increased social
opportunities

Enhancement of negative
stereotypes
Increased commercialism
Introduction of diseases
Demonstration effects

New economic and social


opportunities which decrease
social inequity

Community conflict and


tension
Increased social inequity
Loss of language

Increased recreational
opportunities

Loss of access to places


and recreational activities

Support for medical,


educational and other
facilities which enhance the
quality of life

Crowding and congestion


Increased crime

Fig.2: Synthetic scheme of social cultural positive and negative impacts (source: 1997. Moscardo)

Involving host and particularly local communities in all stages of tourism development, from
planning right through operations, will help to alleviate some of these issues, if their needs and
perspectives are properly taken into account.
In addition, programmes which aim to train and assist communities adversely affected by tourism
development, for instance providing a social safety net, should to be openly assessed for their
suitability, and promoted where appropriate (Gardiner et al, 2002).
5

Gardiner R., Jan McHarry, Shah K., SUSTAINABLE TOURISM TURNING THE TIDE , Stakeholder Forums Towards Earth Summit
2002 project, August 2002

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1.4 HERITAGE TOURISM


Despite the large number of tourism subcategories identified in the last decades (ecotourism, sport
tourism, religious tourism, shopping tourism, adventure tourism, sex tourism, beach and resort
tourism, cruise tourism, etc.) heritage tourism, or cultural tourism 6, is one of the most notable and
widespread type of tourism and one of the most ancient form of travel (Timothy & Boyd, 2006).
Due to heritage pervasiveness and its local peculiarity, heritage tourism is among those niches
growing most rapidly.
From the ICOMOS point of view cultural heritage has become, and will continue to be, central to
the sustainability of diverse societies worldwide and, in turn, it provides resources from which
sustainable cultural tourism can be developed, turning assets into experiences.
Furthermore, always from the point of view of UNESCO and related advisory bodies, heritage
encompasses a specific philosophy when it approaches tourism. The vision recognizes heritage
tourism, and its possible form of development, as a means of intellectual, emotional moral and
spiritual satisfaction or more simply just a better quality of life, richer, and that is not only defined
in terms of economic success. 7
But the vision about the interaction between heritage and tourism is extremely different when the
references about the same topic come from tourism field. They look much more cynics and
encompass an explanation of tourism reality and dynamics that show the other side of the coin.
Heritage is a contemporary commodity purposefully created to satisfy contemporary consumption
(Ashworth and Larkham, 1994)

This definition of heritage reflects the quite typical attitude of those who approach the notion of
heritage specifically declined in association with the world tourism. In these contexts, the general
description states heritage as a creation of the mind, a mental construction, used to re-created
cultural identities and as a place brand for creating heritage map.
Beside the fact that globalization has led more respect for tangible and intangible heritage than
before through tourism extension, the transformation of sites into destinations and of cultural
expressions into performances is seldom straightforward.
The interface and relationship between heritage and global tourism sector is extremely complex. In
a tourism setting, heritage can be misused in a variety of ways for a variety of purposes by a
variety of stakeholders. Private and public sectors are converting cultural heritage resources into
destinations and attractions, in a bid to obtain a piece of the lucrative global tourism pie.
Distinctiveness of cultural assets in the form of built environment, or living heritage should produce
an exclusive product reflecting and promoting it becoming what in marketing terms is called a
unique selling point product. 8

As the definition of heritage expressed by UNESCO include not only material manifestations of cultural goods but
also living expressions and cultural traditions, the distinction between heritage tourism and cultural heritage tourism
has become redundant.
7
Sue Millar, Introduction-Tourism and Development in ICOMOS, Heritage, a driver of development, proceedings of
the 17th ICOMOS General Assembly, Paris 2011, p.476
8
Cfr. Salazar, Noel B., The glocalisation of heritage through tourism: Balancing standardization and differentiation. In
S. Labadi & C. Long (Eds.), Heritage and globalization (pp. 130-147). London: Routledge, 2010

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A further threat for heritage engaging with global tourism is the inevitable necessity of a certain
degree of worldwide integration and homogenization, which are given via standardization of
training, service and hospitality benchmarks. Indeed, for the global system of travel and tourism to
work efficiently, internationally agreed standards need to be imposed across the world. But this
runs contrary to the tourist desire for diversity in travel experience, and negates cultural and
geographical diversity in destinations.
Especially poor countries have a hard time achieving the international standards set by the tourism
sector. There are many issues in the less-developed world that create everyday obstacles to the
sustainable development and management of heritage, including the role of local communities
sharing the benefits of tourism development, empowerment of power, ownership of historic places,
lack of funding and skills and forces displacement to accommodate tourism expansion. The
promise of sustainable heritage tourism becomes difficult to realize if we take into account the fact
that low-income nations receive only a fraction of global tourism revenue (UNWTO 2008).
While there is protest against standardization at the global level, homogenizing policies proposed
by regional blocs that are believed to be more culturally uniform, are perceived as positive
initiatives. This is particularly the case in Asia, the continent with the fastest growth rate of intraregional tourism. APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation), for instance, is successfully
developing its own Tourism Occupational Skill Standards while ASEAN (Association of the
Southeast Asia Nations) is working on a Common Competency Standards for Tourism
Professionals Framework.
The challenge of standardization is extremely relevant in the context of cultural heritage
management. Heritage destinations worldwide may be adapting themselves to the homogenizing
trends of global tourism, but, at the same time, they have to commodify their local distinctiveness in
order to compete with other destinations. But, after all, it is the local particularity of heritage that
tourists are most interested in witnessing and experiencing.
The general descriptions of heritage tourism coming from academic tourism field talk about the use
of heritage as something to be created, displayed, staged, marketed and consumed, serving the
instrumental needs of large-scale market capitalism.
The other side of the coin gives a different image about the same scenario watching from the point
of view of heritage features and tourism potentialities in a prospective of sustainable future.
The International Cultural Tourism Committee Colloquium held in Canterbury in 2007 by ICOMOSUK endorsed a declaration on Finding the Spirit of Place: Conservation, Communities & Cultural
Tourism (The Norwich Accord 2009). This recognizes that cultural tourism is a key contributor to
capturing, sustaining, enhancing and presenting the spirit of place and cultural value(s). It is one
of the principal drivers for conservation and tourism destination management resulting in important
recognizable community benefits. Indeed, generally speaking, from the point of view of heritage
experts, the goal of heritage tourism is not to develop tourism but it is to develop culture and
preserve diversity.
Therefore the role that heritage tourism plays nowadays within the growing process of developing
countries is much bigger than what it can seems. As this process is based on the importation of
western models of progress, it becomes a necessity that economic development together with
expansion of tourism industry will not be the only priorities within the political agenda of those
nations. Perhaps, seeking to advance emotional and spiritual quality of life, preserving heritage
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

and appropriating promoting it, should became the basis on which to develop policies and strategic
initiatives. It is only necessary assessing effective legal provisions and practical conditions and
demonstrate that they could lead toward a form of development not only more sustainable but even
more economical profitable.
During last general assembly of ICOMOS in 2011 two notions were particularly mentioned by the
presenters: it is necessary to lean stronger towards uniqueness and to foster the singularity of sites
in order to prevent the phenomenon of homogenization which is generalizing. The second notion
emphasized on the development of a qualitative rather than a quantitative tourism, based on the
preservation and distribution of the full set of values contained in a site, and not only those for
which the site was inscribed / listed. Finally, a tourist should be considered as a citizen. This
approach allows the visitor to share responsibility and to encourage him / her to participate in the
preservation of the site. For this reason, the phenomenon tourism has to be accepted and be well
managed. 9
1.5 HERITAGE TOURISM MANAGEMENT
While people have journeyed to visit historic sites since ancient times, what it is different today is
the increasing speed, intensity and extent of travel and tourism. As conservation professionals, we
observe an increasing number of cases where overcrowding and overuse are threatening heritage
causing irreversible damage. The success of the World Heritage brand is double edged. As a
result, tourism is seen as largely destructive force that involves efforts to conserve the heritage
values of the most valuable places of the planet. 10
But, apart from concerns related to the material preservation, heritage management has to deal
with a much wider set of issues, most of which already mentioned before.
The success of branding and marketing campaign leads, as they aims, to flows of tourists that
besides being economically rewarding are also a practical concern.
Many sites lack trained personnel and policy makers sometimes lack the experience necessary to
manage in an appropriate way the tourist flow and to use tourism as a tool for sustainable
development.
In 1999, ICOMOS adopted its International Cultural Tourism Charter, a policy document detailing
the importance of managing tourism at places of heritage significance 11. The overriding importance
of tourism to WHS, both as an opportunity and, if poorly managed, as a threat, was recognized by
the World Heritage Committee when it authorized the World Heritage Centre in 2001 to develop a
Sustainable Tourism Programme which resulted, among other things, in a practical manual on
tourism management (Pedersen 2002).
With the promotion of sustainable tourism actions and improved tourism practices, the World
Heritage Tourism Programme develops policies and processes for site management and for the
States Parties of the Convention to address this increasingly important management issues. It
implements actions to preserve sites for future generations and contributes to sustainable
development and intercultural dialogue 12.
9

Report Session1 HERITAGE AND THE CHALLENGE OF TOURISM: WHAT STRATEGIES, WHICH TOOLS?, op. cit., p.555
Salazar Noel B., op.cit.
11
See http://www.icomos.org/tourism/charter.html
12
See http://whc.unesco.org/en/sustainabletourism/
10

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

However the general tendency lies in adopting top-down heritage planning and management
procedures which often results in the disenfranchisement of local people, giving greater
prominence to expression of national, official culture and nationalism at the expense of local
culture. This kind of approach has tended to freeze sites and displace human activities, affectively
excluding local people from their own heritage.
Nevertheless there are several initiatives carried out by UNESCO or other international
organizations aiming to improve stewardship and attract the most beneficial and least disruptive
forms of tourism as well as to raise public awareness, foster local participation, advance innovation
and collaboration, and demonstrate affective solutions.
The second session of theme 3 of 2011 ICOMOS General Assembly proposed four key issues
related to multiple actions that can be put into practice to achieve the development of sustainable
tourism, respectful of heritage sites. However, one should not consider these issues as separate
elements, but rather as transversal principles, that can interact together.
- Preserve authenticity of the place
To preserve for future generations a genuine heritage, it seems essential to put the scientific
knowledge of heritage sites in the heart of future tourism development projects. It means that we
must identify, classify or map the heritage sites. The sustainable tourism projects will also seek to
integrate the identity of the place. A second action is the preservation of identified heritage, which
should not be seen as a burden but as an investment for the future. Heritage preservation often
requires limiting forms of unregulated tourism to safeguard not only the material elements of
heritage objects, but also the spirit of place. Training professionals to work with traditional materials
in a sustainable manner is also essential to ensure the future conservation actions being
conducted.
- Involve local people
The essential role of local people in the development of sustainable tourism has been strongly
emphasized. The best way to preserve the authenticity of heritage sites and to provide right
interpretation is to involve local communities in their management. This can be implemented
through meetings or through advisory committees of the population. Local people may also be
involved in tourism development in historic cities. Several examples have shown heritage sites
where services have been developed for both tourists and residents, thereby promoting joint
participation in the cultural development of the city.
Involving tourists and visitors finding ways of better communicating the reasons why
heritage protection is needed; what type of preservation and conservation activities are
undertaken and why. We need to make sure visitors understand their role in the process so
that they are not outsiders - people who stare - but active citizens people who care.
Develop a fair interpretation
An authentic interpretation, developed with local communities will ensure better conservation of
heritage sites and consequently promote the development of sustainable and respectful tourism.
This involves teaching tools, cultural mediation, through training of professional guides. On a wider
scale, the interpretation of a city and its urban fabric must first be part of a sustainable land
management. The use of old buildings of heritage value should be in the development of new
urban infrastructure. Moreover, the adaptation of heritage to new functions related to cultural
development of cities is a good way to implement sustainable tourism.
- Communication and cooperation
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The implementation of sustainable tourism can be achieved through an interdisciplinary approach


to development that involves the experts in the cultural field and tourism managers and investors.
The role of cultural experts today is also to enable a greater awareness of the richness of the
heritage: towards the visitors through the dissemination of good practice, but also for policy
makers, through advice and expertise. It must be ensured that local people can reclaim their
heritage. Finally, collaboration between states should also be encouraged to allow the
implementation of a truly sustainable tourism that is to say that integrates measures for heritage
protection. 13
It seems here that the above quoted recommended actions should be adopted within the
objectives of any heritage tourism management plan, informing methodologies and strategies to be
put into practice.
As reported by Timothy & Boyd the most significant economic issue in the heritage sector today is
public funds for heritage conservation and interpretation which have begun to dry up during the
past quarter of a century. This spread situation requires site managers to be creative in finding
ways to support their endeavours. In addition to limited public funds, user fees, special events,
retailing, lodging and food services, grants, sponsorship, donations and interpretation fees are the
most common sources of revenue today for historic sites (Timothy & Boyd, 2003).
The commercial side is likely to become a pivotal aspect of site management. Indeed:
Two related subjects that are also important for site managers are price elasticity and
willingness to pay. Some earlier works logically indicate that the higher the price for
admission, the lower the attendance will be, particularly by specific social sectors (Herbert
et al., 1989). Related to this, among site managers there are several concerns/problems
associated with people paying for the use of their own heritage. These include the overcommercialisation or commoditisation of heritage and the exclusion of people who cannot
afford to pay user fees. There is also a danger of the commercial side occupying too much
time and effort, thereby taking time and resources away from the more important goals of
conservation and interpretation (Fyall & Garrod, 1998). 14
Therefore, creating a management plan for tourism which incorporates several assets means
including the preservation of the sites values; the reduction of certain negative impacts of tourism,
which requires a systemic and global approach to the touristic phenomenon and the area
concerned; a reflection on the scale of the tourist destination for a better distribution of the flux and
benefits in the territory concerned; the education about the heritage among visitors and the local
population; the involvement of the local communities in a creative approach which takes into
account both tangible and intangible elements of a site. Tourism planning should be integrated as
major components in urban and heritage management plans. For this reason, the cooperation
between heritage practitioners and tourism institutions is required, both on an international and
local scale.

13

Report, Theme 3, session 2 cit., p.645


st
Timothy D.J. and Boyd S.W., Heritage Tourism in the 21 Century: valued traditions and new perspectives, Journal of
Heritage Tourism vol.1, n1, 2006

14

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CHAPTER 2
Heritage Interpretation

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 2
Heritage Interpretation

Each view of the past and each way of presenting


it will be subjective in nature and will vary between interest groups
(Timothy &Boyd, 2006)

2.1 THEORETICAL ISSUES


The National Association for Interpretation states that: interpretation is a mission-based
communication process that forges emotional and intellectual connections between the interests of
the audience and the meanings inherent in the resource 15.
Although Freeman Tilden, considered world wide the father of professional interpretation in 1970,
after twenty-five years working on the concept of interpretation, told to his friend that he did not
exactly what interpretation was. Nevertheless he gave to future interpreters generation six
principles that overcome the limitations of a single definition. Even if conceived for National parks,
the principles are universally applicable to all kind of heritage scenarios and none of them results
outdated or outmoded even if dated from 1957.
Here are the six principles from the most famous Tildens publication Interpreting our Heritage:
1.Any interpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described to
something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile.
2.Information, as such, is not Interpretation. Interpretation is revelation based upon
information. But they are entirely different things. However all interpretation includes
information.
3.Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether the materials presented are
scientific, historical or architectural. Any art is in some degree teachable.
4.The chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction, but provocation.
5.Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part, and must address itself
to the whole man rather than any phase.
6.Interpretation addressed to children (say up to the age of twelve) should not be a
dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different approach.
To be at its best it will require a separate program.
They mark the difference between interpretation and communication. In fact interpretation has all
to do with communication about which there are clear guidelines established through years of
research in cognitive psychology. But what makes communication interpretative is less easy to

15

See http://www.interpnet.com/

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

define. Specifically, three of the six Tildens principles set interpretation apart from communication.
They say that interpretation should provoke, relate and reveal 16.
Provoking marks the different between interpretation and information. Information just gives facts
but interpretation provokes ideas. Relating interpretation to its audience is largely about good
communication principles. Revealing gives a new insight into what makes a place special as well
as a new understanding that can also come from an emotional impact or empathy.
2.1.1 W HY INTERPRETING?
In 1999 the Burra Charter (ICOMOS Australia) identifies interpretation as all the ways of
presenting the cultural significance of a place (art. 1.17). Article 25 of the same document states
that the cultural significance of many places is not readily apparent and should be explained by
interpretation. Interpretation should enhance understanding and enjoyment, and be culturally
appropriate.
More recently the ICOMOS Charter for Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Site
(Canada, 2008) distinguishes the concept of interpretation and the concept of presentation giving
two different definitions of them. According to the ICOMOS charter interpretation refers to the full
range of potential activities intended to heighten public awareness and enhance understanding of
cultural heritage property while presentation denotes the carefully planned communication of
interpretive content through the arrangement of interpretive information, physical access, and
interpretive infrastructure at a cultural heritage property. It can be conveyed through a variety of
technical means [].
As Moscardo argues successful interpretation is critical both for heritage management and
conservation of built heritage sites and for sustainable tourism (Moscardo, 1996).
In fact, according with Hall and McArthur 17, traditional heritage management failed because the
significance of visitors was taken in a small account. Therefore, it has been proposed to place the
experience of visitors at the centre of any heritage management process. Within this process
interpretation should achieve two main goals: to enhance the visitor experience and consequently
ensure public support for heritage conservation, and though education to encourage visitors to
behave in appropriate way.
2.1.2 INTERPRETATION FEATURES
Heritage interpretation is important to defining, evoking and enhancing heritage meaning (Uzzell,
1989). But the meaning of a heritage site is not unique neither universal.
Indeed, a single heritage site can provoke varied degrees of understanding, being the
interpretation from a local, national, regional or even global scale. In fact, there is no heritage
without interpretation and the attached subjective meaning is always culturally reconstructed
because society filters heritage through a value system that undoubtedly changes (Timothy and
Boyd, 2003).
The relativity of interpretation goes together with the changing and dynamic character of heritage
which has basically three declinations. The first one lies in the growing amount of heritage. Its
process of recognition (or creation) is continuous and seems to lean towards an endless
extension that more and more includes also contemporary built heritage as well as, for instance,
16

Cfr. Carter J, A sense of place, Tourism and Environment Initiative, Inverness 1997

17

Hall, C. M., and S. McArthur Heritage Management: An Introductory Framework. In Heritage Management in New
Zealand and Australia, C. M. Hall and S. McArthur, eds., pp. l-19. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

national kitchens. The second is basically the cause of the previous one and it lies in the variation
of cultural systems and structures changing over time and space and across societies. The latest
one leans on the intrinsic character of the single item considered as heritage when it is part of a
living system that is continuously evolving (mounting population pressures, resource availability
and interactions with other cultures, change) 18.
Regarding interpretation, the tales that visitors will hear, depend upon the guide, the way both
tourists and guide interact, and the broader context in which the guided tour is taking place.
Interpretative services are an essential part of the work of heritage management.
Making the different layers of multiple and shifting meanings and their dissonances accessible and
understandable, for both local residents and tourists from varied backgrounds, requires carefully
designed strategies or representation.
2.1.3 THREATS
The recognition of a sustainable cultural tourism has to be linked to a reflective approach on the
values of heritage and must not be considered outside of the context in which it is placed, to
prevent the risk of sterilizing it or affecting its perception and understanding by the visitor. 19
Indeed, despite the relativity and the complexity of values and meaning lying in heritage, the
globalization phenomenon can seriously influence its interpretation. Indeed, the global resonance
that heritage meaning promotion can have at a global level makes heritage subjected, even more
than in the past, to become a political tool of propaganda. In certain situations meaning of heritage
sites can be manipulated addressing it towards a specific interpretative direction (nationalism,
religious significance, etc.) 20.
Heritage has always been used a tool for propaganda by powerful elements of society and in this
case global tourism lend itself to spread addressed messages in an easy and fast way over the
world.
Furthermore, the desire to re-present heritage for both domestic and international audiences can
creates a tension around the selection of stories to be told and what is to be left untold. 21 Local
meanings about a site are likely to be devalued or erased by the choice of a single meaning much
more marketable and suitable for a wider range of tourists. This preference and selection of
significance of a specific item linked with the surrounding living context, could create conflicts
between different stakeholders that could feel negatively affected or deprived by the meaning
choice. As the selected meaning has to be adapted to marketing and communication criteria to
reach a large audience it is also likely to be simplified and trivialized.
Through the commoditization of culture, traditional arts and festivals are often commercialized to
generate revenue. As a result, the authenticity of these crafts and customs are lost in the race for
economic prosperity that both modernization and Western tourists promote. Often a shell of the
culture is preserved in the form of a festival or hand-woven rug, but the intangible heritage that
gives such artefacts meaning is lost, replaced with the global consumerist culture. Indeed,
18

Cfr. Reinfeld Marti Ann, Tourism and the politics of cultural preservation: a case study of Bhutan, Journal of Public
and International Affairs, Volume 14/Spring 2003, Copyright 2003, the Trustees of Princeton University
http://www.princeton.edu/~jpia
19
Report Theme 3, session 1, Heritage, a driver of development cit., p.555
20
Right during these days we are watching a further example of religious heritage manipulation that led to the
irreversible act of destruction of the Malis World Heritage Site of the Mausoleums of Sidi Mahmoud, Sidi Moctar and
Alpha Moya.
21
Cfr. Salazar, N., op.cit.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

commodification can lead to the erosion of heritage significance until it becomes meaningless. In a
tourism setting this threats people cultural elements becoming commodities that can be bought,
changed or sold. As this occurs people begin to perform exclusively for the touristsbenefit, and
events may lose their value as a cultural and spiritual manifestation.
The choice of historic towns policy of heritage preservation can also influence heritage
interpretation when they lead to an exaggeration or a hyper-reality of authenticity or when the
States themselves sometimes expressed the wish to change the authenticity of their heritage in
order to please the tourist demand by selling an image often false or not authentic.
Indeed as stated by Alison Hems 22:
Interpretation is rooted in the experience of the present not in the recreation of the past.
2.1.4 CHALLENGES
All heritage agencies have a parallel responsibility to promote access and understanding of sites
guaranteeing, meantime, its conservation. Although, several means are available to achieve this
objective, it is neither so evident nor so feasible carrying out both purposes.
Also keeping up with rapidly changing technologies is among the most common challenges that
interpreters have to deal with. Whether it is about updating an existing interpretation plan or it is
about an ex-novo planning process, interpreters should be aware about the wide range of
opportunity that technological devices offer. Together with needs and creativity, new technology is
nowadays an integrative part of most interpretative projects but its adoption is strictly subject to the
economic budget and funding available.
The spread of technology and informatic resources in people daily life and - above all in most
interpretation centres of western heritage sites, undoubtedly contributed rising visitors
expectations. Although, those expectation could not lie only in technological-based interpretation
but also being raised by further previous experiences or information gathered out-side (internet,
books, brochures, etc.).
For professional interpreters a further challenge includes working in a discipline that still lacks a
coherent framework that allows dealing with the ideas and assumptions coming from audiences
and visitors. Among the objectives that an interpretation plan can set, there is provoking the
audience to think for themselves, thereby coming to their own understanding about what the
subject means to them. As purpose for an interpretation plan, it is not an evident goal to achieve.
The resulting personal connections and meanings are the only way in which visitors beliefs,
attitudes and behaviours can be encouraged to change, improve or enrich.
Indeed, they bring with them their own notions of past, their own values and their own sense of
place. This means that also tourists can be interpreters and contribute in a process of interpretative
evolution. But to achieve this purpose it is necessary for interpretation to produce mindful visitors.
According to Moscardo, there are two typologies of factors that influence visitors at built heritage
site: Setting Factors and Visitor Factors. The two sets of factors combine to determine whether
visitors will be mindful or mindless. Figure 3 shows that, as a consequence, the first option lead
more likely to a better experience for visitors.

22

Blockley M.R., Hems A., Heritage Interpretation, English Heritage, 2006

26

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Among other, the model below predicts that ineffective maps and signage at built heritage sites
(poor/no orientation) will be more likely to induce mindlessness in their visitors than those with
effective systems. Therefore the model seems to be a useful tool to reflect about interpretative
mechanisms and eventual actions to be planned.
Moreover, as further challenge, interpretation could play a critical role in sustainable tourism by
educating tourists about the nature of the host region and culture, informing them of the
consequences of their actions, enhancing their experience and encouraging them to engage in
sustainable behaviours. 23

Fig.3 Mindfulness Model of visitor behavior and cognition at built heritage sites ( Moscardo G., 1996 p.383)

2.2 METHODOLOGY PLANNNIG


Referring to Carters book 24, the process to structure planned interpretative actions must answer
few questions:
Why you want to provide interpretation?
What are you going to interpret?
What you want to say about your place?
Who is it for?
How are you going to do it?
Therefore, objectives and vision of
the plan have to be defined
together with what it is worth
interpreting and what the site has to
offer. Making a selection of features
for what it will be necessary to
23
24

Moscardo G., Mindful visitors: Heritage and tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 23, 1996, p.378,
Carter J. cit., p.9

27

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

consider, thinking about how much, where and when to encourage access to those features, will
contribute to give a clear answer to the question.
It is important that these objectives are set precisely in order to ensure a subsequent easy
evaluation. To be useful, objectives should be SMART, that is they should be:
Specific: we know exactly what we want to happen
Measurable: we know how we will measure it
Appropriate: to site and audience
Realistic: we have a reasonable chance of achieving it
John Veverka, the author of Interpretive Master Planning, suggests a useful way of dividing them
into categories suggested by educational theory. These are:
Learning objectives - what do we want visitors to know or learn as a result of your
interpretation?
Emotional objectives - what do we want visitors to feel as a result of your interpretation?
Behavioural objectives - what do we want visitors to do as a result of your interpretation?
Learning and behavioural objectives could in principle be evaluated fairly simply. Emotional
objectives are more difficult to assess, since they involve the complex of emotions,
opinions, attitudes and values which make up what we call feelings.
In order to get an interpretation to reflect the real character of a place, its worth getting opinions
from those who live there about what they would like to show visitors. Furthermore, including
something of what local people regard as special, it will give them a sense of ownership of what
the visitors are told meantime. This is also a valid mean to induce in local people a sense of pride
and a willing of taking care of their place. Community participation work can allow each individual
to contribute, and give enough data to allow an objective appraisal of the value a community
places on its multi-faceted heritage resources. This helps to avoid the possibility of one group or
one individual being overly assertive.
From the visitors point of view, the interpretation conceived with participatory help from local
community can provide a greater sense of the unique character of that place.
Themes, messages and stories to convey will be pointed out as result of studies and research
done to find out about the objectives of the plan. As the process of understanding what is going to
be interpreted will probably end with several interesting aspects about the subject, it will be
necessary to make a selection. Themes should be stated as a complete sentence; contain one
main idea; reveal what the interpretation is about; be as interesting as possible; be as specific as
possible. They are statements which unite different strands of information, and use an idea or
concept as a way of understanding a place.
The essence of interpretation is to capture the essence of a place, not to tell people everything
there is to know (Carter, 1997).
Tourists have to be categorized in different typologies in order to better focus on interpretative
needs and attitudes; interpretation should match what they want to provide to the sort of
experiences they are looking for.
Within this process the gathered information or the decision taken will influence other issues and
decisions. But the logic of the process does not exclude the necessity of sensitivity and creativity.
The structure of the plan can be approached in different way according to a precise choice or to
information available and to the objectives previously determined. Structure also can be shaped
28

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

according with the needs of the site. For instance dealing with a large area or with a big subject
suggests the creation of a strategic plan that gives statements of intent which then can give
support to actions. A strategic plan also aims to guide and coordinate the efforts of all stakeholders
avoiding their duplication, to ensure comprehensive coverage of a large area or a broadly-based
topic, to establish guidelines for other local and detailed plans and to encourage appropriate
networks. It could provide an agreed structure within which several organizations can work.
Alternative to the strategic plan is a detailed plan for less extensive schemes or area that set out a
programme of work. It should give enough information giving clear objectives and precise
interpretative themes, costing and scheduled actions.
Planning heritage interpretation does not cover only a better communication with visitors, but it is
part of a development and management process, a visitor management programme and a visitor
financial programme. Meanwhile it should also achieve other benefits related to conservation,
sustainable tourism or community development.
2.3 MEDIA
The choice of media through which messages and stories have to be conveyed to the visitors is
addressed by the themes themselves as well as by the typology of visitors.
The media that will be chosen must balance what has been thought appropriate for the audience,
for the budget, for the story one want to tell, and most importantly for the site. It is important to
remember that the media will become a part of the place.
This is a critical phase of the interpretation planning process. Indeed, it lies in a communications
strategy that encompasses the role of marketing and public relations. It should target the key
market segments that heritage managers wish to reach, generate interest and reasons to visit the
heritage site and create reasons to return and critically, return on a regular basis.
One of the most consistent findings in visitor studies is that interactive interpretive techniques are
effective at catching and keeping visitor attention and at improving learning and interest.
Studies comparing traditional static and one-dimensional - exhibits or interpretative techniques to
interactive or participatory ones, indicate that improvements in interpretative effectiveness are
related to increased opportunities for visitors to participate in and control the interpretation that they
receive. Audio-visual, multisensory and dynamic interpretative techniques appear to enhance
visitor attention and learning. Today multi-media devices come abreast with Innovative
Technologies that, using for instance web based or Smartphone technology, allow people to
access relevant local information via their mobile phones. This means that compared with multimedia, this kind of technology allows its use also outside a facility structure such as a tourism
centre. However, it seems here necessary to mention that there is an ongoing debate about the
use of Innovative Technologies on heritage interpretation where the main question seems to be: is
the use of IT enhancing or trivialising the experience of cultural heritage?
Despite the technological progresses, there are still traditional means that being adopted still
nowadays, are able to increase cognitive orientation and, in certain case, are more compatible with
the surrounding (cultural or natural) context.

29

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Here is a summary of the main interpretative media together with the advantages and
disadvantages that their use encompasses. 25

PRINTED MATERIALS

PANELS AND
BANNERS

MULTI-MEDIA

25

A D VA N TA G E S
Tell visitors how they can get the most from their visit.

Provide an overview of the stories that the resource tells.


Allow visitors to absorb information at their own pace.
Provide detailed information about the resource.
Tell visitors how to access additional information about the
resource.
Be useful in presenting a sequential or especially complex
story.
Be useful in situations where there are no objects to
display.
Provide a self-guided tour of the resource, where
appropriate.
Show what the resource looks like at different times of the
year.
Go home with the visitor, which extends the interpretive
message off site, provides a souvenir, and encourages return
visits.
Generate income, if offered for sale
Be published in different languages and specifically for
different audiences.
Be affordable.
Welcome visitors when no one is available to greet them.
Help to establish an identity for the resource.
Provide orientation to the resource and tell visitors where
theyre allowed to go.
Provide interpretation at any time of the day and exactly
where its needed.
Interpret objects in their own setting, providing visitors a
more direct experience with the resource.
Alert visitors to resource management issues such as
environmental impact or dangerous conditions.
Be designed to blend in with the local environment.
Show a feature from a view thats difficult for visitors to
reach.
Integrate pictures and diagrams with text for instance,
show how a scene the visitor sees today might have looked in
the past, or how a geological formation was created over
time, or how invisible phenomena affect the resource.
Be relatively inexpensive.
Be replaced relatively quickly and inexpensively, because
they are produced from digital files that are easily
reproduced.
Create a mood or atmosphere
Tell stories with excitement, drama, special effects and
music.
Capture actual events and provide emotional impact.
Speed up time (two-hundred years of history), slow it down
(the flight of a hummingbird), or illustrate before and
after.
Provide views of places, features, or seasons not otherwise
accessible.

D I S A D VA N TA G E S

Discourage people who dont


like to read (a surprisingly large
percentage).
Create litter.
Require frequent revision to
remain up to date.
Require a distribution system.
Be expensive, if writing and
design consultants are involved.
Clutter up inventory stock if
they dont sell well.

Look intrusive in some


settings.
Be difficult for groups of
people to read at the same
time.
Frustrate visitors who have
additional questions.
Be inadequate to interpret
complicated stories, because
the space available for graphics
and text is limited.
Seem static when compared
to multi-media presentations.
Be subject to vandalism and
wear, especially under extreme
conditions.
Require expensive site
preparations before installation.

Not be appropriate in all


locations (for example, many
outdoors).
Make the interpretation more
spectacular than the resource
itself.
Seem isolating, cold, or
impersonal compared with
guided tours or other face-to-

Lancaster County Planning Commission, Telling Our Stories, An Interpretation Manual for Heritage Partners, 2007

30

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR


Excel at the presentation of chronological and sequential
material.
Provide a consistently high-quality performance and good
control over the message.
Present interpretation in other languages.
Present lots of layered information in a relatively small
space.
Be easily transported for use off site.
Reach many visitors at once.
Be adapted for visitors with physical challenges.
INTERACTIVE
DISPLAYS

WEB-BASED
INTERPRETATION

Give visitors a chance to interact with objects.


Be viewed at visitors own pace and desired level of
complexity.
Transcend barriers of language and culture.
Allow visitors to use all their senses, which adds to the
enjoyment and education of all types of visitors, including the
physically challenged.
Allow several methods of interpretation to be used
together (or on different occasions) to suit different
requirements.
Accommodate a broad range of stories.
Be especially suitable for stories that can be illustrated
graphically.
Build excitement and publicity for your resource, especially
if theyre short-term installations.
Provide year-round, all-weather facilities.
Control access to the resource and the way visitors use it.
Generate income.
Create employment.
Become a focus for community involvement.
Attract a huge audience worldwide.
Reach people who cant physically visit your resource.
Reach a high number of potential visitors at low cost.
Offer good control over your message.
Serve as a pre-visit orientation to your resource.
Create an identity and mood that enhances your message
before visitors experience the resource in person.
Be easily updated with information or stories.
Be effective at reaching people with different learning
styles.
Offer interactive media to engage visitors.
Provide a platform for visitor feedback and inquiries.
Provide virtual access to elements of your resource that
may not be otherwise accessible (for example, because a
resource is too fragile for visitors to experience directly, or
because its inaccessible to the physically challenged).
Easily be developed in phases as funding permits.
Offer visitors the opportunity to research your subject
matter in more depth, if you provide links and other material.

face interpretation.
Distract visitors and annoy
staff, especially if a presentation
is repeated over and over again.
Disappoint visitors who like to
browse, study an item in depth,
or proceed at their own pace.
Not work for many people at
once (as in the case of
interactive computer stations).
Is subject to the whims of
fashion.
Need major investment and
planning.
Need to be very well designed
and well mounted to stand out
among the many museum
exhibits one can encounter.
Be ineffective at telling stories
that are largely verbal, complex
or sequential.
Require sophisticated facilities
with environmental controls
and good security.
May subject valuable
collections to deterioration and
the threat of theft.
Need staff, especially for
supervision and security.
Not be available after hours.
Need maintenance and
continuing investment.
Require a large initial
investment, especially if
professional designers of Webbased interpretation are
involved.
Create additional demands on
management because it must
be kept current and constantly
updated.
Discourage those potential
visitors who are content with a
virtual visit from planning an
actual visit.
Create a bad impression if not
well designed and maintained.
Not reach visitors who are not
computer literate, or those
without computer access.

Once interpretative media have been chosen, a final detailed plan should also specify what
message each piece should communicate: its theme. In programmes of guided walks, is
recommendable to leave room for the leaders to plan their own approach, but for panels and
leaflets the copy writer and designer need a clear brief as to what need to be achieved.
31

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Therefore each piece of interpretation also needs specific objectives for what it is to achieve.
Objectives can cover any one or any combination, of these things:
what you want people to know as a result of your interpretation;
what you want people to feel as a result of your interpretation;
what you want people to do as a result of your interpretation.
.

32

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 3
International and Indian legal and policy framework

33

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 3
International and Indian legal and policy framework

The present chapter gathers together those international and Indian legal tools that give support to
the importance of heritage interpretation concept whether as part of sustainable tourism and as
part of heritage preservation projects. Having a closer look to the international policies and charters
will constitute part of the theoretical ground on which developing proposals for an interpretation
Plan.
International networks dealing both with tourism field and heritage sector, are considered in order
to analyse and define a legislative framework for interpretative strategies.
Within the list of legal provisions dealing with tourism, sustainable tourism or heritage conservation
and management, the most significant articles or part of documents concerning interpretation
directly or indirectly - have been highlighted.
3.1 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR HERITAGE INTERPRETATION
Legal provisions concerning, heritage and heritage interpretation can come both from tourism
more specifically sustainable tourism - and heritage sector, as heritage interpretation represents in
some way the link between the two fields.
3.1.1 TOURISM FIELD
The international network of organizations dealing, directly or indirectly, with tourism is constituted
from a wide numbers of NGOs and associations. Here is a partial list of them:
UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organisation which includes the Sustainable Tourism
Department. It defined the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) as a comprehensive
set of principles designed to guide key-players in tourism development which has been adopted
in 1999 by the General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization, and acknowledged by the
United Nations two years later. Although not legally binding, the Code features a voluntary
implementation mechanism through its recognition of the role of the World Committee on
Tourism Ethics (WCTE), to which stakeholders may refer matters concerning the application
and interpretation of the document. The Codes 10 principles amply cover the economic, social,
cultural and environmental components of travel and tourism:
Article 1: Tourism's contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies
Article 2: Tourism as a vehicle for individual and collective fulfilment
Article 3: Tourism, a factor of sustainable development
Article 4: Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement
Article 5: Tourism, a beneficial activity for host countries and communities
Article 6: Obligations of stakeholders in tourism development

34

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Article 7: Right to tourism


Article 8: Liberty of tourist movements
Article 9: Rights of the workers and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry
Article 10: Implementation of the principles of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.

26

UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme that supported the UNCSD Rio+20
Conference which principles and recommendations about sustainability are however
specifically directed towards the environment and fighting poverty pointing also on public
awareness and education
GSTC Global Sustainable Tourism Council is a global initiative dedicated to promoting
sustainable tourism practices around the world. Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria are an
effort led by a coalition of more than 30 diverse organizations and businesses to come to a
common understanding of sustainable tourism, and will be the minimum that any tourism
business should aspire to reach. The Criteria were developed over a nearly two-year period with
the input of the worlds leading tourism experts, academics, and members of the private sector,
through an extensive public consultation process. The resulting sets of criteria are organized
around four main themes:
effective sustainability planning;
maximizing social and economic benefits for the local community;
enhancing cultural heritage;
reducing negative impacts to the environment.
However, these criteria refer only to hotels and tour operators and exclude several major
constituents of the tourism industry such as local communities, destination management, transport,
airlines, beaches and backwaters, wellness, as well as operational focus which requires indicators
and governance coefficients going beyond statements of intent.
To date, two sets of GSTC Criteria have been developed: for hotels and tour operators, and for
destinations (currently in the process of public consultation of the first draft)
EXTRACT FROM GSTC FOR HOTELS AND TOUR OPERATORS:
C. Maximize benefits to cultural heritage and minimize negative impacts.
C.1. the company follows established guidelines or a code of behaviour for visits to culturally or
historically sensitive sites, in order to minimize visitor impact and maximize enjoyment.
C.2. Historical and archaeological artefacts are not sold, traded, or displayed, except as permitted
by law.
C.3. The business contributes to the protection of local historical, archaeological, culturally, and
spiritually important properties and sites, and does not impede access to them by local residents.
C.4 The business uses elements of local art, architecture, or cultural heritage in its operations,
design, decoration, food, or shops; while respecting the intellectual property rights of local
communities
EXTRACT FROM GSTC FOR DESTINATIONS:
C. Maximize benefits to communities, visitors and cultural heritage, and minimize negative impacts

26

See http://ethics.unwto.org/en/content/global-code-ethics-tourism

35

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

C1 Attraction protection: The destination has a policy and program to conserve key cultural and
natural tourist attractions to ensure that landscapes, ecosystems and habitats are identified.
Threats to them are identified and assessed, and access and use is managed to be sustainable.
C2 Visitor management plans: The destination has a visitor management plan for key attraction
sites including measures to preserve and protect key natural and cultural assets.
C3 VISITOR BEHAVIOUR AND INTERPRETATION IN SENSITIVE SITES: the destination has developed
guidelines for interpretation and codes of behaviour for visits to culturally or ecologically
sensitive sites, in order to minimize visitor impact and maximize enjoyment.
C5 SITE INTERPRETATION: Information about and interpretation of the natural surroundings ,
local culture and cultural heritage is provided to visitors in various languages as well as
explaining appropriate behaviour while visiting natural areas, living cultures, cultural
heritage sites and communities.
C6 Protection of community property and rights: The destination contributes to the protection and
preservation of the intellectual property rights of local communities and of property rights to local
historical, archaeological, culturally and spiritually important properties and sites.
A large number of non-profit organizations deals with sustainable or responsible tourism such as
the Travel Corporation Conservation Foundation that, like the World Monuments Fund, provides
tourists with tips for travelling responsibly that includes, within others, Tread lightly. The
destinations we visit are exceptional due to their natural or cultural beauty - help to keep them that
way by sticking to designated trails 27.
3.1.2 HERITAGE FIELD

UNESCO In 2011 UNESCO embarked on developing a new World Heritage and


Sustainable Tourism Programme. The aim of the programme is to create an international
framework for the cooperative and coordinate achievement of shared and sustainable outcomes
related to tourism at World Heritage properties. The proposed Programme will be presented for
adoption by the World Heritage Committee in 2012 at its 36th session in St Petersburg, Russian
Federation.
UNESCO promotes and trusts in a tourism's development able to enhance visitor's understanding
and appreciation for heritage values through interpretation, presentation and visitor services.

ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism (ISCCT), fashioned the


first International Charter on Cultural Tourism dated 1976, nearly 40 years ago.
The current charter, adopted at the 12th General Assembly, Mexico in 1999 replaces that from
1976 and focuses on Managing Tourism at Places of Heritage Significance 28. One of its many
objectives is to encourage those formulating plans and policies to develop detailed, measurable
goals and strategies relating to the presentation and interpretation of heritage places and cultural
activities, in the context of their preservation and conservation The Charters six principles seek to:
1) Foster cultural exchange raising public awareness of a communitys heritage and culture by
imparting information through presenting conservation led interpretation programmes;

27

http://www.ttcconservationfoundation.com/content/tips-travelling-responsibly
ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism, International Charter on Cultural Tourism, 1999
http://www.heritagemalta.org/erdf032/documents/06_ICOMOS%20International%20Cultural%20Tourism%20Charter
.pdf
28

36

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

2) Manage the Dynamic Relationship between Heritage Places & Tourism in a sustainable way for
present and future generations through policy formulation and management plans
3) Ensure a Worthwhile Satisfying and Enjoyable Visitor Experience through conservation and
tourism planning;
4) Involve Host and Indigenous Communities in conservation and tourism planning;
5) Provide Benefit for the Host Community through education and training; socio-economic
development, and return of tourism revenues
6) Promote Tourism Programmes to protect heritage characteristics - manage visitor expectations
(and behaviour), encourage local craft activities & exploration of the wider region.
ICOMOS Charter For the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites (2008) 29
recognized the need for the development of a set of principles and strategies to guide
interpretation and presentation methods in order to foster better understanding of and support for
heritage conservation among visitors and locals. It provides definitions of key words and a set of
seven principles.
Interpretation refers to the full range of potential activities intended to heighten public awareness
and enhance understanding of cultural heritage site. These can include print and electronic
publications, public lectures, on-site and directly related off-site installations, educational
programmes, community activities, and ongoing research, training, and evaluation of the
interpretation process itself.
Presentation more specifically denotes the carefully planned communication of interpretive
content through the arrangement of interpretive information, physical access, and interpretive
infrastructure at a cultural heritage site. It can be conveyed through a variety of technical means,
including, yet not requiring, such elements as informational panels, museum-type displays,
formalized walking tours, lectures and guided tours, and multimedia applications and websites.
PRINCIPLES
Principle 1: Access and Understanding
Principle 2: Information Sources
Principle 3: Attention to Setting and Context
Principle 4: Preservation of Authenticity
Principle 5: Planning for Sustainability
Principle 6: Concern for Inclusiveness
Principle 7: Importance of Research, Training, and Evaluation
OBJECTIVES
1. Facilitate understanding and appreciation of cultural heritage sites and foster public awareness
and engagement in the need for their protection and conservation.
2. Communicate the meaning of cultural heritage sites to a range of audiences through careful,
documented recognition of significance, through accepted scientific and scholarly methods as well
as from living cultural traditions.
3. Safeguard the tangible and intangible values of cultural heritage sites in their natural and cultural
settings and social contexts.

29

http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/interpretation_e.pdf

37

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

4. Respect the authenticity of cultural heritage sites, by communicating the significance of their
historic fabric and cultural values and protecting them from the adverse impact of intrusive
interpretive infrastructure, visitor pressure, inaccurate or inappropriate interpretation.
5. Contribute to the sustainable conservation of cultural heritage sites, through promoting public
understanding of, and participation in, ongoing conservation efforts, ensuring long-term
maintenance of the interpretive infrastructure and regular review of its interpretive contents.
6. Encourage inclusiveness in the interpretation of cultural heritage sites, by facilitating the
involvement of stakeholders and associated communities in the development and implementation
of interpretive programmes.
7. Develop technical and professional guidelines for heritage interpretation and presentation,
including technologies, research, and training. Such guidelines must be appropriate and
sustainable in their social contexts.
In a world that is increasingly subject to the forces of globalisation and homogenisation, and in a
world in which the search for cultural identity is sometimes pursued through aggressive nationalism
and the suppression of cultures of minorities, the essential contribution made by the consideration
of authenticity in conservation practice is to clarify and illuminate the collective memory of
humanity. Therefore, Nara Document on Authenticity conceived in the spirit of the Charter of
Venice, is useful to achieve this purpose determining parameters of authenticity in a diverse
cultural context such as that of India.
3.2 INDIAN TOURISM/HERITAGE LEGAL PROVISIONS
The present paragraph will distinguish three level of legislative frameworks that could regard,
directly or indirectly heritage interpretation. Here we start considering programmes, initiatives,
legislative provisions and recommendations from the Asian and Pacific Region to later move on
towards the national level and then at state level of Rajasthan to analyse institutional and
administrative structure in both tourism and heritage filed.
3.2.1 ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONAL LEVEL

UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education was established in 1961, and
serves as the technical advisory body to all field offices and Member States of the region, and the
site of regional programmes in education, social
and human sciences and culture.
The office of the UNESCO Regional Advisor for
Culture in Asia and the Pacific is the regional focal
point for undertaking UNESCOs mandate in
promoting cultural creativity and safeguarding
cultural heritage.
UNESCOs Asia-Pacific Programmes advances
the three global strategic objectives in the field of
culture of supporting the drafting, adoption, and
enforcement of standard-setting instruments in the
cultural field particularly for the protection of
cultural heritage; protecting cultural diversity and
encouraging pluralism and dialogue among
Fig. 4 Extract from the MoU pag. 6
38

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

cultures and civilizations; enhancing linkages between culture and development through capacity
building and the sharing of knowledge. 30

ASEAN ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS -> MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING


ON ASEAN-INDIA TOURISM COOPERATION 31
Tourism ministers from India and ASEAN member countries signed on January 2012 a
memorandum of understanding (MoU) on ASEANIndia tourism cooperation during the ASEAN
Tourism Forum at the Grand Kawanua Convention Center in Manado, North Sulawesi. It seems
here remarkable to recall this agreement as within the reciprocal exchange of programmes and
projects among the parties, India could get a fruitful support and inspiration to improve and
enhance its own programme about tourism initiatives and legal provisions
3.2.2 NATIONAL LEVEL
TOURISM FIELD

Ministry of Tourism, Government of India

The potential of tourism in a globalised environment was brought out in the first Tourism Policy of
India in 1982 that perceived the role of this sector as a major engine of growth and sought to
integrate it with all other sectors that are related in a major way with tourism through a well defined
and fully integrated national programme. 32 Both the public and the private sector were to play an
important role. Tourism was subsequently recognized as an industry in 1986 and in 1991, it was
declared as a priority sector for foreign investment. It was in this context of changed thrust on
tourism, the Policy was revised in 2002.
National Tourism Policy 2002 33 aims at taking advantage of the tourism potential of all sectors,
starting with spatial physical diversity from mountainous range to desert stretches in different
regions in the country, the man-made attractions of historical interest, heritage buildings, crafts and
culture of the people as tourism products, and in this context, also seeks to use the tourism route
to create as many skilled and unskilled employment as possible. The eco-tourism policy and
guidelines states that one of the cardinal principles of tourism is involvement of the local
community with minimum conflicts between resource use for tourism and the livelihood of the local
people.
Apart from retaining the role of tourism as a major engine of economic growth, the 2002 Policy
Statement intends to expand the role of tourism to harness its direct and multiplier effects for
employment and poverty eradication in an environmentally sustainable manner. 34
Sustainable Tourism Criteria For India 2012 35 The document has a background the initiative of
30 organizations grouped together, garnering the goodwill of UNEP and UNWTO, to promote the

30

http://asian-academy.org/about-aahm.html
http://www.aseansec.org/document/MOU%20on%20ASEAN-India%20Tourism%20Cooperation.pdf
32
Department of Tourism, Government of India, Draft National Tourism Policy: Spatio - Economic Development
Record, Vol. 4, July-August,1997
33
http://www.tourism.gov.in/writereaddata/Uploaded/ImpDoc/071920111129103.pdf
34
Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India: National Tourism Policy 2002
31

35

http://tourism.nic.in/writereaddata/CMSPagePicture/file/marketresearch/studyreports/Sustainable_Tourism_Report
_for_MOT-GOI-%20FINAL%20APPROVED.pdf

39

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Global Sustainable Tourism Council and their Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC) for
adoption by hotels and tour operators, drawn from criteria generated by a variety of sources.
A sub-committee chaired by Joint Secretary (Tourism), Government of India and comprising expert
stakeholders was constituted in 2010 for defining Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India (STCI) and
indicators.
Chap. 2 Background:
[] sustainable tourism can provide solutions to the issues of inclusive growth. Besides, the
return to roots focus in tourism is interlinked with increased access to information, enlarged
interest in heritage and culture, improved accessibility and climate change concerns. India
has taken a lead in this field. Tourism experiences across the country now provide quality
time visits for participatory settings where the takeaway includes the enduring way of life, art,
culture and heritage that are community-owned, culturally expressive and environmentally
sustainable. There is simultaneous benefit for local communities with the enriching
connection between visitor and host. Attitudes and mindsets are transformed, imparting local
pride and visitor appreciation. The visitor thus comes face to front with Indias
vernacular traditions as they vibe with the present. Sustainable visitor strategies
based on art, craft, cultural & natural heritage and environment care can hence target
larger tourism yields which could contribute significantly to conservation and to the
rural sector in particular. The primary target segment here is low-volume but high-yield
visitors, compatible with the carrying capacity of the local environment, alternate energy
options, local community acceptance and visitor satisfaction.
[]It is the intention that the countrywide experiential tourism attractions get developed for
the socio-economic benefit of local communities, especially in order to strengthen inclusive
economic growth. It is equally important to ensure that increased socio-economic wellbeing does not cause permanent or long-term damage to the countrys physical,
cultural and environmental heritage. The use of existing resources, both tangible and
intangible, has to be undertaken judiciously for the well-being of the present
generation but not at the cost of depriving future generations of any part of our
inheritance.
ADDITIONAL NATIONAL TOURISM BODIES:
National Tourism Advisory Council (NTAC)
The NTAC, which consists of representatives from various Union Ministries, trade and industry
associations and individuals from the field of Travel and Tourism Management, serves as a thinktank of the Ministry of Tourism for the development of tourism in the country
Hospitality Development and Promotion Board (HDPB)
To address the constraints being faced by the hotel industry in obtaining multiple clearances, and
to streamline the system for speedy clearances of hotel projects
India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC)
ITDC came into existence in October 1966 and has been the prime mover in the progressive
development, promotion and expansion of tourism in the country. Broadly, the main objectives of
the Corporation are: within other occupations the Corporation is engaged in production, distribution
and sale of tourist publicity literature

40

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

HERITAGE FIELD
India is party to the World Heritage Convention ratified by India on November 14, 1977. and the
Archaeological Survey of India is responsible for the protection of all Indian cultural properties
included in the World Heritage List.
The Indian legislation concerning archaeological and historical such as intangible heritage due to
the lack of updating does not take into account the tourism as phenomenon link in some way to the
heritage preservation and management. Therefore there is not any reference about heritage
interpretation among the heritage national policies.
India does not have a national policy and legislation for heritage protection and management. All
protected sites at national level adhere to the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and
Remains Act 1958 enacted on August 28, 1958.

MINISTRY OF CULTURE The mission of the department is to preserve, promote and


disseminate all forms of art and culture. In order to achieve this, the department undertakes the
following activities:
Maintenance and conservation of heritage, historic sites and ancient monuments
Administration of libraries
Promotion of literary, visual and performing arts
Observation of centenaries and anniversaries of important national personalities and events
Promotion of institutions and organizations of Buddhist and Tibetan studies
Promotion of institutional and individual non-official initiatives in the fields of art and culture
Entering into cultural agreements with foreign countries.
The functional spectrum of the Department ranges from creating cultural awareness from the grass
root level to the international cultural exchange level. 36

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA subordinate office of the Ministry of Culture is the


premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the
nation. The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act from 1958 and
The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act from 1972 are the latest acts which the ministerial
activities are referring to. Besides, new rules and ordinances are promulgated.
The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act provides for the preservation
of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance,
for the regulation of archaeological excavations and for the protection of sculptures, carvings and
other like objects.

INDIAN NATIONAL TRUST FOR ART AND CULTURAL HERITAGE (INTACH) is a nonprofit organization set up in 1984 to involve its members in protecting and conserving Indias vast
natural, built and cultural heritage. The Heritage Tourism Division was set up in December 2005.
The Division works for development of sustainable tourism connected with heritage as an asset. A
development of tourist facilities is in harmony with the local eco-system and heritage architecture,
and regulates sensitivity of design in architectural style of construction of any new tourist facilities.
The aim of developing tourism is to conserve and utilize buildings to sustain their maintenance.
Heritage Tourism development aspects are:

Community Development of tourist receiving destination


36

http://indiaculture.nic.in/indiaculture/msission-statement.html

41

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Socio-economic Growth of the receiving community


Preservation and Conservation of cultural and natural heritage sites
Income Generation 37

Unfortunately within the aim statements of INTACH, any reference to heritage interpretation is
mentioned. Nevertheless the Heritage Education and communication Service (HECS) from
1998 designs different types of training programmes with the aim to make citizens aware of their
role in the conservation and preservation of their natural, cultural and living heritage.
3.2.3 STATE LEVEL
TOURISM FIELD
The tourism business is carried out at the State level through three levels of organizations, namely:
The Department of Tourism, Art and Culture at the state level, the Tourist Reception Centres at
administrative zone level and the Rajasthan Tourist Development Corporation (RTDC) at state
private level. The Department is the highest body at the state level and is responsible for policy
guidelines and formulation of policy milestones. Since tourism is a multi sector activity, important
departments are always consulted before major decisions are taken.
The tourism is facilitated at the local levels through Tourism Reception Centres, spread over the
State and these centres also act as monitors of the progress in tourism. It also acts as the
information providing centre.

GOVERNMENT OF RAJASTHAN DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM


Rajasthan Tourism Policy 2001 38
Preamble:
Tourism has emerged as an important instrument for sustainable human Development []
promoting social integration and international understanding.
The primary agenda of Government is to promote tourism as a means to ensure sustainable
economic development and positive social change through development of tourism while
preserving and protecting the environment and heritage.
Objectives:
30.2 Optimum utilisation of rich tourist resources of the State in order to attract the
maximum number of domestic and international tourists;
30.3 To facilitate the growth of tourism in the State and to further involve the private sector in the
development of tourism in Rajasthan;
30.4 Preservation of rich natural habitat and bio-diversity, historical, architectural and
cultural heritage of Rajasthan; special emphasis on conservation of historical monuments
in Rajasthan;
30.5 To develop a ready market for the rich and varied handicrafts and cottage industries of
Rajasthan; ensure welfare of artisans/ artistes;
30.6 To promote inter cultural understanding through religious / pilgrim tourism and fairs and
festivals;
30.8 To make tourism a "People's Industry" in the state;
30.9 To minimise the negative impacts of tourism and promote sustainable tourism;
36.3 State Government would encourage Heritage hotel movement in the state in order to provide
quality accommodation for the tourist and also save precious historical heritage from dilapidation.
40. Development of Nazool Properties of Heritage Value

37
38

http://www.intach.org/divi-heritage-tourism-division.asp?links=dhtd1
http://ppp.rajasthan.gov.in/index.htm

42

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

40.1 There are large numbers of historical buildings / monuments which are not protected
by Department of Archaeology and Museums or Archaeological Survey of India and which
are owned by the State government.
40.2 These properties would be transferred to Department of Tourism for developing them
into heritage hotels / tourist museums / tourist complexes / tourist resorts in collaboration
with private entrepreneurs.
Heritage Tourism
52.1.4 The State abounds with some of the best Forts and Palaces in the country spread
throughout the State. The Government will encourage the preservation, conservation and upkeep
of such heritage properties and selectively open some of them for being developed into Hotels /
Tourist Complex.
52.1.5 The State will encourage private investment in developing ancient buildings and heritage
properties as tourist resorts.
52.1.6 The properties owned by the State government will be offered on easy terms to private
entrepreneurs for conversion into hotels. Essential infrastructure, which is considered necessary,
would be provided by the State on a selective basis.
52.1.7 Corporate sector would be invited to join hands with the Government in conservation of
historical heritage and monuments in the State.
52.1.8 Students, Teachers and National Service Scheme (NSS)
Preservation of Historical and Cultural Heritage
52.1.38 The Government proposes to encourage private initiative in the preservation of rare
monuments, Forts and palaces by encouraging private investment in their restoration and
renovation as has been done in Israel.
52.1.39 Efforts will be made to co-ordinate preservation, conservation and upkeep of old buildings
with all departments including ASI, Archaeology, Devasthan, Waqf Board, UIT's Municipal
Corporations etc. Efforts at revival of traditional building arts etc. would be supported.
52.1.40 Private people/firms and voluntary organisations interested in such preservation will be
offered individual monuments on settled terms and conditions for restoration and preservation. To
assist the Government, a technical group would be set up of eminent historians, archaeologists,
engineers etc. to oversee such projects.
52.1.41 Management of protected monuments will be done in cooperation with private
sector\NGOs.
It is not very clear how exactly the attraction of the maximum number of tourists stated as objective
(30.2) can lead to a minimum impact (30.9) as well as to the preservation of the natural habitat and
bio-diversity, historical, architectural and cultural heritage (30.4). Moreover, it is very evident the
extension of the promoted involvement of the private sector concerning not just tourism services
management but also heritage management.
By the way beside this a number of schemes outlined below call for attention as they mention
some Jaipur site and they can impact the Walled city and the Jantar Mantar World Heritage Site:
(i) Under a scheme for land and property belonging to Devasthan Department, projects can be
jointly undertaken by the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation, Rajasthan State Housing
Corporation, Department of Tourism and Devasthan Department to utilize such land/ property
(usually lying under utilised or in danger of encroachment) for Dharamshalas (rest houses for
pilgrims) as Yatri Niwas (budget rest houses), tourist complexes for promotion of pilgrimage and
cultural tourism. This particular scheme could be applicable on the adjoining property of Anand
Bihari temple west of Jantar Mantar that belongs to the Devasthan Department from the Ministry

of Tourism.
(ii) For expanding investment in tourism infrastructure, there are proposals for attracting
institutional finance from the Tourism Finance Corporation of India, Department of Tourism,
Rajasthan Tourist Development Corporation and Rajasthan Finance Corporation and investment
43

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

from non resident Indians, undertaking joint venture with private sector. The Department of
Archaeology and Museum has already availed this opportunity once in funding conservation works
for Jantar Mantar in 2006- 2008 through a centrally sponsored scheme
RAJASTHAN TOURISM TRADE (FACILITATION AND REGULATION) ACT, 2010 passed by the state
assembly during the budget session 2010 to provide, at various tourist destinations, for facilities to
the tourists visiting the state and to provide for certain measures to make their travel hassle free as
also to regulate conduct of persons confronting them or dealing with them. Framing of various rules
is completed and notifications under the act have been issued. 39
PLANNING DEPARTMENT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Project means a project based on contract or concession
agreement between a Government or statutory entity on the one side and a private sector
company on the other side, for delivering an infrastructure service on payment of user charges.
It invests several fields among which Tourism. Within the policies taken into account by the PPP
project we find the RAJASTHAN TOURISM UNIT POLICY 2007 40 which replaced the New Hotel Policy
of Rajasthan of 2006:
To include classified hotels in the Hotel Policy but also to include all other category of hotels,
heritage hotels and other tourism units in the New Policy proposing new concessions and
facilities made applicable for all types of Tourism Units
Regarding conversion of residential land and heritage properties into Hotels and other
tourism units:
In Rajasthan presently there are many havelis, forts and palaces in heritage category that can
be developed into hotels, which would be of special attraction to tourists. This would not only
increase the tourist arrivals in the state but also promote the culture of Rajasthan. Hence for
this, in Rule- 12 (i) the following provisions shall be added:
- (i) that any heritage property such as havelis, forts, palaces, hunting lodges etc, which
have been constructed prior to 1950, and are proposed to be utilized for conversion /
construction into heritage hotels having minimum of 10 rooms shall be exempted from
above mentioned fees.
(ii) provided further that if any residential land or residential building is proposed to be
used for hotels or other tourism units, having minimum of 10 rooms, shall be exempted
from above mentioned fees.
According with the fact that reusing existing buildings, including historic ones, to house tourism
services and infrastructures can contribute to their preservation and revalorization being also an
sustainable action, it is necessary think about the way in which this kind of intervention of
adaptation will be carried out by private investors specialized in tourism field (and not for sure in
heritage conservation).
Report -20 Year Perspective Plan for Sustainable Tourism in Rajasthan 2001 41 The document
specifically testifies how much the perception and the awareness about the link between
sustainability and heritage care changed over last 10 years in India
The document does not promote or suggest any action addressed towards heritage preservation.
Rather, it merely recommends the purely commodification of heritage and cultural/natural
resources, aiming exclusively to an economic development.
39

Source: Comparative Achievements of important activities Tourism department(December, 2008 to February,


2012)
40
http://ppp.rajasthan.gov.in/index.htm
41
http://tourism.nic.in/CMSPagePicture/file/marketresearch/statewise20yrsplan/rajasthan.pdf

44

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The Strategic Action Plan for Tourism Development in Rajasthan should focus on the following:

Creation of New Circuits/ Destinations


Creation of New Tourism Products
Tourism as a Vehicle for Area Development
Creation of Tourism Relevant Direct Infrastructure
Exploiting Opportunities to Increase Tourism Revenues
Tourism Marketing

[] Rajasthan should change its perception as being merely a heritage and cultural
tourist destination by offering tourist a diverse range of new tourism products, which
would attract an entire new class/ category of tourist in the state as indicated below.
Indeed tourists reason for travelling are classified by the document as below, exclude any form or
cultural interest:
Leisure, recreation and holidays
Visiting friends and relatives
Business and professional
Health treatment
Religion and pilgrimage
Others (weekly hats, etc.)
Tourist is seen as a bearer of money to whom gives a good reason to spend them. In fact heritage
preservation and interpretation is not mentioned throughout the whole document.
RAJASTHAN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (RTDC) is incorporated as a Private Limited
Company under the Indian Companies Act 1956. The Corporate major activity is to provide
comprehensive hotel facilities and management of hotel affairs including the private sector. It also
looks after transport in a limited manner and show casing local festivals. It also develops places of
tourist interest and gives important tourist information by way of literature and web portal. It also
offers to discover the authenticity of this exotic state. But it has no official linkage with other city
level authorities and organizations that have a role in the promotion of tourism in the city. As such,
lack of coordination or absence of an apex body providing directions act as a major stumbling
block in the development of tourism in the city.
HERITAGE FIELD
The State of Rajasthan adopted The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains
Act 1958 (No 24 of1958) in 1961.
Department of Archaeology & Museums is responsible for the protection of all national level
heritage sites in India. The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act is
applicable to all nationally protected heritage sites and for the Indias general compliance with the
Convention, and for nominating sites in India. The Department was established to manage the
cultural heritage of Rajasthan through conservation, restoration, research, publication, survey,
documentation, excavation, exploration, acquisition, exposition and to promote cultural tourism. It
has been making concerted efforts to discover, preserve, protect, exhibit and interpret the cultural
legacy embodied in various forms of art and architecture.
The Department has 324 protected monuments, 17 museums, 1 art gallery, 04 propose museums
and 47 archaeological sites under its control.
The Rajasthan Monuments, Archaeological Sites and Antiquities Act, is dated 1961.
Nevertheless, within the new initiatives, the DAM carried out:
45

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Light & Sound Show :

for the benefit of the tourists, light and sound show has been started at Amber Palace and Jantar
Mantar. Similarly, there is a proposal to start light and sound show at Akbar Fort, Ajmer.
Audio Guide Facility :
Audio Guide facility in Hindi and English has been provided at monuments of Jaipur viz. Amber
Palace, Jantar Mantar, Albert Hall and Hawa Mahal.
RSMMMDS Rajasthan State Museums Management and Development Society is a society
constituted under the Chairmanship of the Chief Minister which was constituted in February 2005,
under the Rajasthan Society Registration Act, 1958, for the proper maintenance of museums,
except Amber Palace Complex. The Society was renamed (October 2006) as Rajasthan State
Museum & Monument Management & Development Society (RSMMMDS). The objectives of the
society were:
Documentation, identification, certification, evaluation, scientific storage, chemical treatment,
conservation, research, publication of antiquities and artefacts.
Provide facilities for research and attracting tourists, conduct workshop, seminars, creation of
fund for technical, scientific and academic activities, establishment of museum fund for financial
assistance.
Collaboration and co-ordination with Central Government/State Government/ NGO/ national/
international organizations etc.
The Rajasthan government has also launched Adopt -a- Monument scheme as an instrument
for public-private participation for preserving the States rich heritage. Rajasthan Adopt - aMonument Society (non profit organisation) has been registered under Rajasthan Societies
Registration Act of 1958
Devasthan Department of Government of Rajasthan manages and controls religious and
charitable institutions and temples which were transferred to the modern Rajasthan State by the
rulers of princely states at the time of their merger into the State of India. It also controls, regulates
and directs other religious trusts, places of worships, mutts etc. The department grants aid and
annuity is paid to temples and religious and charitable institutions inherited at the time of merger.

REMARK:
Recognizing that modernization is in many ways necessary to improve the overall quality of life in
developing countries such as India, it is substantial that it have not vanquish the rich, centuries-old
culture which are a not renewable resource necessary for a sustainable development.
National, state and local tourism policies designed to prevent both the abandonment of its culture
and the indiscriminate adoption of a western model that may be only superficially appealing, could
achieve this objective, fundamental for preserving the wealth of cultural diversity creating a network
of collaboration having as subject the heritage. Therefore ministries and departments, from tourism
and culture to social welfare, environment, urban development, could work together in heritage
tourism related projects, through the establishment of a specific boards for inter-department
cooperation, guaranteeing the coherence of the procedures and interventions.

46

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 4
Interpretation of a WHS: Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

47

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 4
Interpretation of a WHS: Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

4.1 W HAT IS JANTAR MANTAR

Fig. 5 Jantar Mantar in Delhi (photo A. Winzer source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jantar_Mantar_Delhi_27-05-2005.jpg)

Jantar Mantar sites in India represent the historic-cultural group of observatories from the 18th
century, built by the astronomer Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (1686-1743). The group was
constituted by five observatories: Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura. While the latest has
been completely destroyed over the centuries, the observatory of Jaipur, the biggest of five
observatories, represents the best preserved example of astronomical masonry instrument
complex in India also hosting Brihat Samrat Yantra, the largest sundial in the world dominating the
skyline from about 19 metres above the ground level. The majority of the devices are typical for big
observatories in the Islamic world. The most significant one, built by famous Ulugh Begh (13941449) in Samarkand has been an inspiring example for Jai Singh.
The observatory is an architectural ensemble of astronomical instruments of varied sizes, set in an
enclosure on a flat ground. The site at present comprises of 19 distinguishable historic structures
that incorporate the observational instruments in stone and metal interlinked by paved pathways
and intermittent soft areas developed as lawns. Amongst the structures, some are individual
48

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

instruments such as the Digamsa Yantra,


some are complimentary sets that form one
instrument such as the Ram Yantras while
others are multiple instruments in one
composite structure such as the four
quadrants in the Sasthamsa Yantra
combined with the Brihat Samrat Yantra.
Hence, the total number of observational
instruments incorporated in the structures
counts to 35.
Fig. 6 Jantar Mantar in Varanasi (photo A. Winzer
Indeed, the peculiarity of Jai Singh IIs
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jantar_Manta)
observatories lies in the reproduction of
traditional astronomical instruments in a gigantic scale, to allow, according to his builder, more
accurate observations and calculations avoiding the strong influence that atmospheric conditions
can have on smaller, European, instruments.
Although it seems clear that what stated before does not reflect the reality as smaller and metallic
instruments allow much more accurate measurements than stone-instruments, on the contrary of
what said by the maharaja.
From a merely aesthetical point of view, the architectures of Jantar Mantar observatories do not fit
anywhere with the styles of Indian historic buildings with their theatrical conglomeration of pointed
arches and onion tower or with their sumptuous embellishment of mythological figures and abstract
symbols. Therefore, the Jai Singh IIs observatories have been ignored from the classification that
European historians and architects made in 19th century especially because their lack of decoration
could not provide to eclectic western trend the same inspiration of Hindu temples, Muslim
mosques, tombs and palaces.
Even today these monumental geometric sculptures with their concave and complex shapes seem
out of context and look as a sort of 18th century avant-gardism architects experiment. Such a
notion is absurd, of course.
In fact, in July 2010 the UNESCO World Heritage Committee at its 34th session held in Brazil,
inscribed on the World Heritage List two properties connected with astronomy, within the
framework of the thematic initiative "Astronomy and World Heritage": One of those was the Jantar
Mantar, Jaipur, defined as an astronomical observation site built in the early 18th century
comprising 19 large instruments for naked-eye observation. This represents one of the most
complete and impressive collections in the world of telescopic masonry instruments in functioning
condition
The statement of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) adopted by the World Heritage Committee
for the inscription of Jantar Mantar briefly summarizes:
Criterion (iii): The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is an outstanding example of the coming together of
observation of the universe, society and beliefs. It provides an outstanding testimony of the
ultimate culmination of the scientific and technical conceptions of the great observatory devised in
the medieval world. It bears witness to very ancient cosmological, astronomical and scientific
traditions shared by a major set of Western, Middle Eastern, Asian and African religions, over a
period of more than fifteen centuries.

49

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Criterion (iv): The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is


an outstanding example of a very
comprehensive
set
of
astronomical
instruments, in the heart of a royal capital at
the end of the Mughal period in India. Several
instruments
are
impressive
in
their
dimensions, and some are the largest ever
built in their category.42
Before its nomination as World Heritage Site,
the monument was already protected under
the Rajasthan Monuments Archaeological
Site and Antiquities Act, 1961 under Section 3
Figure 7: Boundary of nominated Property (Jantar Mantar) and
the buffer zone
and Section 4. It was declared as a
monument of state level importance on 16th September 1968, and is protected by the Department
of Archaeology and Museum, Government of Rajasthan.
This astronomical observatory is located within the central sector, namely Chowkri Sarhad of the
sectorial divisions within the 18th century planned city of Jaipur. The nominated site of Jantar
Mantar lies towards the south of the chowkri (sector). The site has a clearly defined boundary with
controlled access to the site through two gates in the northern wall The City Palace and the Jaleb
Chowk a large almost square open space surrounded by double storey structures, are significant
components of the chowkri, lying to the north-west and northeast of the site, respectively. The
Anand Bihari Krishna Temple (originally part of the site) defines the western boundary of the site;
while the Police Headquarters building (originally the stables) divided by an arcaded wall with

42

Cit. UNESCO World Heritage website http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/3996


Fig. 8: Plano f Jantar Mantar indicating the boundary of the listed property and the location on of various astronomical instruments

50

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

pointed arches facing the observatory side forms the eastern edge. The wall continues from the
eastern to the southern edge of the site. The Hawa Mahal and the Naya Mahal (Vidhan Sabha)
building are other important landmarks within the Chowkri Sarhad that lie to the east of the Police
Headquarter building. The Buffer Zone for the Jantar Mantar site includes the Hawa Mahal, the
Police Headquarters and the Anand Bihari Temple along with some ancillary structures along the
northern and southern boundaries of the site.

4.1.1 HISTORY
The Hindu prince Jai Singh II inherited the principality of
Amber when it was thirteen 43, under the kingdom of the
sixth Great Mogul Aurangzeb (1658-1707). During this
period the persecution of Hindus, started by his
predecessor Shah Jahan (1627-1658), continued with the
exclusion of Hindus from Mogul administration and
punishments for not to be converted to Islam. In this
context Jai Singh II followed the path of his ancestors in
offering his allegiance to the Mogul emperors which in
exchange gave him relative freedom. The ruling period of
Jain Sigh II was an age marked by conflicts where the
successors of the Great Mogul Aurangzeb drove out and
murdered one other in quick succession. Jai Singh II
made use of the short spell of time between individual
campaigns and until the invasion of India by the Persian
Nadir Shah in 1739, to devote himself to those activities
for which he is ultimately remembered: astronomy and
Fig. 9 : Sawai Jai Singh II portray (source:
architecture.
In 1719, while participating in a discussion on the astronomical calculations for determining a
favourable date for the new Emperor Mohammed Shah to commence a long journey, Jai Singh II
realised how inaccurate the existing instruments were and decided to build several observatories.
With the permission of the emperor, he had an astronomical observatory built in Jaipur in 1718,
much before the creation of the city (Papillaut 2008, p.80). The construction of the observatory in
Delhi started one year later, in 1719, to end in 1724. But this is just one of the theories about it;
some scholars see the possible period of the initiation of the observatory at the time the foundation
of the city was laid, in 1727. Although this second theory is fragile as the foundation of Jaipur is
dated in 1728 when documents prove that the astronomic complex had already substantial number
of instruments which construction, nevertheless, continued till 1738. However, the most widely
accepted date by when the observatory is said to have been completed is 1734.
The measurements made from these observatories enabled him to publish in 1733, his own
astronomical table which corrects the ancient Indian treatises. Jai Singh II dedicated one of his
treatises to emperor Muhammad Shah asking him to correct the calendar of political and religious
43

This is what Volwahsen says in his book, Cosmic Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments of Maharaja Jai
Singh II, while according to Papillaut and Prahland Singh Jai Signh became monarch of Amber in 1699 at the age of
eleven.

51

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

affairs, which was directly dependant on the accurate measurement of time (Prahland Singh, 1978,
p.14). Volwahsen in his book Cosmic Architecture in India, states that before to start with the
construction of its observatories, the maharaja had already written his famous text Zij-i-Muhammad
Shahi catalogue of stars and planets 44. The author explains that the court of Jai Singh II received
many inputs about astronomy and the latest and more advanced astronomic tools and findings
whether from the eastern than from the western part of the world. It is sure that the maharaja was
familiar with small European and Arabian instruments such as with the telescope which had been
known in Europe since the days of Galileo (1564-1642). Indeed, Jesuits on their travels brought
these instruments to the court in Jaipur.
For this reasons, Volwahsen denies that the Jai Singhs reason to build large fixed instruments
without sighting equipment appropriate to the current state of technology, was reaching a more
accurate degree of measurement of celestial position and movements. Instead he argues the
hypothesis that Jai Singhs works, from Jantar Mantar to Jaipur city planning, were informed by
Hindu philosophy. In fact the author detects, through the use of mandala as geometric frame for
Jaipur plan and as foundation platform for some astronomic instrument, a desire to bring
architecture and the cosmos into a comprehensible relationship by means of astronomy, to keep
out the external chaos and barbarian of humans by creating a personal world marked by science
and universal principles of order.
4.1.2. RESTORATION WORKS AND INTERVENTIONS
The Nomination dossier for
Jantar Mantar as WHS
distinguished 5 chronological
phases of interventions on the
site and its instruments:
Phase I: After Sawai Jai
Singh IIs reign, the first proof
of intervention is a plaque on
the southern face of the
Nadivalaya
Yantra
that
defines the date of the second
restoration of the instrument
as 1771.
Phase II - From 1778 AD to
Fig. 10: View of Jantar Mantar , Jaipur
1876 AD This period covers
the reign of Sawai Pratap
Singh (1778- 1803) and Maharaja Ram Singh II (1835 1880), two rulers responsible for
substantial intervention to the observatory, across the century.
According to VN Sharma (1997, p. 29), a number of instruments situated in the western part of the
observatory compound such as Agra and a Sara Yantra, were dismantled to make room for a
temple, the Anand Bihari Krishna Temple during the reign of Sawai Pratap Singh.

44

Zij-i-Muhammad Shai (set of astronomical tablets) provided a valuable help to the traditional Islamic scholars of
Indian preparing almanacs for more than 100 years and which helped the Hindu astronomers in preparing their
pancangas (Hindu calendar).

52

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The first major repair of the observatory took place during the reign of Maharaja Ram Singh II
(1835 1880), completed around 1876 AD.
Phase III - From 1880 to 1947 The observatory remained in a state of abandon and decay4 up to
1891. In 1901-02, a major restoration of the observatory was undertaken, headed by Lieutenant
AH Garrett, Resident Engineer posted at Jaipur. The instruments were completely restored during
the period with local masons, materials and workmanship. Their scales were redrawn and in some
cases, the instruments were also altered.
Phase VI - Post Independence up to 2005 The Jantar Mantar, observatory came under the
jurisdiction of the Government of Rajasthan and became a protected monument under the Ancient
Monuments and Antiquities Act. It has been maintained by the Department of Archaeology and
Museums since 1968. The intervention during the rest of the interventions involved overall site and
its landscape. Entry in south wall was closed; a toilet block and a museum building were added. A
ticket office building was constructed and extended up to Anand Bihari Temple wall on west. The
entry from Anand Bihari temple and in north wall next to Unnathamsa Yantra as in Kayes plan
were closed and the road to the northwest was extended to include part of the site, with the site
line running closer to the Unnathamsa Yantra with rounded corners. Other interventions included
addition of lawns, red sandstone paved pathways, railings, hedges and shrubs.
Phase V - From 2005-2008 The most recent phase of intervention is attributed to the Department
of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Rajasthan. The department decided to sponsor the
preparation of a Master Plan for the Conservation and Development of the Jantar Mantar and
Hawa Mahal and a separate one for the Jantar Mantar in early 2005. The report was prepared by
the end of the year and according to the proposals of the conservation plan, restoration works were
taken up in 2007 by the Department of Archaeology and Museums, with the use of matching
traditional materials and techniques.
4.2 THE INTERPRETATION OF JANTAR MANTAR
Surveys, research and documentation carried out for the preparation of the Nomination dossier
before and the MP later, led to the interpretation of the property and the consequent messages to
be conveyed. The architectural ensemble of Jantar Mantar, Jaipur is an amalgamation of science
and religion of which significance is
extended beyond the scientific and
architectural value to the field of urban
planning. Therefore, the primary and
secondary
themes
have
been
identified for Jai Singhs astronomic
observatory in Jaipur, which are based
on this multifaceted complex of
aspects that, according to the existing
historic research and actual surveys,
connotes the cultural significance of
the
property.
The
vision
for
interpretation involves communication
of the Outstanding Universal Value of
Fig. 11: View of the Great equinotial sundial, Brihat Samrat Yantra.
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur which is
identified
with
the
primary
53

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

interpretation theme and forms the base for developing secondary theme.
PRIMARY THEME: OUV OF JANTAR MANTAR JAIPUR AS W ORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY
The primary and perhaps the most significant of the messages is the Outstanding Universal Value
of Jantar Mantar, Jaipur which made it became one of the World Heritage Site listed by UNESCO
in July 2010 and which is derived from the historical, cultural, scientific, architectural and social
value as established in the Nomination dossier. The OUV is the guiding force for the development
of the interpretation plan.
The tangible and intangible aspects that the primary theme inspires to be communicated are
essentially summarized inside the two Cultural Criteria under which the property has been listed:
SECONDARY THEMES: ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE SOCIETY AND EDUCATION
The secondary themes cover the important components of the property and their interrelationship
with its environment urban, built, and living in terms of intellectual and educational activities. The
secondary themes are:
ARCHITECTURE (Theme 1):
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur is an
architectural masterpiece in
stone. The formal vocabulary of
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur and the
other four Jantar Mantar sites in
India, were inspired from this
15th century Ulugh Begs
observatory at Samarkand,
Uzbekistan. Sawai Jai Singh II
Figure 12: Interpretative themes
used his extensive knowledge
about astronomical instruments from various international systems, to modify, innovate and create
his own instruments and observatories. He was influenced by idea of making large scale masonry
instruments of Arab and Turk predecessors. The amount of expenditure on the Jaipur observatory
is estimated to be 100000-150000 Indian Rupees in the 18th century. The expense on the Brihat
Samrat Yantra (Jaipur) alone was 50000 Rupees. This reflects the historic significance of the
construction of these observatories by Sawai Jai Singh II. They were built with an enormous sum
for the budget of a principality that could be only surpassed by the Mughal Emperor. The
astronomical instrument of the Brihat Smarat Yantra in Jaipur is the largest equinoctial sun-dial in
the world. It is the most extant site amongst the observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II that represent
the masonry type observatories of the medieval period, marking the last and the most ambitious
attempt of creating such architectural ensembles for observational astronomy. Before Sawai Jai
Singh II observatories, observational instruments were not interpreted as architecture in India.
Over the time the property has been modified with the addition of new instruments and several
changes on the design of the area, summarized in five main historic phases, from 1728 till today.
SCIENCE SOCIETY AND EDUCATION (THEME 2):
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur reflects the culmination of the integrated knowledge base and precedents of
observatories and instruments of large scale constructed in Samarkand, Maragheh, and Ray.
Sawai jai Singh II first constructed brass instruments as per the Islamic texts, found Arabic and
Persian astrolabes from the time of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and, used the astrolabe called

54

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Yantra Raj for observations. The intense academic and cultural exchange among Central and
West Asian countries, India and Europe that took place with the Jantar Mantar observatories as the
focal points of the same, influenced the development of science in India. The Jantar Mantar of
Sawai Jai Singh II represents the culmination of Zij astronomy. It was built to serve for regular,
daily, observations and rituals but went on to become an arena of astronomical conferences and
seminars where many astronomers and astrologers from all over the country would assemble to
exchange their views on the subject and where the monumental architectural expressions of the
observational instruments allowed conveniently readings taken in groups.
The property is also an icon of important political rituals and announcements in the history of the
city. Researchers (MacDougall, 1996, p.32) have mentioned that the property of Jantar Mantar
served as a setting for rites associated with the passage and control of time. It has also been
symbolic of cosmic rejuvenation and the orchestration of solar kingship in Jaipur expressed in
political rituals such as the marshalling of the sun at the time of vernal equinox. During the reign of
Sawai Jai Singh II, the eclipses were announced to the citizens by the beating of drums under the
chhatri (cupola) of the Brihat Samrat Yantra. Even today, on the full moon day of the Hindu month
of Ashadha (June- July) on the onset of monsoon season, the local pundits of Jaipur gather at the
Jantar Mantar to conduct rites connected with ensuring the return of the rains. Besides the
religious rituals, prayers and offerings, they also hoist a flag on the summit of the Brihat Samrat
Yantra at sunset to determine the direction of the prevailing winds and predict the nature of
monsoon. The marking of the passage of time was also projected at the Jantar Mantar in an
auditory form through the beating of the drums and recitations by the pundits. These traditional
rituals in the observatory that combined the intangibles of the sound (mantra) and the tangible
astronomical instruments (yantra) are probably responsible for the origin of its name as Jantar
Mantar. Today the property has also an educational role potentially inspiring visitors to be engaged
with astronomy and giving to scholars a perfect and practical understanding on the subject.

Fig. 13: View of Jantar Mantar fro Hawa Mahal (Wind Palace)

JANTAR MANTAR BUFFER ZONE AND URBAN SETTING


Besides being a monumental sculptural expression, the architecture of the observatory is
ideationally linked to the city planning of historic Jaipur. The scale and proportions of Jantar Mantar
also introduced geometrical systems that further got translated into urban planning principles to
55

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

design the 18th century city of Jaipur. Recent research indicates that the Brihat Samrat Yantra
facilitated the city planning of 18th century (Papillaut 2008, pp.79-90). On extending the Yantra
axis towards the south and the north, significant markers existed that were used in identifying the
north south axis of the city. The presence of these observation structures as early as 1718,
indicate that these instruments were probably used to mark the city or at the very least to
determine the precise axis of the palace (Jai Niwas) garden and to position it correctly with respect
to the north. Thus beyond the scientific and architectural value, the Jantar Mantar, Jaipur also
holds significance at the urban planning level. As already mentioned, the property is located in the
core of the walled historic city of Jaipur. Hence the surrounding area of Jantar Mantar is one of the
most visited areas being characterized by the presence of two important monuments such as the
City Palace and the Hawa Mahal.
Given the previous interpretation of the site, the vision statement for Interpretation, Use and Visitor
Management Plan of Jantar Mantar in Jaipur has been defined as following:
The outstanding universal value of Jantar Mantar, Jaipur shall be communicated to invite and
inspire the widest range of visitors and scholars across the world to engage with astronomical
instruments and to pass on to the next generations the awareness of significance of this property
as an icon of the integration between astronomy and society and meanwhile as a contribute to
architecture, urban planning, political history and cultural distinctiveness of the city of Jaipur.
4.3 THE INTERPRETATION PLAN: STRUCTURE AND STRATEGIES
The Interpretation, Use And
Visitor Management Plan for
Jantar Mantar, Jaipur is a
secondary composite plan for
the property under the
purview of the overall Jantar
Mantar Management Plan
(2009-2013). It is part of the
framework of the Action Plan,
including a total of four
secondary plans. It takes into
account
the
international
references and charters which
refer to the interpretation and
Figure 14: Framework of existing and proposed plans for property
presentation of historic sites
and addresses the issues and challenges of Jantar Mantar, Jaipur as outlined within the
Management Plan under the denomination of Tourism and Visitor Management. In that context,
policies, stakeholders, resources required and time frame have been identified. The Plan builds
upon the policy framework interpretation and visitor management plan outlined in the Management
Plan document. Indeed, the policies created within the management Plan generated strategic
actions to be achieved during the implementation stage through 2009-2013 either as specific
projects or as ongoing and continuous actions. The Management Plan was formulated in 2009 to

56

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

ensure that the OUV of the site is maintained and to ensure a sustainable and integrated
development of the site.
The plan is structured in three
main parts around with are
accessorizing
chapters:
Interpretation, Assessment
and Proposals.
After an introductive chapter
about the OUV of the property
and the Management Plan
contents and linkages, in the
following
chapter
vision,
objectives, strategic approach
and
themes
of
the
Figure 15: Objectives process scheme for developing Interpretation, Use and Visitor
Management Plan
Interpretation Plan are defined.
In order to determine the
objectives of the plan, three elements have been particularly taken into account: the seven
principles stated by the ICOMOS Charter for Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage
Site; the policies for access, interpretation, outreach, land-use of buffer zone and collections
defined within the Management Plan; identified challenges concerning the property and its buffer
zone. Here we briefly summarize the three challenges:
A)

DISSEMINATION OF OUV OF THE PROPERTY (CHALLENGE 1): Giving an exhaustive, clear and correct

overview about the OUV of the Jantar Mantar raising the public awareness about it according,
whenever it is possible, with the typology of visitors in
order to better attend the main objective of the IUVMP
about spreading and preserving the OUV of the property.
B)
CONTINUITY OF USE (CHALLENGE 2): it meant to be
expressed mainly in two specific ways:

keeping and preserve both its scientificeducational nature and its historic-cultural function 45;

preserving and enhancing, in the appropriate way,


the integration between the significance of the property
and the social life in its religious or cultural expression.
INTEGRATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF
C)
THE BUFFER ZONE WITHIN THE FRAME OF MANAGEMENT PLAN

(CHALLENGE 3): To achieve visions and objectives of

Fig. 16: View of the Great Ram Yantra and the


Kapala Yantra

conservation and management plans the same the


attention put on the preservation of Jantar Mantar has to
cover its surrounding area in terms of quality of spaces,
control of appropriate development, facilities offer, traffic

45

Nowadays modern measurements established that o 19 instruments on property only 4 of them (Brihat (Great)
Samrat Yantra, Sasthamsa Yantra, Dakshinottara Bhitti Yantra and Laghu (Small) Samrat Yantra) show an high level of
accuracy. Nevertheless it does not diminish the value that the property still presents as cultural experience and
opportunity in spreading the knowledge about astronomy to a wider range of visitors.

57

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

flow pressure both from vehicles and


pedestrians.
This
means
extending
practical, legislative and economical efforts
on the defined buffer zone of the world
heritage property of Jantar Mantar in the
name of the holistic vision where the buffer
zone has a sense of enhancement and
support for the core values and is part of the
integrity and measure of wholeness 46
The Objectives of the IUVMP, defined
through the above depicted process, are:

To make every attempt to assist


visitors enhancing their personal experience
of the property encouraging to reflect and
stimulating further interest meanwhile Fig. 17: Narivalaya Yantra - Southern Hemispherical Sundial
ensuring intellectual and physical access
through the assessment of audience typology for who interpretative infrastructures has to be set in
accordance with and abolishing, whenever possible, all physical barriers (Policy INT 1 & 2 / Challenge 1
/ Principle 1)

To create a research centre housed in the Interpretation Centre in order to fill the gap
concerning the lack of dissemination of information in terms of public orientation and interactive
community participation and in which collecting all the existing resources such as historical maps,
records, books, etc. giving them online availability through the creation of (Policy OR4 & 5 / Challenge 2
/ Principle 2)

To ensure that interpretative messages relate


the property to its wider social, cultural and historical
context distinguishing and dating the successive
phases of development of the property and of its
context, taking into account the intangible elements of
the property such as traditional events and practices
on-site (Policy INT 3 & 4, OR 2 / Challenge 2 / Principle 3 & 4)
To integrate interpretative infrastructures (such

as signage, path ways and info panels) in a sensitive


way with the character, setting and cultural
significance of the property and its buffer zone while
remaining easily identifiable. Carefully planning every
event or performance on-property in order to protect
the significance and he physical surrounding of the
property minimizing the disturbance (Policy INT 9, Bz1 & 2
/ Challenge 2,3 / Principle 4)

Fig. 18: Message media matrix for Jantar Mantar and


its buffer zone
46

To
encourage
inclusiveness
in
the
interpretation of cultural heritage site, by facilitating

Operational Guideline for the implementation of the world Heritage Convention, WHC 2008, paragraph 88

58

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

the involvement of stakeholders in the development and implementation of interpretive programs;


working actively with the local community and making them the beneficiaries of the interpretive
program.(Policy INT 5, OR 1& 2 / Challenge 2 / Principle 5 & 6)
To integrate continued research, training, and academic interest as essential components

of the interpretation.(Policy INT 2 & OR 1 & 2 / Principle 7)


The strategic approach to the site Interpretation lies in a set of multiple levels in order to ensure
maximum engagement with as wide range of visitors as possible. The levels in which the
interpretation is analysed and developed are:

Pre-visit: Off-site access to interpretation which inspires people to visit. To encourage


potential visitors to plan a visit providing them with all the information and guidance they require,
offering on-line information and portable resources that can be taken with them from property to
property.

On-site: Property-based interpretive provision for visitors. Interpretive experience,


media, resources and materials at the property, along with any pre-visit info visitors have brought
with them, can help them engage with the property and to identify and understand in-situ features
and characteristics.

Buffer zone and surrounding: Linking interpretation. Way marked routes and trails that
link individual site to other site and features in the vicinity, that encourages people (not necessarily
intending to visit e.g. walkers in the area) to visit the site, or extend their visit to additional sites.

Repeat visit: Adaptive interpretation to encourage repeat visits. Forms of interpretation


that are updated on a regular basis, e.g. the sound light show ,or included in the official activities
programme of the site, e.g. to seasonal or religious rites, prayers and recitations by the pundits
which provides visitors a different experience of the property itself and a reason to return.
The methodology informing the Interpretation part of the Plan is traced from the main structure
early mentioned (fig. 19).
Afterword,
the
Plan
encompasses the survey and
assessment for each of the
three topics: Interpretation,
Use
and
Visitors
management. Except for the
latest, the analysis takes into
account the property and its
buffer zone separately in order
to
give
a
more
clear
understanding of the whole
context.
The assessment concerning
interpretation
proceeds
analyzing interpretative tools
Fig. 19: Methodology and structure of the Interpretation, Use and Visitor Management Plan
and services available in "previsit", "on-site", "buffer zone" and "repeat visit" contexts. Therefore, the plan provides an overview
about pre-visit services such as web-sites and portable interpretative tools; an accurate description
of the actual state of on-site interpretation consisting in signage, events, guided or personal tours
59

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

with audio-guides, print publications and carrying home material such as the lack of an
interpretation centre or museum for the astronomical instruments models. The assessment
regarding the buffer zone points out to the lack of information about the context beyond the
property which prevents an exhaustive understanding of the buffer zone. It is also highlighted the
importance of the visual impact, from inside the property towards the surrounding skyline and vice
versa, recalling the Vienna Memorandum document (UNESCO, 2005) about the preservation of
historic urban landscape. In this context, all the main visual relationships are summarized through
a photographic survey.
The survey concerning Use mapped the functions hosted within the property and assessed a
detailed report on the uses within the area of the buffer zone.
As mentioned before, the assessment concerning Visitor management takes into account the
property and its buffer zone in a compressive description of actual state and lacks of tourist
facilities, amenities, circulation and access. Visitor data coming from the Department of
Archaeology and Museums are also analyzed to assess figures and typologies of tourists.
The major outcome of the Interpretation Plan for Jantar Mantar, Jaipur is the Message Media
Matrix (Fig. 20), already proposed by DRONAH for the Interpretation and Use Plan of City Palace
Complex in Udaipur. The matrix allows a clear a comprehensive vision about the most adapt
interpretative media chosen according the messages to be conveyed and the typology of visitors.
Therefore it is a useful tool to answer the three main questions:

What messages should the site impart?


Who are the messages for
How to communicate the messages in the best manner?

Fig. 20: Message media matrix for Jantar Mantar and its buffer zone

The proposals for interpretation are developed following the structure of the previous assessment.
Thereby, concerning pre-visit the creation of an official website and downloadable resources are
recommended; while for on-site visit the project of an interpretation centre and the design of
60

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

signage has been carried out together with a set of proposals regarding guided and personal tours.
Proposals for interpretation end with suggested carrying home material such as brochures,
merchandise items and new publications highlighting the OUV of the property and children books.
Within interpretative proposals concerning the buffer zone, walks, tours, interpretative panels,
information signs and way-marks are recommended in order to link Jantar Mantar to adjacent sites
and features which can help in understanding the property in its setting.
Concerning Use, the plan includes a set of proposals complete with drafted projects to be
implemented within the Comprehensive Landscape and Environmental plan included in the
framework of secondary plan within the purview of the Management Plan for Jantar Mantar.
Proposals for Visitor Management are mainly addressed towards an enhancement of visitor survey
aiming to defined categories in order to adequately target future installations. Moreover, physical
access to differently abled and elderly is addressed pointing out the parts of the sites which are
inaccessible for which solutions are proposed through a thematic plan of the site.
4.4 CHALLENGES: INTEGRATION WITH THE URBAN CONTEXT
As we saw, there are two levels of
linkage between the site of Jantar
Mantar and the Walled city of
Jaipur. The first linkage lies in the
interpretation of the site and refers
both to its founder maharaja Jai
Singh II, the same founder of the
city - and to the role of the
astronomic observatory within the
urban setting. The second level of
linkage is defined by the spatial
compass between the two elements.
In fact, the site of Jantar Mantar is
located within the historic walled city
and the byelaws for this special
zone apply to the site and the buffer
zone. The master plan of Jaipur
2011 prepared by the Jaipur
Development Authority mentions the
Fig. 21: Location of Jantar Mantar World Heritage Site within the Walled city of Jaipur
policy for conservation of heritage
and sets out building byelaws that restrict or control building activities in the walled city of Jaipur
including the buffer zone area for the site of Jantar Mantar.
The linkage lying in the interpretation of the World Heritage Site is supported from what has been
stressed during the 17th General Assembly of ICOMOS about Heritage Driver Development. Here
has been highlighted that the quality of tourism, towards which is oriented sustainable heritage
tourism management, is based on the preservation and distribution of the full set of values
contained in a site, and not only those for which the site was inscribed / listed. Therefore, seems
unconfutable that beside the primary and secondary set of interpretative themes regarding the
Jantar Mantar of Jaipur, the significance lying in its link and in its influence on the rest of the city
planning has to be taken into account and transmitted to the audience.
61

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Within both the Management Plan and the Interpretation Use and Visitor Management Plan for
Jantar Mantar it is highlighted that to obtain effective results it is necessary the support of
complementary actions carried out at different levels (land-use, building regulation, mobility etc.)
within the buffer zone.
Although, in reason of the two mentioned levels of linkage, the support for both site management
and site interpretation regarding Jantar Mantar, should encompass also the whole Walled city.
Indeed, linking and coordinating those actions leads towards a holistic strategy that could benefit
the World Heritage property and the heritage core of Jaipur through a mutual interaction. The
integration of plans, acts and legal provisions concerning the UNESCOs listed property and the
whole historic surrounding context is here recommended as strategic tool to enhance and make
successful urban development, tourism, heritage - management and interpretative actions.

62

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 5
The Walled City of Jaipur

63

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 5
The Walled City of Jaipur
Walled cities are not to be understood merely as fortified
settlements, keeping out invaders, but as enclosed
spaces nurturing diverse forms of cultural expression
Shereen Ratnagar

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Since 1956 Jaipur became the capital of
Rajasthan, the largest State of Indian Union,
located in the north-west side of India. It is
one of the must colourful and culturally rich
States, with a landscape that varies from
mountain ranges (Aravali) to the Thar desert
, covering two third of its land, and the green
and picturesque southern part.
History, culture, art and craft forms, natural
biodiversity made Rajasthan the most
popular State with a growing arrival of
international and domestic tourists.
The Jaipur region, situated in north eastern
part of Rajasthan which is a semi-desert
lands, is one of the 32 regions of the state
covering an area of 11.151 sq.Km.
Fig.22: Localization of Rajasthan and Jaipur city
From the 10th century onwards, the district
referred to as Dhoondhar, formed one of the four distinguishable politico-cultural regions of Eastern
Rajasthan. Dhoondhar region was roughly comprised of current districts of Jaipur, Dausa and
Tonk. In Aryan epics (2000 B.C.-400 B.C), Dhoondhar region was the shortest trade route between
north India and rich port cities of Gujarat and Malabar. The region was held by Badgujars, Rajputs
and Minas till the 11th century. From the 11th century onwards, however, the Dhoondhar region
was increasingly under the power of Kachchwaha dynasty of Rajputs. Between 1179 and 1216
Amber took the place of the city Dausa as capital till the foundation of the new town of Jaipur in
1728. By the 17th century, the Kachchwaha Rajput clan became known for political clout and
importance in the Mughal administration.
In 1947, the four largest Rajput states, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jaipur opted to join secular
India. Jaipur then became the capital of Rajasthan leading to further attraction of administrative
and economic activities. These factors led to increased development of residential areas to cater to
the growing population. Today the city of Jaipur is also the headquarter of the district and so the
socio-economical and political fulcrum as demonstrating by the fast physical and demographic
growth.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Fig. 23: Plan of Jaipur Region with the Walled City in evidence

65

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

5.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT


The history of the city of Jaipur, such as the
history of the astronomical observatory of Jantar
Mantar, is deeply linked with the figure of their
founder. As we mentioned in the previous
chapter, after his father death, in 1699, Jai Singh
II was coroneted as Maharaja of Amber at the
age of eleven. Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb was
much impressed by his wit to grow him the title of
Sawai, literally one and a quarter times more
than his contemporaries. The Monarch grew
surrounded by several scholars and tutors that
taught him religion, philosophy, art and
architecture, town planning, astral sciences,
languages and mathematics such as Hindu
treatises on astronomy and mathematics. His
strategy of alliance with Mogul emperors
guaranteed to his city a certain level of repair
from Hindu persecution, preserving Hindu
temples from destruction and hosting, meanwhile,
artists searching refuge from the rigid Islamic
reign. After the Aurangzebs death in 1707 and Fig.24 : Interpretation plan of the site with the natural east
west ridge and the surrounding forts as defense feature
during the subsequent period of decline of Mogul (source :Shikha Jain, 2011, p. 16)
emperor,
Jai
Singh
restructured
the
administration of his territory creating a hierarchy of districts called nizamats and 36 functional
workshops called karkhanas, some of which still existing today. Amber, the city of his forefathers,
protected by its precipitous topography, was no longer sufficient as all its constructible lands were
already saturated.
Thus, the maharaja came to the decision to create a new city or rather, an extension of the existing
city, over a large plain crossed by the road to Ajmer a few kilometres to the south. Jai Singh II
named his creation after himself: Jai nagar which became Jaipur, the city of victory.
Parallel to his advancements in astronomy made by the construction of observatories and his
astronomical tables, Jai Singh II had drawn up the map and town plan, calling on the expertise of
various specialists.
In his attempt to become a semi-independent ruler of Rajasthan, he started to build the new capital
underlining the link between scientific capacities, urban planning and social control. Due to geomorphological constraints, Amber was not suitable to be a thriving trade and commerce hub for the
region. Hence, the sandy site on the plain south of Amber resulted in the new city most indicated
place.
The physical constraints included the hills on the north that housed the fort of Jaigarh and the
Amber palace beyond, and the hills on the east, containing the sacred spot of Galtaji. Beyond the
depression formed by a low-lying marshy land on the northeast, there was a slight rise of the
terrain and a ridge running from west to east inclined at 15 degrees towards North (which now
exists as the main road from Chandpol to Surajpol). On the western edge lay the hills of Nahar
66

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Garh while the southern end was


again marked by a low hillock
called Shankar Garh, which is
situated beyond the existing road
(fig. 24). (Shikha Jain, 2007)
In 1729 the maharaja wrote to
merchants from Delhi and Agra
offering them free land tax free as
incentive to move their business in
the new town. In contrast, the
Rajput nobles were also allocated
land in Chowkri Topkhana Desh but
they had to pay a loan from their
revenue collections. If at the
Fig24: Johari Bazar (photo V.Megna)
beginning
the
city
was
characterized as a place of
exchange of Gujarat and Mogul
products, after it succeeded as
commercial centre Jai Singh II will
authorized only the selling of state
products. In order to integrate the
city configuration with its designed
function, Jai Singh adopted the
architectural model of bazaars,
probably borrowing the concept
from the Chandni Chowk (1638) in
Delhi. Indeed, like in Delhi, in
Jaipur the houses are hosted at the
first floor above the shops. Thus
the main commercial streets of Fig25: Sireh Deori Gate (photo V.Megna)
Jaipur had the primary purpose of
trade with series of equal size shops and a control over the faade that constituted the urban fronts
of the big avenues.
The ceremony foundation of Jaipur took place the 28th November 1727 and it was recognized by
the Mogul emperor Muhammad Shad as State capital in 1734. In the same year was realized a
construction plan for the city. It shows that the porticos running along the main axes defining their
fronts are among the first built features of the city.
An overview of the construction phases has been get from this early map that compared with other
sources leads to conclude that: all the sectors or chowkries of Jaipur had been demarcated
initially along with the placement of major gates and landmarks, though the infill of eastern sectors
was done much later due to difficult site conditions such as presence of sand dunes. 47
In 19th century there were interesting additions in the urban fabric within the walled city with new
buildings constructed in the Hindu Saracen vocabulary such as the Mubarak Mahal within the
47

Shikha Jain, Jaipur As A Recurring Renaissance,2007 p.3

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Palace Complex, the Naya Mahal or Vidhan Sabha and the Maharajas College in 1873 (now
Rajasthan School of Arts); and the Ramniwas Bagh that was later enhanced with the visual focus
of the monumental Albert Hall Museum to the south of the walled city. The 20th century observed
further modernization and urban renovations within the walled city, including the restoration work of
the city walls and gates and, converting the inner temporary houses in the sectors into more
permanent structures.
According to a popular belief, the city was painted pink to celebrate the visit of the Prince of Wales
in 1876, during the reign of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II, lending the city the name of Pink City.
5.2.1 Theories About The Urban Layout
The interpretation of the new town plan rationality seems still today under discussion. The origin of
Jaipur plan encompasses several obscure points that scholars contribute to get confusing when
they refer to mythical legends. Therefore, till now what it has been carried out are, more or less
reliable, hypothesis.

Fig. 26: Phases regarding the hypothesis of citys conception based on nine square mandala (Papillaut 2007 p.30)

In order to provide here the most exhaustive


framework about the current theories concerning
Jaipur urban layout interpretation, we take into
account three authors: Volwahsen text, Cosmic

Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments


of Maharaja Jai Singh II; the text of Shikha Jain,
Jaipur As A Recurring Renaissance and the more
recent study of Remi Papillaut.
While the first author talks about Jaipur in a context
that focuses on astronomical issues, the latter two,
as architects and respectively as conservator and
urban planner, seem to analyse and interpret their
sources in a new and more reliable way.

Fig. 27: Purusha, nine squares Mandala

Historians who have studied the city of Jaipur often agree seeing in it the manifestation of the
Vaastu Shastra principles, the ancient Hindu treatise on building harmonious living environment.
The base of Vaastu is constituted of thirty-two texts written between the IV and the XII century.
Part of those texts written in Sanskrit get lost or destroyed during the invasions of XIII and XVI
century. The rest has been discovered around 1930 in Kerala. The importance of those texts
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

comes from their relationship with the high mystical and religious culture on which lies the origins
of Hinduism. The texts gather
principles concerning the god
building and housing rules. They
come out from stories related to the
Hindu gods.
The story about Purusha describes
the origin of a square mandala
internal divided into 9 smaller
squares (3x3 matrix) and meanwhile
in two parts by the diagonal with the
sun (Surya) at one side and the
moon (Soma) at the other (fig.27).
The mandala and the principles give
recommendations concerning house
foundation.
For
instance,
is
suggested that the right piece of land
Fig. 28: Papillauts Jaipur planning grid rotated at 45 (Papillaut, 2008, p.83)
to build has to be a terrain with a
slope in the north-east direction. And
this is the case of the Jai Niwas in
Jaipur.
To explain the concept behind the
urban structure of Jaipur, several
historians and scholars, such as
Volwahsen, refer to the translation in
urban scale of the mandala layout,
around the Jai Niwas 48. Due to the
morphological constraint of hills, the
pattern has been adapted displacing
the north-west square to the southeast (fig.26).
Although,
Volwahsen
find
incongruence in this interpretation as
the centre of the mandala is usually
occupied by Brahma, the most
important divinity of Hinduism.
Therefore, the presence of the king
palace instead of a temple is
explained, according the author, by
Brihat Samhita 49 quoted by Stella
Fig. 29: Papillauts interpretation of Amer-Jaipur landscape (Papillaut, 2007, p.
Kramrish 50, which refers to the
48

The hypothesis of a plan divided in 9 squares should come from Kubhushan Jain in 1978 and it is reconsidered by B.
Doshi in Cits dAsie, Cahiers de la recherch architectural, 35/36, Parenthses, 1995
49
The Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira is an encyclopedia of astrology
50
See, Kramrish S., The Hindu Temple, vol.2, University of Calcutta, 1946

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

pithapada mandala which has at the centre the Earth instead of Brahma. Volwahsen hence
concludes confirming the use of nines squares pattern over the city settlement seeing in it the
prove of the great knowledge
about holy Hindu texts of Jai
Singh II and its consultantarchitect-sthapati
(priest)
Vidyadhar.
But the mandalas described in
Vaastu Shastra texts have
several variations.
Aman
Nath
gives
the
hypothesis of application of
seven
squares
mandala,
arguing that the figure seven is
Jai Singh II number: seven
floors for the palace, seven
Fig.30: Jaipur plan from 1925-1927 (source Volwahsen, op.cit. p. 104)
gates, and seven planets 51.
Papillaut controverts the nine
squares mandala theory arguing with a chronological explanation that fixes the creation of
Topkhana Hazuri district in 1775. Therefore the quarter is automatically excluded from the original
layout of the city and it cannot represent the ninth square of the mandala translated from the northwest to the south east for geographical constraint. The mandala theory seems in any case to be a
lot in contrast with the precision and thoroughness of maharajas urban concepts. Choosing so
badly the land settlement while having all around the possibility to displace the city pattern without
breaking down the mandala concept, does not match
with the rational system and thus does not contribute
to the nine squares theory.
Paupillot adopts another point of view starting from Jai
Niwas as centre of the plan. A drawing dated 17111713 shows the project for Jai Niwas as a garden
conceived following the concept of charbagh - four
squares garden - forming a double charbagh. The
tradition of gardens in various forms, from artificial
composition (nandavana) to natural (davana), is very
much present in the Hindu culture but also in this field
Jai Singh willing was to mix and enrich indigenous
elements with Islamic ones. The layout of charbagh
(four gardens), used to design the Jai Niwas, came
from Persia and it had been largely used in India by
Mogul maharajas before hence Jai Singh had lots of
inspiration (let just mentioning the Agra garden in front
of Taj Mahal).
Fig. 31: Plano f Jai Niwas (City Museum, Jaipur) dated
1711

51

Nath A., Jaipur, the last destination, London, 1993, p.60

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Therefore, starting from the project of the garden and from the predetermined intention to make the
south square of it the centre of the new city, the layout of Jaipur seems had been controlled in two
different ways. Firstly, through a series of specific high points on the surrounding hills such as the
Ganesh Mandir (the Ganesh temple) on the north, Surya Mandir (the Sun temple) on the east and
the Balanandji Temple on the west. On the other hand, from the centre, it was the Brihat Samrat
Yantra, that entirely defined the six sections
or chowkries.
He
supposes
that
Jantar
Mantar
instruments helped to determine the Jai
Niwas orientation of 13, 5 of the main axe
with respect to the north (the orientation of
the astronomical instruments is exactly
north-south) as half value of 27, the Jaipur
latitude which is equal to the hypotenuse of
the triangle of the Great Equatorial Sundial
Taking
as
(Brihat
Samratyantra) 52.
reference the Ganesh temple the position of
the axe is fixed. The position of Jai Niwas
along this axe is established by its
intersection with the perpendicular line
coming from the Surani temple, east
oriented and situated at the edge of Purani
Basti district, at a high point on western
hills. This intersection became the centre of
the city. Parallel to this direction, based on
the light transversal crest line of the site, a
second east-west axis of the town was laid
out, ending in the east in another high point,
marked at a certain distance from the city,
by the Surya Mandir (Sun temple)
constructed around 1720, half way up the
hill. The creation of the axe encompassed to
raise and bank up the crest line and had
been intended to become a commercial
avenue with a big bazaar crossing the
whole width of the town.
The Brihat Samrat Yantra, in the
observatory of Jai Singh II allowed the
completion of the city layout by determining
the location of the northern and southern
edges of the town. By extending the
Fig. 32: Pictures from early Xx century. From the top: Badi chaupar;
Choti chaupar, Haldiya House of Johari Bazaar
Yantras axis towards the south, the
52

Certain authors, such as Aman Nath and Volwahesen argue that city is orientated towards the Lion constellation
which is the sign of Jai Singh dynasty. While Schadev and Tilloston link the explanation with the geographical
constraints of the site.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

projection intersects the Johari Bazaar axis at the Shiva Pol (Sanganeri Gate) and, towards the
north, at its intersection with the royal palace axis, there is the median point of the southern bank of
the Tal Katora Lake (fig.28).
Nevertheless, it persists the doubt about the construction date of Jai Niwas, before or during the
foundation of the city 53.
An alternative system to determine the city layout identified by Papillaut derives from the
syncretism between Hindi and Mogul characters that Jai Singh developed and expressed in any
form of art under his reign. The alternative system is based on a series of squares that fit together,
rotating at 45 in relation to each other, thus increasing by the square root of 2. Starting from the
centre of the composition identified in the fountain of the southern garden of the Jai Niwas, the
rotation at 45 of the inscribed square and the successive ones, will determine, one after the other,
the main points of the layout. To the first serial of squares (drawn in blue on Papillauts
interpretation plan) follows a second red serial generated from the opposite front line of the avenue
boarding the royal quarter in north-south direction. In the north, the intersection of the tip of the
square with the axis of the town corresponds to the location of the Ganesh temple (fig.28).
A further reading of the Jaipur layout
proposed by Papillaut sees the point of
intersection of the north-south axis and
the east-west axis in Jaipur forms a
rectangle 3/2 constituted by the six
square sections or chowkries. In the
north, the rectangle rests on the big
lake of Jai Sawai Sagar. This rectangle
can be broken down based on the
geometric possibilities of the diagonals
hence giving many points to cling on to
the layout of the paths, gates position
or the alignment with any other city
landmarks.
The composition, based on the use of
the diagonal of the square is typical of
the Mogul civilisation, noticeable
mainly in the gardens such as Jai
Fig.33: Papillaut interpretation of urban layout based on diagonal at 45.
(source: Papillaut, op.cit, p.39)
Niwas. Lots of gardens were already
present in Amber and it seems that the whole territory including the two cities was planned by Jai
Singh II to host enclosed gardens with pavilions and fountains. Papillaut sees in Jai Niwass
charbagh an influent component for the layout of Jaipur. He multiplies the charbagh system as
often as required all along the long east-west path that follows the line of the crest. The three
squares or chaupar, named Ramganj Chaupar, Badi (the Big) Chaupar and Choti (the Small)
Chaupar are centred on large fountains, but there are smaller ones all along the bazaars, based on
the Chandni Bazaar model of Shahjahanabad (Delhi). 54

53

For the foundation of Jai Niwas exists different hypothesis: 1725 (Jadunath Sarkar, A history of Jaipur, 1984); 1726
(Arya Roy, Vastu: The Indian Art of placement, 2000)
54
Ibidem., p.89

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The third source taken as a reference for the present study, Shikha Jains text, considers that the
main references for the creation of urban layout lies specifically in the temples located around the
foundation area of the city, even if some of these temples were far away and hosted inside
palaces 55. As all temples lie in high locations, seems that the layout of Jaipur was controlled by this
series of high points.
This is for instance the case of the temples inside the Jaigarh fort which, according this theory,
have been taken as marker to define the north-south axis in alignment with the hillock of Shankar
Garh (marked by an ancient Shiva temple, which is worshipped by the royal family till today on the
day of Mahshivratri). This theory matches with the Papillaut hypothesis in what concerns the
determination of the east-west axis as also that theory defined temples as land markers. The
intersection between these two axes generates the Bari Chaupar, the main public square of the
city. But according with the fact the Jai Niwas, as location of Govind Deva 56, is the centre for the
generation of the city plan, the distance between the two north-south axis becomes a module that
duplicated allows to trace the vertical grid and define the other two chaupars and the gates
position.
Beyond the reference(s) that maharaja Jai Singh II had as tools to define the grid plan of his new
capital, it seems that the choice of a such regular layout including broad avenues, is interpretable
mainly as a functional translation of his vision of a new city as strong political-economical centre for
the region.

Fig. 34: Shikha Jains interpretation: location of markers-temples and definition of Badi chaupar and subsequent division in eight
portions.
55

This interpretation in based on the assumption that all the markers-temples were built before Jai Niwas
In his interpretation Shikha Jain refers to Nath R. to date the installation of Govinda Deva idol in Jai Niwas in 1715,
hence explaining that Jai Niwas was built before the city. While Papillaut leaves this points as the main uncertain ones.
56

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

5.3 URBAN DESCRIPTION


One essential condition for creating a city in the dry Rajasthan climate, need to take into account
the availability of water. The choice of the site for the city foundation was therefore conditioned by
its topographique conformation able to retain the natural water. But while in Amber the surrounding
hills constituted a natural gathering basin, the creation of Jaipur encompassed the design of a
system of big lakes:
- The Man Sagar where Jai Singh built the Jal Mahal
- The Talkatora, located to the north of Jai Niwas
- The Sawai jai Sagar or Rajama-ka-talab, surrounding the Talkatora, fenced by high walls
which is nowadays disappeared under the urban extension
- The Santok Sagar which is a retaining basin beside the north edge of the previous lake.
Here is the island of Gokharna Satri temple
These four big water resources feed
Fig. ..: Purusha nine squares Mandala
the water table during the whole year.
Several public wells will be installed in
the city. There are still around 800
wells in Jaipur, still used by the 40% of
population 57. Moreover, the city could
use two broad streams: on the east
the Jawahar Nagar Nala and on the
west the Amani Sha Nala which were
addressed to bring water towards the
new town. The barrier realized on the
Amani River allowed bringing the
water towards the highest point of the
crest lined with the Chandpol Bazar,
through canalization, distributing it
over the whole city following the
natural slope of the land. This
improvement in the sanitation was
subsequently copied in other Indian
Fig. 35:Interpretation plan concerning the presence of water stockage
(source: Papillaut,op.cit. p.60)
towns. The unique water system of
underground canals was specially
devised for the water supply in the city and the square central tanks that were located in the Badi
Chaupar and Choti Chaupar. Running along the middle of the street was also a sewer covered with
large stone slabs to which almost all houses were connected.
As we saw, in Jaipur the track of streets determines the plots setting. The historians argue about a
sort of correspondence or adjustment within social and urban form considering chowkries (the
quarters identified in the big squares) witinh the original partition system of the city in six different
unities:

57

Douchan Palacios, Leau de Jaipur, seminar Urban Strategies, ENSAT, 2002

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Sarah, in the centre, is the chowkri that corresponds to the maharaja palace and to the
concerning facilities. It includes a big market with typology of caravanserai and some
resident area;

Purani Basti, to the north-west, literally the old colony, which passes for its name to be the
first quarter to had been built;

Topkhanedesh, to the south-west, from the name of the fortification was a quarter
apparently intended to the State chief administrators. It is today a quarter of artisans and
stone carver;

Modikhana and Vishveshwarji are the two chowkries separated in the middle from the axial
street of Chaura Rasta. They form together the quarter located to the south of the palace,
originally intended to receive the rich Jainists and the merchants;

Ghat Darwaza, to the south-east where are located markets, artists and workmen;

Ramchandraji, to the west of the palace, was originally occupied by temples and big havelis

According to Papillaut 58, between 1743 and 1775 these six chowkries have been followed by the
creation of:
-

Ganjapol Chowkri, to the north-east, that takes the name of the path leading to the
homonymous village;

Topkhana Hazuri, to the east, that takes its name from one fortification of the city.

Fig. 36: Synthesis of Social distribution within the walled city

The orientation of the streets of Jaipur deviates considerably from the four compass points. While
the rest of the city is planned along axes at an angle of about 13, 5 degrees, the orientation of its
58

Papillaut R., 2007, p. 85

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

astronomical instruments is primarily along the cardinal directions. The superimposition of the two
axial systems is reflected in the site with the plot boundary aligned to the axes of the city plan of
Jaipur and the instruments along the cardinal directions north-south.
The system of streets within the Walled city is
based on a hierarchy at three levels where the
main roads have a width of 108, 57, 27 and 13,
66 feet. Although, from a research carried out in
2003 59, focusing on Topkhanadesh chowkri,
identifies a different system of hierarchy that
includes the Chandpol bazaar avenue (33 m
wide), the large street of north-south distribution
(13 m wide); the rasta, as secondary street that
shape the plots (7 m wide); the galis (from 2 to 3
m) that give access to the interior of plots
creating a distribution towards the different units
composing the plots. Here the geometric control
over the urban space stops to give room to a
certain laisser-faire of inhabitants. The last step
of the hierarchy is represented from the ghandi
Fig.37: Amadine Cabrit, op.cit., p.12
gali which was a space, around 1 m wide,
between two havelis that used to have a double
function: facilitating the ventilation within the plot and giving place to the drainage of toilettes that
were located in the deeper part of the plot.
Hence, the general variation of
streets dimensions belonging to
the same hierarchical level
probably
depends
from
successive works carried out over
the facades within the chowkries
that gradually changed the width
of the streets.
All the houses, as well as the
royal palace itself, take their
orientation from that of the
streets.
Within the main markets, havelis
and temples on the main streets
in Jaipur were constructed by the
state in the 18th century, thus
ensuring that a uniform street
faade was maintained. The
Fig.38: Facade composition along main streets market
urban faade of the main
59

Amadine Cabrit, Haveli in Jaipur, seminar Urban Strategies, ENSAT, 2003, p.12

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

commercial streets was further enriched by punctures of entrances to Haveli temples in between
the sequence of shops that used to have the same size. The key element for the construction of
Jaipur, perhaps the real module of the city, is the portico, or veranda, pattern. Together with one
shop, the dimension is established on
danda metrical system. The portico interaxe is exactly of two danda, 3,66 m per
2,60 m. The height is the same of width
(2,60m.). Behind the portico the shops
length inside the block is 8,52 m. (4,6
danda).
According to Papillaut, the bazaar is the
basic module of the urban composition
being the royal chowkri equal at 21
bazaars and the Purani Basti and
Topkhana Desh equal at 25 bazaars.
From the plan of 1925 is evident that the
bazaar line has been built in a unique
solution and in the early phase, probably
to sell the property of the shops as soon
as possible and meanwhile to create a
sort of mask giving the illusion of an urban
creation.
While the widths of roads were
predetermined, the streets and chowks
(central open squares) of the internal
Fig.39: Haveli in the inner part of Ghat Darwaza chowkri
chowkries (sectors) were not. Therefore
they show an organic pattern, with the basic unit of built form being the rectangular haveli.
The havelis (term used for medieval north Indian mansions belonging to nobles) of Jaipur range
from a single courtyard house form to an assemblage of multiple courts. Majority of the havelis
have one or two courtyards. However, an increase in the status of the owner or in the number of
family members resulted in an increase in either the scale of the haveli or the number of
courtyards. The location and the type of haveli were determined by the owners social, political and
financial conditions that is, the caste, occupation and relation with the ruler.
Each mohalla (cluster of houses) has its own temple presided over by the deity most appropriate
for their prosperity and protection and it corresponds to social groups linked by religion, caste,
ethnic origin or corporation. Indeed, Sachdev and Tillotson 60 argue that the urban layout served as
support for a social repartition associating the mohallas to the system of castes.
A relationship between temples and wells (both constituting ritual spaces) can be observed inside
the chowkries in the layout of the sectors.
This association, of a particular haveli with the temple or well in the cluster, also emphasized the
status of the owner. Group of havelis formed mohallas number of mohallas formed a chowkri
(sector) well defined as a geographical entity in the city. A chowkri in Jaipur may comprise of up to
400 mohallas.
60

Sachdev and Tillotson, Building Jaipur, The Making of an Indian City, op.cit.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The plots dimensions along the east-west axis of Purani Basti and Topkhana Desh derives from of
the chaupar width (60 danda = 110m) repeated 8 times. The variation of surface, probably, is in
part due to the recommendations of Hindu texts Prasara and Vaastu which prescribes different plot
dimensions according to the castes.
5.4 BUILT HERITAGE OF JAIPUR
The Jaipur Development Authority has identified heritage buildings in the walled city in a total of
300 buildings in the various chowkries. These have been categorized into large, medium and small
on the basis of area. Within the Heritage Management Plan of 2007, the built heritage structures
have been categorized as per their distinct architectural characteristics to formulate specific urban
control for each type, as follows:
- Havelis
- Temples and religious buildings
- Fort and Palaces
- City walls and gates
- Public and commercial Buildings
- Wells and Bavvdis
- Cenotaphs
The
HMP
provides
a
catalogue of the built heritage
types that takes into account
the earlier listing work done by
organizations like the Ford
Foundation in 1984 and
INTACH Jaipur chapter (199598). The catalogue is an
updated documentation and
analysis of the built heritage
after appraisal of these
Fig. 40: Built Heritage structures listed till 2006 (source: HMP 2007, DRONAH, p.10)
previous
initiatives.
The
quantum of the built heritage of Jaipur is immense and ideally the entire walled city should be
categorized as one single Heritage Zone. The HMP provides a comprehensive documentation
about the built heritage of a small section of Chowkri Modikhana area. This should form the basis
for further documentation of the entire walled city but till nowadays no improvement has been
done.
Architectural styles have been divided into four distinct categories. These include the Rajasthani
style, Art Nouveau style and the colonial style. Each of these has a reflection in the various styles
of doors, windows and balconies.
The following is a brief summary of the main built heritage types and main historic building
typologies of Jaipur and its monument master pieces.
HAVELIS
Palaces can be visualized as an extension of the havelis. The haveli plots in Dhoondhar region
conform to a rectangular or square shape, sometimes with offsets. The Jaipur havelis not only
provide a wide range and scale of this archetype but also present two unique typological variations
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Fig.41: Detail of frescoes paintings in the entrance of a


haveli (photo V.Megna)

Fig.42: : From the top: Govind Deva temple inside the


Jai Niwas (photo V.Megna); Temple with Shikhara
(photo copyright Brian J. McMorrow 1999-2010)

of the haveli i.e. the haveli temple type found as


courtyard temples (with no shikhara) on the main
commercial streets as well as inner residential
streets of Jaipur and secondly, the garden haveli
type found on the Ghat Ki Guni valley stretch
located on the Jaipur Agra highway.
The haveli built on exterior streets very often
crosses the whole width of the parcel hence having
a main faade towards the public space, conceived
on Jain Singhs criteria, and a faade more
domestic opening on the central space. Following
the Vaastu principles, the entries of havelis had to
favourite east and north orientation. In all cases in
which havelis have the main faade on the streets
the entrance is always a part, keeping the
distinction between public and domestic life.
The 45 degrees of temperature during the summer
led to a research for a passive climate passive
control. The havelis were built over the same
climatic concept that informs the rest of the urban
elements composition. As well as the limited wide of
the streets, also bow windows and cornices of
havelis were conceived to avoid an excessive
insolation. Inside a good insulation is due to the
strong thermal inertia of walls at ground floor, to the
constant shadow and to the strategic location of
openings that allows transversal ventilation.
From the artistic point of view, the havelis are noted
for their frescoes depicting images of gods,
goddesses, animals, scenes from the British
colonization, and the life stories of Lords Rama and
Krishna.
TEMPLES
The maharaja Jai Singh II undertook the
construction of several temples both in Amber and
in Jaipur. This flourishing of sacred places made
Jaipur the most important centre for the Vaishnava
sect of which he was a member, with the Govind
Deva temple in top of the hierarchy such as one of
the centre for Ramadani sect and for the Jainists.
The vocation for temples construction shows the
monarchs willing to integrate the two cities in a
unique crucial place for religious pilgrimage.
While for palaces architectural style Jai Singh
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

adopted Mogul codes and signs, temples became the place of architectural resistance carrying out
the traditional Hindu architectural canons. In contrast with Amber excellent carved stone temples
with shikharas (spires), built from 11th century onwards, Jaipur became the precursor in building
haveli temples of the 18th century. Following the tradition, Indian temples cannot be destroyed
hence they are always maintained in their original place even if sometimes they are not used
anymore. Therefore still today the important temples with shikharas (superstructure tower above
the sanctuary) can be observed at the four most important locations inside the city along the
cardinal axis. In all these temples the idol is facing towards Govinda Deva, the main deity of Jaipur.
Although there is no definite data, locals state that around 400 temples were built in Jaipur during
its planning. A. K. Roy (Roy, 1998) mentions that there are more than 1000 temples of various
sizes in Jaipur with 606 within the walled city as registered temples with the Devsthan department
in 1973. A detailed analysis of the hierarchical layout of main temples with reference to the city
streets has been carried out by DRONAH foundation.
THE MASTER PIECES
Royal Palace
The concept of buildings height control
was based on the idea that the Royal
Palace had to be the highest
monument dominating the rest of the
city. Indeed, the Chandra Mahal with its
sacred dimension reinforced by the
presence of a temple on its top,
supervises the town upon its seven
stores. The palace structures within the
city palace complex comprise of the
Badal Mahal, the seven storied
Chandra Mahal with highly ornamented
interiors symmetry and unity of massing
and synthesis of Mewar and Jaipur
styles of palace architecture, and the
Sarvato Bhadra constructed during
Sawai Jai Singhs reign (1700-1743).
Later additions include the Pritam
Niwas by Sawai Pratap Singh (17781803), Diwan-i-Am, constructed in the
18th century under Sawai Madho Singh
I (1751-1768) or Sawai Pratap Singh
(1778 1803) and Mubarak Mahal by
Sawai Madho Singh II (1880-1922) in Fig. 43: City Palace, Chandra Mahal (photos Tapanmallick)
1896 for use by royal guests. Therefore
the City Palace occupies a major area of the old city. Today it is partly converted into Museum,
symbolising the finest blend of Rajput and Mughal architecture.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Gaitor Cenotaphs
The memorials include the royal cenotaphs at Gaitor with significant ones being the Chhatris of
Sawai Jai Singh II and Sawai Madho Singh and the cenotaphs of royal ladies and the victory tower
- Isar Lat. The prominent of the cenotaphs is that of Maharaja Jai Singh, built in white marble,
comprising of 21 ornately carved pillars depicting scenes and figures from Hindu mythology
Jaleb Chowk
Huge square court earlier had single stories structures on all four sides. On all the four sides of the
Jaleb Chowk, there are rooms which were originally meant for personal attendants and other
paraphernalia. Sawai Ram Singh II repaired them, added veranda and the upper storey and
accommodated all the Courts and Offices in these building. The graceful entrance to the Sawai
Man Singh Town Hall is in the south east corner of this Chowk. The Jaleb Chowk is the outer court
yard of the palace compound. Opening on to the arterial street of the city, this large square
connected the public and the royal spaces of the palace compound. Its very title, jaleb is a
distortion of the Persian word zaleb, meaning parade or drill, thereby suggesting that the Jaleb
Chowk was the parade square of the Jaipur state army. On ceremonial occasions, an impressive
gathering of foot soldiers and nobles and state dignitaries, astride horses and elephants would
accompany the elephant-drawn chariot of the emperor as he went through the city streets in
procession.
Hawa Mahal
"Palace of Winds" built in 1799 designed in the form of the crown of Krishna, the Hindu god. Its
unique five-storey exterior is also akin to the honeycomb of the beehive with its 953 small windows
called jharokhas that are decorated with intricate latticework.
The original intention of the lattice was to allow royal ladies to observe everyday life and above all
the public celebrations and processions in the street below without being seen as the Chandra
Mahals position was far from the public space.

Fig. 44: Hawa Mahal (photo V.Megna)

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Jantar Mantar
The astronomical observatory was built
in 1718, before the city foundation. It is a
World Heritage site from 2010, being
recognized by UNESCO its Universal
Outstanding Value as monumental
example in masonry of known
astronomical instruments.
OUTSIDE THE WALLED CITIES:
Forts and Palaces
The true hill forts of Jaipur lie beyond its
walled boundaries, perched on strategic
locations in the hills on the north, east
and west, namely the forts of Amber,
Jaigarh, Ambagarh and Nahargarh.
All these forts have palatial royal
residences within the complex which are
fine specimen of architecture that is
intricate and sublime in its beauty and
speak of the aesthetic sense of the royal
clans and the highly sophisticated skills
of the citizens of Jaipur.
Albert Hall
The Albert Hall was later added in the
centre of this English pattern Ram
Niwas garden. Even today, it is
significant as the second largest open
space for the city. Located outside the
walled city, it sprawls across an area of
4 acres and was designed by surgeon
Major De- Faback. It is a well-laid out
garden comprising a zoo, a bird park,
play ground, exhibition ground and a
gymnasium.
Ghat ki Guni
Ghat ki Guni was a recreational area
established by Sawai Jai Singh II in
1739 on the outskirts of Jaipur, beyond
GhatLake, where water was available, a
Fig. 45: From the top: Hawa Mahal; Jal Mahal; Panna Mian Kund
(photos V.Megna)
concept of which seems to have
developed with the Mughal influence at
the time of Akbar. It has three main gardens that demonstrate the palace-garden Sisodia Rani
Ka Bagh, Vidyadhar ka Bagh and Raj Niwas Baghand haveli-garden typologies.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Jal Mahal
Jal Mahal is a pleasure resort, built in the centre of an artificial lake outside the city to the northeast by the road to Amber. There is debate as to its period of construction either along with the
foundation of the city in 1734 or as late as
1799. The palace has airy domes,
pavilions and terraces around an old fruit
orchard. It was used by the Maharaja and
his guests for shooting migrating geese,
grouse and duck.
Panna Mian Kund in Amber
Water being scarce in the region,
indigenous methods for effective water
collection have been evolved and
practiced across Rajasthan. A vast
number of reservoirs, artificial lakes,
tanks, kunds (stepped ponds), step-wells
or baories, wells, ponds etc, have been
built and renovated over the centuries.
5.5 INTANGIBLE HERITAGE 61
Located on important trade routes, Jaipur
thus became an important and vibrant
centre for trade and commerce that
fuelled its growth further, housing large
numbers of artisans, craftsmen and
merchants from distant parts of India.
There were potters, utensil makers, stone
carvers, building craftsmen and builders,
leather workers and tanners, jewellers and
precious stone cutters, ivory carvers,
brass ware manufacturers, enamellers;
weavers, dyers and embroiderers, settled
in mohallas or group of mohallas occupied
by families pursuing similar trade or craft.
The same guild system continues till date,
as in the proposed heritage walk area of
Chowkri Modikhana.
The royal patronage to literary works,
music, miniature painting and the
performing arts also resulted in huge
collections in the pothikhana (royal library)
and has led to the evolution of the Jaipur

Fig.46:From the top: Creation of wooden block designated to


the block printing ; spice sellers; hand embroidery (photo
V.Megna)

61

The information gathered in the present paragraph are quoted from IHCN, Walking into the microcosm of Jaipur,
Delhi, 2011, p.43-49

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

style of painting, music and dance and the encouragement of the Dhoondhari language.
The Dhoondhar rulers are known to be the patrons of arts and crafts from the period of Raja Man
Singh (1590 1614). Besides the buildings crafts of stone carving, mirror works and inlays; an
indigenous fresco technique done on araish evolved, examples of which can be seen in Bairat
caravanserai, Bharmal Ki Chhatri from the period of Man Singh (influence from the Mughal Court of
Akbar), and in Ganesh Pol (1639), Amber, from the period of Mirza Raja Jai Singh with Mughal
influences later absorbed to develop integrated style.
During the period of Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh (1778-1803), the Jaipur School of painting
flourished with influences from the Devgarh and Kishan garh painting styles. Sawai Jagat Singh
(1803 1848) was the last patron for paintings after whom the traditional style deteriorated due
to influences from western art. Miniature painting continues however as an art today, drawing from
the Jaipur School tradition.
The Pachranga (five coloured) flag designed
by Raja Man Singh remained to be the
identity of the Dhoondhar region and the five
coloured pagri (turban) was worn by the
rulers of Dhoondhar. The colours are an
important aspect of the Dhoondhari cultural
heritage, with various dyeing techniques.
Chhattis Karkhane (36 departments) set up
on Mughal or Persian standards with Hindi
names, gave state protection to learned men,
poets, writers, painters, musicians, dancers,
artists and sculptors to train them further,
thereby enriching the arts and crafts
traditions. Jaipur became a hub for artists
after the 1857 War of Independence, when
many of them who fled from Delhi found
refuge in Jaipur.
The famous handcrafts of Jaipur, occupying
determined chowkries within the city, are
named as followed:

Thatheron ka rasta- handmade brass


utensils industry

Maniharo ka rasta- hand made


traditional bangle industry.

Khajanewalon ka rasta- Hand made


Fig. 47: From the top: sellers of pan; rajasthani dancing
performance (photo V.Megna)
sculptures industry

Jhalaniyon ka rasta- the spice market


The old city is the major location of such activities and 60 per cent of the arts and craft skills are
inherited. The gems and exquisite handmade jewellery with gold and enamelled with precious
stones designed in unique in styles known as meenakari and Kundan, have elevated Jaipur to a
tourist paradise. The blue potteries are internationally known for the shape, size and glaze; the
carvings of wood, ivory and marble statues and miniature paintings are adored by tourists of all
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

times; colourful textiles, tie and die fabrics and block prints and the colourful costumes worn by
men and women that meet the eyes on all sides in Jaipur.
The city has well developed folk music and dance forms, such as Dhudhadi, that is the Jaipur
style of Galibazi (verbal art form traditionally used as medium for social awareness and reform)
and Tamasha, a style of musical folk play introduced to the city during the reign of Sawai Ram
Singh II (1855 1880).
Fairs and festivals are an important part of the entire region. The integration of the festivals with
royal traditions followed since the establishment of the city, making the festive celebrations of
Makar Sankranti, Teej, Gangaur, Holi and Dusshehra special for the city of Jaipur, as processions
and performances take place with the involvement of the royal family.
The annual Jaipur Heritage International Festival, started in 2002 by the Jaipur Virasat Foundation
is a week-long event, presently called the Rajasthan Day celebrations Jaipur Festival in
partnership with the Government of Rajasthan and endorsed by UNESCO New Delhi. The
celebrations provide an international cultural platform to the living traditions of Rajasthan, now an
integral part of the social fabric of the city.
Therefore, artistic skills of the people in weaving out beautiful products out of the locally available
raw materials such as the variety of ethnic performing art of the common people in terms of vocal
and instrumental music, folk dances and puppet shows are major attractions of connoisseur
tourists all over the world.
5.6 JAIPUR TODAY
Jaipur is acclaimed by the
tourists as one of the most
picturesque cities in the
world. The people of the
city and the Tourism
Department itself view it
holding immense tourism
potential that has not been
explored fully. The city
apart from having its
worldwide acknowledged
hardware and software
tourism resources that are
of interest to the tourists of
all classes, enjoys high
location
advantages.
Indeed a reading of the
city from a touristic point
Fig. 48: Overlapping of Jaipurs plan dated 1727 and its current satellite image (source: by:
of view, frames it as part
Smith M. K.)
of the famous Golden
Triangle comprising of Delhi-Agra-Jaipur. Almost 60% of international tourists visiting India come
to these places. The high revenue generating through tourism is just what gives the adjective
golden to the ensemble of the three cities. Moreover, the city of Jaipur is comprised in one of the
Dhundhar circuit, which is one of the nine touristic circuits of Rajasthan.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

On a municipal region of 64,75 sq.km


the old city occupies 9,8 sq.km.
Looking at the actual conformation of
the city it is interesting briefly reflecting
about what aspects of the original plan
from Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II has
maintained legibility, and how the
structure
has
held
up
to
transformations. What seems evident
is that the survival of surrounding walls
probably
contributed
to
the
maintenance of the early layout as the
city absorbed the most part of
increased density grew over the last
3 centuries most of all outside the
walled area, in the south direction.

Fig. 49: public mountain (photo V.Megna)

Nowaday the distinction between a commercial and residential street is still evident: commercial
streets contain shops on the ground floor that are shaded by porticos running the length of the
block, which also serves as a floor for the above terrace serving the living quarters located on the
first floor, above the shop (fig.38). At one point, the porticos have been filled by zealous shop
keepers, but new enforcement about 5 or 10 years ago brought back the walkways. More than just
a continuous walkway, these commercial zones create a protective edge around the residential
areas of Jaipur, shielding them from the noisy traffic and lights of the wide boulevards. The
entrance to these blocks is punched through the commercial barrier, with various scales of
openings to indicate the privacy of the place beyond. Inside, the blocks are quieter, and the narrow
streets allow the buildings to shade themselves, while residential windows open into the space of
the street. Residential streets also contain a shop/trade/sitting space, used originally for family
business or trade, above which the residential space pushes up close against the narrow street.
The hierarchy among streets has been preserved through densification, and the main commercial
areas have been able to specialize while daily needs shops inside the blocks maintain residents
ease of access to normal goods.
According to Papillaut, the Jaipur plan by major Smith, dated 1925-27, shows an urban
configuration that was probably not very far from the from XVIII century one. Hence, overlapping
the early XX century plan with the current satellite image of Jaipur it seems that the blocks
regularity of western part of the city (apparently the first that had been created), contrasts with the
variations of the eastern part. This difference, visible on the older plan seems increased over
centuries. Although is mostly in the eastern side that the differences between the original and the
actual layout are more evident (fig. 48).
The increasing of density within the city is not only evident on the built density of inner chowkries
but it is also reflected in absence of gardens, within and outside the city, while once they used to
make the area between Amber and Jaipur a land-city.
The significant urban transformation, influenced by British models, encompasses a development
outside the walled city that respected the earlier urban pattern planning an extension of the
principal southward axis of the Tripolia Gate. This axis extended into a magnificent British period
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

garden immediately outside the walled city, the Ramniwas Bagh, that was later enhanced with the
visual focus of the monumental Albert Hall Museum.
While, as mentioned before, temples cannot be demolished, the 35% of high-class houses were
demolished in 1971-81 and replaced by their owners. This not only means that there has been a
huge lost within the built heritage of the city but it also witnesses how the lack of awareness of
local community plays a fundamental role in heritage conservation.
Today citizens and visitors must
face the crowd, traffic jams, long
trips in taxi or in auto rickshaws,
lack
of
parking,
public
transportation, and lack of info
centres.
The longer east- west axis of the
city that is marked by Suraj Pol
and Chand Pol is about three
kilometres in length. Hence, the
entire walled city was meant to
be accessible to the common
man on foot. The main roads
were
used
by
elephants,
carriages, horses and camels
Fig.50: Vehicular situation in Johari Bazar (photo V.Megna)
and footpaths by pedestrians;
and the internal chowkries were a composition of self sustaining clusters, with narrow road widths.
This equation has changed now with cars and two wheelers parked on both sides of the main
streets and in open spaces and squares in front of heritage structures, encroaching upon the
movement and spill over spaces. The narrow internal streets are also encroached upon by parked
two wheelers on both sides and cars in open spaces that were meant for community use.
In the report of IHCN about Jaipur draft about UNESCO Delhi office 62, several challenges to be
faced in order to achieve a heritage-based urban development have been identified. The main
categories described by the report are:
Lack of awareness towards heritage
Poor implementation of regulatory and
legislative framework
Sustaining intangible heritage
Solid waste management
Water infrastructure
Electricity wiring and services
Fire safety
Vehicular traffic and parking
Management of stray animals
Insufficiency of tourist facilities

62

IHUN, op.cit

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Here it is some of those issues related to heritage threats that give a general overview about today
conditions in Jaipur:
Lack of interest and awareness of the people towards heritage conservation has led to
deteriorating condition of the heritage buildings. A number of monuments are poorly maintained.
Violation of rules and regulations for the conservation of heritage buildings and their surroundings
is a common phenomenon.
Poor implementation of the byelaws, such as insufficient data base on heritage buildings, with
different sources quote different number of heritage structures; lack of specific legislative and
regulatory measures according to each street or typology that requires detailed studies and
analysis of the existing fabric of the city; and lack of clarity of division of responsibilities in the
implementing agencies.
Traditional craftsmanship which has given life to the streets of Jaipur is under the threat of
disappearance due to the poor living conditions of the artisans and to the pressures of growing
family needs. A solution needs to be found to sustain these small-scale industries.
The fairs and festivals have been an important part of the citys cultural heritage and with the
diminishing role of the royal family, there is a need for revitalization of the same not only for tourists
but also for the local community.
With piped water supply introduced in the mid 19th century, the traditional water systems like
baories and Jhalaras 63 suffered gross neglect. At present, most of the baories in Jaipur are
defunct.
The vehicular situation is worsened due to commercial activity, as 60% of the total wholesale
units of the city lie in the walled city. The presence of wholesale units is closely interlinked with
goods handling in terms of loading, unloading, storage etc. Since adequate space is not available
within the walled city for all these activities, it spills onto the roads increasing congestion. The
encroachment by hawkers also claims the space for vehicular and pedestrian movement. These
factors are a detriment to the urban environment in the walled city in areas around tourist
attractions, the main commercial streets and in the inner lanes of the chowkries.
The lack of a good public transport system, traffic planning (such as one way streets, sufficient
designated parking space and environmentally friendly transport options), traffic norms and
regulations in the city enhances the problem with no specific pedestrian areas (such as heritage
walkways) demarcated; affecting both the tourist and the local community negatively.
The influx of tourists has brought pressures on the urban fabric and infrastructure. There is a
need to carry out studies to assess the carrying capacity of popular tourist destinations with a view
to regulate tourist traffic. The conversion of a number of historic palaces and havelis into heritage
hotels is a positive accomplishment. However, there is still an acute shortage of budget hotels
during the tourist season.
Quality of tourism facilities is much to be desired. The issues include poor heritage interpretation,
encroachment around the heritage buildings by cars and informal shops, absence of planned

63

Jhalars are ground water bodies essentially meant for community use and for religious rites. They have often
rectangular shape with steps on three or even on all the four sides of the tank

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

pedestrian walkways and inadequate/insufficient basic infrastructures, in addition to noise and


pollution.
Today the city continued to amalgamate new changes into its historical core while preserving its
old character need a big effort from all those users and stakeholders involved.
The economy of Jaipur today relies heavily on heritage tourism and cultural industries with at least
30 percent of Jaipur population living and working in heritage structures within the walled city. This
historic core spread in an area of 6.7 sq km now has the highest density of 58207 persons/per sq
km. Around 3000 tourists visit the city every day. While the residents of the historic cities vie for
modern facilities and architecture and often emulate the newer city architecture in the confines of
their historic setting, the tourist continues to search for the authentic historic fabric and traditional
setting.
5.7 AUTHORITIES, LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND URBAN PLANNING TOOLS
Here we describe the three levels of public authorities that concern, directly or indirectly, the
heritage interpretation:
- Tourism management
- Heritage management and
conservation
- Urban development

TOURISM MANAGEMENT

Amongst the foreign tourists arriving


to the State, 30% of the tourists
came to visit Jaipur. On an average
the city receives 2270 tourists per
day, who stay an average 3-4 days
in the city. Statics from the office of
tourism show that there has been a
rise in number of tourists from
540.000 to 1.752.000. Months of
May, June, July and August are the Fig.51: Data about tourism growth (source JDMP 2025, Part 1, p. 15)
lean seasons. Over the past seven
years the conditions has been same. There is a need to enhance tourism by providing incentives
during the lean season.
Management of tourism is not a direct responsibility of Jaipur City Corporation (JMC). Tourism
sector does not have any local agency dealing with it in Jaipur city being everything referred to the
Rajasthan Tourism Department. Therefore all legislative provisions already taken and to be taken
concerning Jaipur and specifically its historical core, refers to the general indications provided by
the State tourism policy. Concerning intangible heritage this includes:
Proposes consolidation of facilities to make fairs and festivals more attractive;
State Archaeology Department, Devasthan Department, Waqf Board etc. to support efforts at
revival of traditional building arts, to offer to private individual or firms or voluntary organizations
interested in preservation of individual monuments on settled terms and conditions, and to carry
out studies to assess the carrying capacity of popular tourist destinations with a view to regulate
tourist traffic in them.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

In pursuance of the specific objective of architectural heritage preservation, a number of schemes


outlined below, are underway:
- Under the Heritage Hotel scheme, concessions are offered for converting palaces, havelis and
forts into hotels with a view to assist their preservation, and putting them to adaptive reuse. The
Tourism Finance Corporation of India advances loans for Heritage - hotels project
- Under the scheme for development of Nazool properties of Heritage Values, historical
buildings monuments not owned by the A.S.I or the State Archaeology Department, but owned
by the State Government can be transferred to RTDC or RSHC for development into heritage
hotels or tourist complexes in collaboration with private entrepreneurs.
- Under a scheme for land and property belonging to Devasthan Department, projects can be
jointly RTDC, RSHC, Department of Tourism and Devasthan Department to utilize such land/
property (usually lying under-utilized or in danger of encroachment) for Dharamshalas (Indian
religious rest houses) and tourist complexes for promotion of pilgrimage and cultural tourism.
- For expanding investment in tourism infrastructure, there are proposals for attracting
institutional finance from the Tourism Finance Corporation of India, Department of Tourism,
Rajasthan Tourist development Corporation, RIICQ and RFC and investment from non resident
Indians, undertaking joint venture with private sector.
An advantage that Jaipur enjoys as the capital city of Rajasthan is the presence of the State
Secretariat and the Tourism Development Corporation that help guiding the city authorities.
However, the ground level management of tourism that starts from the entry points to the city lack
proficiency and coordination among different actors. The predominant presence of touts at all
levels of tourism is a typical example of non-coordination among authorities.
Regarding cultural tourism and more specifically the actions concerning the link between heritage
and tourism field, the Department of Tourism directly supports implementation of heritage projects
by, for instance, INTACH.

HERITAGE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION

The Department of Arts and Culture and the Department of Tourism are responsible for the
maintenance of the heritage buildings. Both these departments undertake conservation works.
However, besides these, several other agencies undertake maintenance and conservation works
in the heritage buildings. Also, the Rajasthan Institute of Conservation of Cultural Properties is
responsible for maintenance and conservation of cultural properties. In all, a host of agencies are
at work for conservation of Jaipur. However, much remains to be done especially for conservation
of walled city.
A study of heritage buildings within the walled city was undertaken by the Ford Foundation and
JDA- Jaipur Development Authority - in 1985, identifying 300 buildings for conservation. However,
due to lack of legislation; some of these buildings have subsequently been totally altered or even
demolished.
JHERICO (Jaipur Heritage Committee) includes government organisations such as the Jaipur
Municipal Corporation, Jaipur Heritage Development and Management Authority, Department of
Art and Archaeology and NGOs such as Jaipur Virasat Foundation.
The Heritage Management Plan of 2007, prepared for the Jaipur Heritage Committee, provides a
clear overview on the heritage management situation in Jaipur:

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The protection and conservation of built heritage in Jaipur comes under the jurisdiction of
several government organizations thus resulting in more complications. Two main
government bodies responsible for conservation are the Department of Arts and Culture and
the Department of Tourism. Though these departments have taken up conservation works in
the past, the implementing agency is usually the Public Works Department which has little
know how of onsite conservation with traditional methods. To bridge this gap, another body
RICCULP (Rajasthan Institute of Conservation of Cultural Properties) was introduced with
the purpose of taking up restoration works and to develop traditional technologies. RICCULP
is successfully executing important projects like the Amer Palace and Ghat Ki Guni.
However, this organization is working on limited sites and often conservation projects are
initiated by other organizations like the Jaipur Nagar Nigam (JNN) and Jaipur Development
Authority (JDA) as owners/managers of the major built heritage of Jaipur. With prime focus of
JNN and JDA being maintenance, management and land development within the city,
heritage conservation gets compromised. The formation of JHERICO (Jaipur Heritage
Committee) with a defined role to overview this multiplicity of organizations working on
conservation projects and to realign the built heritage governance of the city is possibly a
step in the right direction. []The range of organizations involved in heritage conservation
indicates the zeal for conservation in the city though this multiplicity has lead to confusion
and uncoordinated efforts. It is the optimum balance and partnership between organizations
along with public awareness and support that can lead to successful heritage conservation.

Fig.52: View from Hawa Mahal towards Ramchandraji (photoV.Megna)

URBAN DEVELOPMENT

JAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION The Municipal body was recognised in 1926 and a Municipal Act
was in place in1929. Recently, it achieved the status of a Municipal Corporation and its jurisdiction
spread over 64,75 sq.km. It is responsible for: cleaning the Walled City; painting public buildings
and monuments; enforcing building byelaws; declaring buildings unsafe as and when necessary
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

and repairing and maintaining roads and sewerage. Repair and repainting of the Hawa Mahal and
revitalization of Jal Mahal through restoration of the monument, revival of the lake and provision of
tourist facilities is being done by JNN. It is also responsible for the restoration of the old water
tanks in the walled city.In 2001 the JMC successfully executed the so called Operation Pink
addressed to the removal of encroachments in main commercial streets of the Walled city.
A number of conservation initiatives for the walled city have been taken by International
organizations, NGOs and local government authorities. Through various projects and initiatives
undertaken by the Government of Rajasthan, efforts have been made for the formulation of the
Heritage Management Regulation for the walled city but it has not been approved by the
government.
Although, concerning tourism JMC does not provide specific attention to the tourism important
activities within its work agenda, due to the absence of direct mandate in the tourism programme.
The contribution of tourism related revenue in the city domestic product (CDP) is also not
separated in the accounting system at the city level and as such, it has no means to surmise the
impact of its services on the tourism and hence JMC has no incentive. The informal interactions
with the RTDC in city authorities meetings do not seem to have yielded result.
JAIPUR DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY was established in 1982, under the JDA Act for purposes of
planning, coordinating and supervising the proper, orderly and rapid development of Jaipur region
formed by inclusion of Jaipur city and contiguous areas, and was entrusted with the task of
preparing the Master Development Plan with a view to securing planned integrated development
and use of land.
Urban Planning projects have been undertaken in the city since 2000 through the commencement
of Rajasthan Urban Infrastructure Project (RUIDP). Project components include water supply,
wastewater management, solid waste management, urban transport and roads, emergency
medical services, social infrastructure, slum improvement, support infrastructure for cultural
heritage, urban drainage, community awareness and public participation (CAPP) and benefit
monitoring and evaluation (BME). Conservation works include development of sites and services.
The institution takes up development programmes that may have direct tourism implications, but
they are not conceived to enhance the tourism prospects for outsiders and not in collaboration with
RTDC. The resource mobilization is a great constraint.
URBAN PLANNING TOOLS
Master Plan of Jaipur, 1991: is the primary Development Plan for the city categorises land use of
old Jaipur under residential walled city area with special byelaws that restrict the floor space index
and control the heights of the buildings.
City Development Plan for Jaipur, April 2006: is prepared as a visionary document to guide
development projects in the city under the Jawahar Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission supported
by the central government. This plan identifies the Jantar Mantar site area and the surrounding
buffer zone as an important historic area that needs to be developed under a special urban
renewal project with improved infrastructure.
Within the plan the historic walled city of Jaipur is demarcated as a historic zone in the master plan
of Jaipur with special byelaws applicable for the area.

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Jaipur Heritage Management Plan, Built Heritage, February 2007: prepared by DRONAH and
JVF for the Jaipur Heritage Committee, proposes to review the historic fabric of the city and
integrates the 18th century unique planning of Sawai Jai Singhs Jaipur to the 21st Century
Renaissance Vision of the local residents and NGOs. To fulfil this intention it takes into account
not only the historic city planning but also its adaptation to the present trends within the walled city
mainly - migration of upper class, changing landuse from residential to commercial, deterioration of
historic fabric and lack of infrastructure and management. It intends to translate the Heritage Vision
for Jaipur into policies for site operations, suggest strategies at planning level and project level,
identify the priority areas as per heritage significance and funding and provide direction to move
with a particular focus.
The plan emphasizes on a people based approach and relies on feedback of experts, residents
and visitors for finalisation. It also realises that effective implementation is only possible with
support of interest groups in the city of Jaipur and devises strategies where implementation is not
totally dependent on government authorities but can be initiated by local residents and NGOs. It is
formed as a living document that will be reviewed regularly and will be revised every two years.
The Heritage Plan of Jaipur distinctly categorises the present day heritage resources and heritage
managers for Jaipur city and outlines the heritage objectives. Besides policies for data collection
and documentation, conservation and urban renewal, interpretation and heritage awareness and
heritage valuation, it presents an action plan that identifies planning level and project level activities
for the heritage resources namely, heritage sites outside the walled city, walled city fabric, cultural
heritage, archaeological/archival heritage and the natural heritage of Jaipur. It analyses the
relevance of each within the contextual framework of ownership, heritage significance and
economic potential. Besides the policy framework and an action plan, it also aims to build a
comprehensive heritage register of all typologies and evolve heritage guidelines and byelaws for
each type. Whether the plan document will be realized in part or whole on site is difficult to say but
nevertheless, it is an ambitious attempt to reinterpret the historic core of Jaipur and adapt it to the
present urban pressures. It is a collaborative effort of the residents, visitors and heritage managers
of the city to rebuild it into a 21st century renaissance city keeping in mind two basic ingredients
that lead to the making of the 18th century Jaipur a great urban vision and flourishing trade and
economy to realize and sustain the vision.
Urban Renewal in Walled City, 2008: under the Jawahar Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission
(JNNURM) partially funded by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India is the
renewal project identified under the City Development Plan. It provides parking and urban renewal
proposals for the historic areas in the buffer zone of the site and beyond that for the main
commercial streets of Jaipur.
Considerable urban renewal work has been done in walled city area. These works include:
a. Re-furbishing the buildings/markets in Pink colour.
b. Underground shifting of overhead electric/TV cable wires.
c. Repair of Roads, Footpaths, etc.
d. Repair and painting of medians/railings.
Project for Heritage Walk: A project for Heritage Walk from Chhoti Chaupar to Talkatora has been
prepared by JMC. The estimated cost of the proposed project is Rs. 60 lace. This will serve the
purpose of showcasing the rich heritage to the tourists

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Integrated Conservation Plan for Jantar Mantar and Hawa Mahal specifically proposes an
integrated plan for the site along with the immediate landmark of Hawa Mahal.
Master Development Plan for Jaipur Region 2011
The Master plan of Jaipur 2011 mentions the policy for conservation of heritage and sets out
building byelaws that restrict or control building activities in the walled city. These byelaws of JNN
include:
- No permission for erection, re-erection, addition or alternations of any building without sanction
from the Nagar Nigam;
- Regulate building use.
- Prohibit construction of buildings in open spaces or over tanks;
- Regulate Balconies and other projections in proportion to the street width
- Regulate height of building in ratio of the road width.
- Prohibit construction near city walls
- Regulate alteration in the structural design, appearance, colour and other architectural features
including panels, pillars, shutters, railings, parapet walls, balconies and other structural listings of
any building facing the main bazaars of the city or any portion of such buildings as may be visible
from the said bazaars
- Specify rules for each area of the walled city
However, the present condition of the walled city shows that a number of the byelaws are just on
paper and it is the actual enforcement as well as enhancement of these byelaws that is essential
for the preservation of the historic fabric.
Master Development Plan for Jaipur Region 2025
The plan recognizes tourism is one of the major economic generators for both State and region
having various heritage and tourism sites, proximity to National capital region and potential for
development of rural and eco-tourism. It identifies the potential for tourism development for Jaipur
such as:
Proximity to the national Capital making it a good weekend destination
Inherent multiple number of tourist sites
Potential for corporate tourism and conventions with a blend of tradition and heritage
Relatively lower costs of real estate and slower, relaxed pace of life attracting investors and
tourists
Potential for rural/village tourism
The Tourism-Vision" of the plan recommends to enhance tourism by connecting the surrounding
touristic attractions and developing them into small circuits, leading to weekend tourism and
capturing the domestic tourists during the lean period by promoting certain events at the eco
tourism sites
Since walled city is designated as special area in master development plan 2025, it is being
envisaged to prepare a detailed plan with a dedicated team by.
During the making of the City Development Plan of Jaipur a Stakeholders' workshop was held.
Among the issues in Heritage and Tourism Development it has been stated that the city does not
have proper signage system. Therefore, there is a need to improve city guide systems through
proper signage.
94

Time-line of main events around Jaipur foundation

Synoptic Table

HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

CHAPTER 6
Proposals for the Interpretation Plan
for the Walled city of Jaipur

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Chapter 6
Proposals for the Interpretation Plan
for the Walled city of Jaipur

6.1 WHY: VISION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PLAN


The main principle that generates and gives reason to interpretation activity is making people
understand about the value held by the subject because sharing knowledge and understanding
creates the conditions for a willing of preservation and of spreading awareness. Therefore,
interpretation is applicable to something of which value is recognized.
Previous chapters showed the role played by interpretation as trait dunion between heritage
tourism and heritage conservation within a context of sustainable development and illustrated the
case of Interpretation Plan of the Jantar Mantar World Heritage Site in Jaipur which asks for
support by provisions designed for the surrounding context. Hence, the aim of the previous chapter
five was not just to illustrate the features of the historic walled city of Jaipur, together with the
interpretative hypothesis about its peculiar urban layout. Meanwhile, it was the description of
Jantar Mantars surrounding area within the boundaries of a crenellated wall.
Indeed three reasons support the proposal of an Interpretation Plan for the Walled city of Jaipur.
The first lies in the value held by the Walled city as witness of the reign of the historical figure of
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II and as concretization of his urban planning achievement which have a
value of uniqueness within the Indian urban panorama. The second encompasses its relationship
with the World Heritage property of Jantar Mantar and the potential dynamics of mutual support
that planned and coordinated actions and provisions concerning the two sites that can generate.
The last concerns the Jaipur membership of the IHCN Indian Heritage Cities Network and the
actions that are expected to be taken as member of the Network.
The reasons linked to the historical and cultural value of the walled city have been already
expressed within the previous chapter which emphasized, above all, the possible origins and
meanings lying behind the creation of the unusual urban layout.
Concerning interpretation, the significant relation between Jantar Mantar and Walled city lies
basically in that interpretative theory that attributes a fundamental role to Jantar Mantars
astronomical instruments within the creation of the urban layout. This conceptual relation is not just
a meaning to be communicated among interpretative plans, programmes, initiatives but it is mainly
the pivotal reason for a set of coordinated strategies and provisions as precondition for effective
actions concerning the World Heritage property and the requirements or obligations that
Government of India is subjected to.

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The Indian Heritage Cities Network was founded in 2006 as a programme of UNESCO New Delhi
office with the endorsement of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. It aims to
support Indian cities in their endeavour to safeguard and use the heritage resources for
sustainable development through several tools among which the awareness raising. The cities
member of the network are expected to carry out a set of actions including the organization of
heritage festivals and the development of walk heritage itineraries within the historic city,
highlighting its heritage aspects.
Therefore, the creation of an Interpretation Plan for the Walled city of Jaipur, which is one of the
city members of the programme, will answer to the requirement of the network to provide an
example and a reference work for the other city members.
The proposed Interpretation Plan shall be conceived as strategic plan 64, giving statements of
intents and suggesting supporting actions. It shall also guide and coordinate the efforts of all
stakeholders avoiding their duplication, to ensure comprehensive coverage of the large walled city
area, establish guidelines for other local and detailed plans and to encourage appropriate
networks. It could provide an agreed structure within which several organizations can work.
Therefore here is the VISION - of intents that the plan could adopt as holistic approach, stating
that:
The value of the Walled city of Jaipur shall be communicated through the most
comprehensive set of the meanings and messages mediated with appropriate
interpretative tools and initiatives in order to guarantee the transmission to future
generations of its tangible and intangible heritage as a witness of dynamics occurred
within the uniqueness of its urban setting.
The objectives defined within the Interpretation, Use and Visitors management Plan of Jantar
Mantar, through the principles stated into the ICOMOS Interpretation and Presentation Charter,
should be re-proposed in order to provide a continuity of intents, being later adapted into strategies
and actions specifically planned and designed for the intended context.
OBJECTIVES:
1.
To make every attempt to enhance visitors personal experience of the Walled city providing
understanding about the historical and cultural value of its tangible and intangible heritage,
encouraging to reflect and stimulating further interest.
2.
To create an interpretation centre in order to fill the gap concerning the lack of
dissemination of information both in terms of interpretation and facilities such as public orientation
and interactive community participation. The interpretative centre should also host a research
centre in which collecting all the existing resources such as digitalized historical maps, records,
books, etc. giving them online access through the creation of a web site.
3.
To ensure that interpretative messages relate the walled city to its wider social, cultural and
historical context providing the most exhaustive framework about the different theories concerning
the origin of its urban setting, taking into account the intangible elements of the property such as
craftwork and traditional cultural events.
64

See chapter 2, p.26 of the present study

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

4.
To integrate interpretative infrastructures (such as signage and info panels) in a sensitive
way with the character, setting and cultural significance of the city while remaining easily
identifiable. Carefully planning every event or performance choosing the appropriate location in
order to protect the eventual surrounding heritage minimizing the disturbance
5.
To encourage inclusiveness in the interpretation of the cultural heritage, by facilitating the
involvement of stakeholders in the development and implementation of interpretive programs;
working actively with the local community and making them the beneficiaries of the interpretive
program.
6.
To integrate continued research, training, workshop and academic interests as essential
components of the interpretation.
7.
To ensure intellectual and physical access through the assessment of audience typology for
whom interpretative infrastructures has to be set in accordance with and abolishing, whenever
possible, all physical barriers
6.1.1 STRATEGIC APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
To each identified objectives corresponds action strategies to be more specifically addressed and
planned along the set of proposed initiatives provided within the plan.
STRATEGIES
1.
To carefully define the contents and the range of way in which they have to be
communicated to the different typology of audience, training guides/staff and designing and
choosing interpretative tools and initiatives.
2.
Choosing an existing location for the Interpretation centre within the built heritage carefully
investigating the possibilities of integration between the building potentiality and the new function
features in a vision of compatibility and respect for the historic good in physical and conceptual
terms.
3.
Providing a constant updating of sources, the research centre has to ensure the revision
and/or increase possible interpretations concerning the Walled city investigating the topic on the
wider range of perspective: social, anthropologic, architectural, urban, etc.
4.
Providing for any added infrastructure a common design in order to make each
interpretative item identifiable meanwhile compatible through the advice of external experts.
Locating new info touristic points nearby the strategic areas (airport, railway station, bus station).
5.
Organizing meetings, interviews with local community or their representative members to
collect their knowledge about the history of the city and their family setting in Jaipur, identifying
what it is worth interpreting and their concerns.
6.
Developing a variegated annual programme of events and activities addressed not only
towards the touristic field but also devoted to scholars, craftsmen, students.
7.
Referring to the interpretation centre: interventions of adjustment for abolition of eventual
physical barriers will be carried out through reversible and/or compatible techniques carefully
designed by experts. Intellectual access will be guarantee through the availability of interpretation
in the main languages and their adaptation to different audience typologies.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

The methodology that gives the structure for the interpretative plan has also to look to the
Interpretation plan of Jantar Mantar in order to ensure an overall coherence of provisions between
the two heritage sites, excluding issues related to the use and the visitors management as,
referring to the broad area of the walled city, they need to be addressed separately by specific
plans. Therefore, the development of the methodology for the interpretation plan will follow the
framework based on: pre-visit (off-site); on-site; repeat visit.
While the general methodology will be built around the main question for interpretation:

6.2 WHAT: SELECTED FEATURES AND MESSAGES


In chapter two we stated, through the analysis of several sources, that interpretation is not a
unique and static issues. It can change over time or having several shades of meanings either
depending from consulted sources see the different theories about the walled city layout or
from the perspective and the purpose to which interpretation is subjected. For instance, each field
of humanistic sciences sociology, anthropology etc. - could contribute to a holistic interpretative
reading about a certain issue. During the phase of interpretation assessment also local community
is an important source that can provide new points of view and meanings.
Therefore, the research carried out within the present study being limited on a direct access to the
wide range and typology of sources that could enrich and enhance the interpretation of the walled
city in its multi-faced aspects, demands for an improvement and further development having place
on site.
For a wider range of theories about the urban layout interpretation further authors like Aman Nath 65
and Sachdev & Tillotson shall be taken into account.
Nevertheless, a first guideline can be assessed providing a proposal for interpretative themes and
relative messages to be conveyed. The two themes cover the base-lines features of the city and its
interrelationship with its tangible and intangible heritage. Each theme is developed and
communicates to visitor through related messages the deal with specific aspects of the main topic.
Based on consulted sources and documents, the two identified interpretative themes are:
THEME 1: THE ASTRONOMER MAHARAJA
The figure of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II is the pivotal theme for the interpretation of Jaipur and,
meanwhile, the main link between the walled city and the astronomical observatory of Jantar
65

Aman Nath, in his book, Jaipur The last destination, argues about the deviation of the north-south axis of the city
and the number of squares of the original urban layout referring both of them to the maharaja dynasty or to the
maharaja itself.

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Mantar. The theme will be developed in the frame of three messages starting from the historical
environmental background.
MESSAGES:
1.
Jai Singhs life
The contents developed can follow a sort of time-line of which points can be briefly illustrated in a
comprehensive synthesis and further developed under the discretion of the visitor. The time-line
could include:
Geo-political representation of India -> Dhoondar region;
The Kachchwaha dynasty of Rajputs;
Amber foundation and capital of Dhoondar region;
Jai Singhs studies: from astronomy to urban planning;
Jai Singhs crowning and its military campaigns;
Jai Singhs strategies: from the alliance with Moguls to its political-economic vision of the
new capital
While sciolist data can be simplified giving for instance an overall framework about the single texts
held in Jai Singhs II bookshelves, stories and legends 66 concerning his life could stimulate the
visitors attention. Mindful visitors will then be more receptive to compare legends with scientific
versions of the same fact. This will ensure a comprehensive presentation and an opportunity to
provoke further reflections.
2
Jai Singhs built heritage: Jantar Mantar(s), Jaipur, Amber palace embellishments,
Jal Mahal, outskirts gardens
The message aim is to provide an interpretation of the built heritage created under Jai Singhs
reign as expression, in artistic terms, of the main maharajas features. Interpretation should thus
focus and highlight for each artefact constituting the Raipurs built heritage those characters that
speak about Jai Singhs willing to give prestigious to his realm through artistic enhancement and
embellishments, underling also his vocation for mixing Hindi traditional elements with Mogul style.
3
Jai Singh inheritance: art, crafts and trade vocation of a city
The founder king of the city had rightly foreseen the value of the human resources in the
development of the city as a growth centre and invited at the initial stage of the city building, people
and their families who excelled in certain trades. Today Jaipur is known for these activities. The
city, therefore, witnesses the careful planning of the sites of the shops, and they are arranged in
each rectangular city centres.
The old city is the major location of such activities and 60 per cent of the arts and craft skills are
inherited. The gems and exquisite handmade jewellery with gold and enamelled with precious
stones designed in unique in styles known as Meenakari and Kundan, have elevated Jaipur to a
tourist paradise. The blue potteries are internationally known for the shape, size and glaze; the
carvings of wood, ivory and marble statues and miniature paintings are adored by tourists of all
times; colourful textiles, tie and die fabrics and block prints and the colourful costumes worn by
men and women that meet the eyes on all sides in Jaipur .Each of those components within the
general framework provided in the previous chapter 67, has to be communicated encouraging
66

Here we are referring, for instance, to the story about the meeting between the young maharaja and the Mogul
emperor Aurangzeb who gave him the title of Sawai; or the story about Jain Singh seeing in a dream Govindevji
(Krishna) who tells to him to want to live in the Jai Niwas.
67
See chapter 5, par. 5.5

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

visitors to notice and explore the things around them and should draw attention to all those specific
features that can be seen, touched, heard, smelled or tasted.
THEME 2: THE COSMOLOGIES OF A CITY
The theme will be developed mainly around a set of messages that can be proposed under form of
questions in order to result more stimulating. The messages will integrate the meaning behind the
Jaipur foundation and its urban layout and its urban and architectural features, including built
heritage:
MESSAGES

1
Which reasons and aspects led to the towns plan?
The contents of this message should include:
Practical reasons concerning the congestion of Amber, the problems of water poisoning
and the land constraints for trade development
Jai Singhs passion for astronomy and cartography
Jai Singhs peculiarity to merge Hindu traditions (Vaastu Shastra) with Mogul style (Jai
Niwas charbagh)
Jai Singhs political and economical aspiration for its reign
2
How was the overall layout conceived?
The contents of this massage should include all theories about the determination of land markers
and urban layout:
Theory of nine squares mandalas (Volwahsen; Sachdev & Tillotson) -> Purusha
(centre=Brahma) or Pithapada (centre=Maharaja)
Theory of seven squares (Aman Nath)
Jai Niwas as key element and squares rotation of 45(Papillaut) -> underline the role of
Jantar Mantar instruments; reproduction of charbagh layout within the city
The temples as land markers (Shikha Jain)
3
Does a hierarchy between streets exist?
Streets hierarchy (danda as traditional unit for measuring):
-traditional vision -> 99m for chaupar, 33m for bazaar; 16,5 m for internal street
-hierarchy interpretation (Papillaut) -> bazaar east-west; bazaars north-south; primary inner
distribution; secondary inner distribution; gali for inner access
4
Whats the relation between the urban layout and the social layout?
The reorganization of the royal household into specialist karkhanas (workshops or departments)
was modelled on the Mogul system. Jai Singh however used vernacular terms and set up thirty six
karkhanas. The objective of establishing the departments was to provide patronage to scholars,
poets, writers, musicians, dancers and craftspeople of various description, support them in their
respective vocations and ensure a steady output of utility items, arts and crafts useful to the state
to its security, prestige and growth.
The social fabric is defined by the names of the streets, such as the Thatheron ka Rasta that
groups together low income group artisans (brass workers or thatheras). These historic definitions
continue till date, with existing examples of the same occupational patterns being followed from
generation to generation, passing on the traditional knowledge systems.
The message should also refer to the social distribution by setting people according to jati (caste)
within the city layout in terms of mohallas as concept for community with professional and social
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

bonds. Mentioning plot dimension following Prasara and Vaastu principles and localization of the
main traditional activities (spice market, brass makers, bangles makers, sculptures).
The messages will be enriched with further descriptions of the urban composition, from mohallas to
different typologies of havelis, temples, walls and gates and overview on the built heritage of
Jaipur.
ADDITIONAL MESSAGES:
Within the frame on the two main themes, additional messages can be conveyed discharging the
sustainable mission of sensitization towards social and environmental issues that interpretation has
to carry on. Hence, either within the message 3 of theme 1, or the message 4 of theme 2, the
communication should encompass information about today socio-economic dynamics issues linked
to poor working conditions of craftsmen in the productive reality of India compared with eastern
world illustrating also social support programmes and initiatives like social cooperatives helping
womens liberation or poor people benefits, should stimulate and encourage reflections and
responsible attitudes, both as a part of tourism promotion and Poverty Reduction programme. It
should also form an integral part of the tourism literature, printed and electronic. This could
become a major opportunity to the development of ethnic products and policies in Jaipur.
Further additional messages could come holding meeting with the local communities that can
provide interpretation team of more contents in order to stimulate and provoke reflections about the
others reality.

THEMES
1

THE
ASTRONOMER
MAHARAJA

COSMOLOGIES
OF A CITY

MESSAGES
1 JAI SINGHS LIFE
2

JAI SINGHS BUILT HERITAGE

TRADE VOCATION OF JAIPUR

REASONS AND ASPECTS OF TOWNS PLAN

ORIGIN OF THE OVERALL URBAN LAYOUT

HIERARCHY OF STREETS

THE SOCIAL LAYOUT

ADDITIONAL
MESSAGES

The above themes and messages has to be developed following the principles of all good
communication and taking into account researches and guidelines about mindful visitor and what
helps human beings pay attention to, take interest in, and remember new information or ideas.
Therefore, the four most important communication principles that have to be taken into account
are:
getting attention
making it enjoyable
making communication relevant to intended audience
giving it a structure
All contents should includes maps, plans, drawings, 3 dimensional representations, graphic
animation and digital images including ancient text, plans integrating text. Once created,
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

interpretation contents should be digitalized in order to be presented through a range of media


including touch screens, mobile phones and websites.
6.3 WHO IS IT FOR: AUDIENCE TYPOLOGY
From principle 1 of ICOMOS Interpretation and
Presentation Charter:
Interpretation and presentation programmes
should identify and assess their audiences
demographically and culturally. Every effort
should be made to communicate the sites
values and significance to its varied
audiences.
Together with the assessment of the existing
interpretation, this is a task that has to be
carried out at the early stage of the
interpretation project to make sure that the
information provided to tourists is at the
appropriate level and that all interpretative
media are targeted for the whole range of
audiences typologies.
A systematic audience survey should y carried
out planning a controlled system that allows
collecting a significant number of data for a
reliable assessment. The survey should aim to
assess the main factors, such as age,
Fig. 53: Foreign and domestic tourist in Jaipur (photo by
nationality and knowledge of the subject as well
DRONAH)
as the reasons and expectation of the visit. After
considering all the known factors, a profile of the intended audience can be created, allowing
designing interpretative tools able to make the audience understanding.
Acknowledgement of the tourist as citizen encourages the expansion of participatory approaches
to heritage management beyond closed communities to include them among visitors.
Moreover, recognizing visitors as citizens, thus as necessarily important participants in the worldwide conservation movement, can contribute to the safeguard of the heritage. It is necessary to
establish approaches to cultural heritage management that ensure tourists are engaged as active
supporters of cultural heritage conservation and preservation.
Therefore, in planning the interpretation project, it is essential to understand the audience types in
order to tailor the interpretation meeting their needs. Undertaking surveys will tell who visitors are
and why they come.
The following shows how interpretation may be provided for a range of common audiences:
General visitors layer the interpretation so that it offers something for everyone regardless of
their knowledge, ability or interest in a subject
Local people interpret the particular local significance of heritage asset, and possibly also
involve them in planning and implementing the scheme.
Children provide activities, games and interactive displays using simple language in a bright,
lively and fun design style and which appeal to families.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Repeat visitors provide changing displays that offer something new on a regular basis.
Specialist interest visitors provide interpretation options containing more detailed, in-depth
material such as printed fact sheets.
Formal learning groups tie the content to national curricula or to the learning programmes of
further, higher and adult education.
If wish to attract new audiences, interpretation should be specifically provided for them. This is
particularly relevant to encourage audiences who may previously have been excluded or underrepresented at your site, such as people from ethnic minority cultures, young people and people on
low incomes. For such groups it should be considered the advantages of live interpretation by
peers, for example an interpreter from a minority culture for an audience from the same group.
6.4 HOW: MESSAGE MEDIA MATRIX AND MEDIA
The plan is to propose the best interpretative media to convey the messages by reviewing
traditional as well as innovative methods of interpretation.
In order to achieve this objective an useful tool, adopted by DRONAH organization both within the
Implementation Plans for Udaipurs City Palace Complex and for Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, is the so
called Message Media Matrix (fig. 55) By filling the cells generated from crossing interpretative
media and messages, modalities of communication are addressed towards intended audiences.
Thus, the outreach is an overview on the key point of the Interpretation Plan.
As mentioned, the methodology foresees the adoption of three levels of interpretation (pre-visit; onsite; repeat visit) for which specific set of media has been proposed.
PRE-VISIT:
In order to provide to future visitors a more aware
and thus responsible experience of Jaipur city and
its surrounding 68, marketing campaign has to be
integrated with interpretative issues. The level of
available pre-visit information is extremely low, so
more attention is required on the on-line diffusion of
interpretative contents and tools.
WEB SITE:
Currently the only existing web site entirely giving
an overview about Jaipur history and built heritage,
providing also general data about figures population
and topography, is JMC web site through a small
section on the home page. Information concerning
art and crafts tradition is available in terms of text
and few pictures in the Department of Tourism web
site which is, generally speaking, visually
overloaded and confusing.

Fig 54: Website of virtual tour of Nafplio in Greece,


provides the possibility to choose the sites and having for
each of them, interpretation text, virtual tour and pictures

68

Please note that the purpose has not to be increasing visitors number as sustainable tourism is not about the
quantity of people travelling but the quality of their experience which depends also from their travel attitude.
Interpretation tools have to work also to address tourist attitude towards sustainable and responsible directions.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Message Media Matrix

Fig. 55: Message Media Matrix

Carrying forward the objectives outlined, the Message-Media matrix has been used as a tool for
addressing the three main aspects, namely:
1. What messages should the site impart?
2. Who are the messages for?
3. How to communicate the messages in the best possible manner?
These three aspects have been elaborated and built upon in the interpretation plan.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

It seems evident the necessity of a website providing a clear interpretation of the Walled city and
its surrounding through text, audio support, graphical supports, animations, panoramic pictures and
virtual tours. Audio tours, trail leaflets, educational resources, calendar of activities and events
such as the larger amount of documentation available should be downloadable resources.
miniature books which are ideal for providing self-guided trails. Specific sections linked with QRcode, available also in outdoor interpretative panels, incorporate maps, images and a small
amount of text to create a series of pages which can be flicked through the screen of a mobile
phone or MP3 player.
INTERPRETATIVE CENTRE: see the following paragraph 6.5.
ON-SITE:
All interpretation on-site should be provided with the presumption that the visitor has no prior
knowledge of the city and has no pre-visit information or resources available to them. It is therefore
extremely important to provide an introduction to the site and orientation signage with maps
showing direction towards the centre, in the main points of arrival such as railway station and bus
terminals. Specifically railway station and airport should be equipped with info touristic points with
trained staff, English speaking, providing information and printed resources such as maps,
calendar events, etc.
HERITAGE WALKS:
It is a successful initiative born in Calcutta at the beginning
of 90s from an idea of Mr. Debashish Nayak and later
spread over the whole country. A heritage walk through a
selected segment of a city aims at showcasing one of the
most authentic representations of a citys historic, cultural
and architectural heritage. It gives a holistic experience to
the international and domestic tourists and rejuvenates a
sense of pride amongst the residents, including school
students and youth. A heritage walk is also an important
tool for urban renewal of the city. By developing a tourist
itinerary through a most representative historical fabric of a
city, it is intended to incite a number of ancillary projects
that support economic regeneration of the area and
encourage the municipal authorities to address long term
sustainability issues. These could include: improved
conditions for the local craftsmen, local restaurants and
accommodation facilities for the tourists, developing a
community area or even infrastructure projects for
improved drainage, solid waste management or rain water
harvesting with participation of the residents along the
walk. Thus a heritage walk, a part from providing a mutual
cultural exchange and enrichment between local people
and visitors, raising the awareness of one toward the other,
can be a micro project that addresses wider heritage
conservation issues related to the city and, constitutes a

Fig. 56: From the top: manufacturing lac


bangles; local small scale food stalls (photos
by DRONAH)

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Heritage walks initiatives carried


out during the past five years
namely developed by the Jaipur
Municipal Corporation and Jaipur
Virasat Foundation together with
DRONAH.
The first two initiatives focused
on the Chowkri Modikhana while
the last project saw the
extension of the initiative over
the whole walled city including
one heritage walk in Amber.
Within the last attempt a total of
five thematic walks have been
developed to provide a wider
opportunity to local community
inclusiveness such as a wider
variety of possibility for tourists to
choose the topic closer to their
interests.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

model for the conservation of the whole citys heritage.


Jaipur local NGOs such as Jaipur Virasat
Foundation and DRONAH proposed and put
into practice the initiative several times. In
2007 the proposal for a heritage walk in
chowkri Modikhana has been presented to
local community in order to obtain their
feedback during an exhibition held at the time
of Rajasthan Festival in Jaipur. This single
proposal has been later developed in a set of
five thematic walks: four walks within the
walled city and one walk in Amber.
The itineraries proposed by the two organizer
NGOs are based on the survey works
undertaking the mapping of the social
activities and the inventory of the historical
buildings of the areas, along with the listing of
infrastructure development needs. These is
scope for revitalization of local informal
entrepreneurial set ups through the heritage
walk as in the case of small scale food stalls
Fig. 57: Thatheras at work in Thatheron ka Rasta and Nanga
and craft retail existing in the areas.
Thatheron Ki Gali, continuity of traditional craft over generations
Despite the success of the initiative, set up (photo by DRONAH)
without profit purpose, the lack of financial
support from public institution made it ending. Nowadays similar initiatives are carried out by
private organizations having as main purpose economical revenues instead of cultural scopes.
Therefore, the Interpretation plan should aim towards the re-enhancement of previous initiatives
developing auto-sustainable structure in economic terms and the integration among the
comprehensive and coordinated set of strategies of actions.
GUIDED AND INDIVIDUAL TOURS AND TRAILS:
Tours and trails outside the walled city should be created in order to achieve a holistic
understanding of Jaipur city foundation and current reality. Itinerary should include either the main
sites involved into the foundation of the city, and other thematic itineraries such as gardens and
fortifications. Extending the interpretation visits also to the surrounding areas will also contribute to
decentralize the touristic flows within a contained area providing a better distribution of tourism
benefits to the outskirt economic realities. This initiative has to be followed by the preparation of
planned actions aiming to facilitate a larger touristic circuit through the creation of transport
services, facilities and devised trails. These could mark the locations where visitors can get
pictures views through telescopes and interpret the same mean interpretative signage added on
site. Trails should be open to all visitors and should be taken by visitors by themselves with the aid
of a brochure. Trails specially aimed at junior educational groups and promoted as a special
package for children should also be planned. Special trails for differently abled (ambulatory and
semi-ambulatory disabilities) should be proposed to guarantee interpretation and access to all
types of visitors, therefore equipping means of transportation with appropriate devices for
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

wheelchairs. The area surrounding Jaipur offers potentiality to develop nature and adventure trails:
Revitalization and Waterfront Development of Aman-I-Shah Nallah is a proposal that presents an
engaging waterfront development for the
historic natural heritage of the Amanishah
ka Nallah that can add to the environmental
up-gradation of the city and enhance the
aesthetic experience for residents by
developing recreational and eco friendly
public spaces along the water body. For
this purpose it is necessary to equip the
itineraries in order to guarantee the
maximum of safety and understanding.
GUIDES AND STAFF TRAINING:
Licensed guides have to be trained not only
in the interpretation of the significance and
experience of the site but also on
communication
techniques
with
an
evaluation program to monitor their
performance through visitor feedback.
Being a good live interpreter is quite a skill
and involves a range of techniques that can
be learned and practiced. It will also need
to have a good knowledge of the subject to
be interpreted, and be able to handle a
number of visitor-related issues including
health and safety, customer care and
Fig. 58: Proposal for Amanishah Nallah Greenway in Jaipur. (source
Mukesh Mittal - Gov. of Rajasthan)
disability awareness.
Making mindful visitors is the first aim of the guide. Involving visitors mentioning something to
which they can refer help to address the attention. For instance, mentioning that that there are
evidences that show the European travellers compared the neatness and sanitation system of the
city to that of London and its symmetry to that of the Kremlin 69 can create a connection with
European visitors stimulating a mindful attitude.
SIGNAGE:
Signage as a whole covers interpretive, directional, location and emergency signage. The signage
design is to be long lasting, integrate use of local materials as far as possible and address the
needs of all visitor types. It must adhere to the concept of Universal Design which aims to design
things and places to be as usable as possible by as many people as possible. This means that
interpretation for people with intellectual, sensory and physical disabilities should be integrated into
a scheme rather than being presented as special or separate.

69

Lall S., Urban Tourism and Poverty Reduction, A Case Study of Jaipur City in India , Society for Development Studies,
2003, p.2

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

For the differently abled,


adequate information (both
written
and
pictograms)
should be provided which
benefits all including the
people
with
hearing
impairment. To cater to the
needs of visually impaired,
speakers, tactile plaques or
sensorial trails should be
provided wherein location
continuously providing for
navigation.
The signage will be bilingual
(Hindi
and
English)
throughout.
Defined
standards
for
signage size, style and
Fig. 59: Proposed street signage designs and better interpretation of the streets to guide
placement has to be used as
the visitor and inculcate a sense of pride in the residents by DRONAH (source: IHCN,
references for the signage
Walking into the microcosm of Jaipur, op.cit., p. 85)
design.
INTERPRETATIVE PANELS: The content of interpretive signage would be developed by the
interpretation team and would be aimed at being simplified and in a conversational tone, to
address maximum visitors.
The text can be integrated with simple and explicative graphical elements such as maps or
drawings. They should be clear and easily understood being visually stimulating and having a clear
relationship with the text complementing it, or with what your visitors can see. Panels can as be
designed as tactile media both addressed to children and/or visually impaired people.
The interpretive signage is to cover signage for all heritage building within and outside the walled
city.
ORIENTATION SIGNAGE: Following the same technical standards and the same design of
interpretative panels, orientation signage has
to be placed in the crucial points of the city
including railway and bus stations.
AUDIO VISUAL SHOWS:
An audio visual show interpreting Themes 1
and 2 should be integrated in the interpretation
centre.
Live audio visual shows such as the traditional
storytelling, puppets shows and performances
conveying stories connected with the walled
city and the primary and secondary themes
could be introduced as part of the events
calendar, to encourage the local performing art

Fig. 60: Traditional Rajasthani puppets show. (photo


Tapanmallick)

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

traditions. Some of these could be integrated


with the proposed trail for children, to be
organized on request for large junior school
groups.
Contents of sound and light show currently
taking place at Jantar Mantar have to be
revised and aligned with Walled city
interpretation for the part concerning it.
EVENTS AND OUTREACH:
The events and outreach strategy aims to
integrate all existing and proposed activities in
a single annual calendar which is easily
communicated to the diversified participants.
Fig. 61: Sound and Light show in Jantar Mantar (photo by
DRONAH)
A conceptual framework for this purpose has
to be prepared aiming to create innovative
programming for enhanced visitor experience geared toward audience development with the
following objectives:
Create engaging experiences for a diverse mix of visitors leading to audience development
Generate greater donor support
Foster strong sense of ownership of program among staff by the integration of the proposed
outreach programs (part of the larger interpretation plan) with the festivals (ongoing annual
events), a formidable and consolidated annual event calendar can be created.

Fig. 62: Gangaur Festival in Jaipur (photo mabellephoto)

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Each festival will include planned activities art and crafts market, cultural performances and
training modules. The festive activities will be publicized with adequate lead time allowing greater
participation to collateral events.
Outreach programs should cater for local, national and international needs that integrate with
existing events reflecting continuity. The benefits of interpretation will percolate down to all those
actors and fields connected with the running of the interpretive program.
Dedicated efforts will need to be made to arrange for sponsorship of large segments of the
interpretive program through a cooperative venture with the local stakeholders and government
bodies.
The lean period for international tourist arrivals could be used as opportunities for events
(workshops, training, performances, awareness generation programs) targeting the local
community and creating a stronger dialogue of the site with the residents of the city.
The outreach program will be developed in three categories:
Specialist programs for purpose of study (lecture and enquiry base)
Educational programs for purpose of education and study
Inspirational programs for purpose of enjoyment and education.
These programs would target various
groups such as researchers, scholars,
academicians, school and college
students, professionals, artists, guides,
craftsmen and tourists, interacting with
the local community directly or
indirectly.
Several typologies of workshops can be
proposed:
educational
workshops
between heritage professionals, the
host and students; multi-disciplinary
collaborative arts and crafts workshops;
folklore and storytelling workshops with
school students; design workshops with
Fig. 63: Workshop held in Anouki museum, Amber (photo V.Megna)
art and architecture students and
professionals; puppet workshops with international puppeteers and traditional performers; etc.
En example to repeat and take into account for further events organization could be the
photography, model making and drawing competition of school children and cultural night that have
been organized in Jantar Mantar on the occasion of World Tourism Day in September 2010.
CARRYING HOME MATERIAL:
This category of media includes also publications and merchandising. Brand consultancy to
develop ideas for brand communication and exploring publications and heritage merchandise
opportunities has to be part of interpretation programme. Also, it is important to offer products with
a range of pricing that caters to visitors with varying income levels.
Brochures and tickets that the visitor gets free at info tourism points or on purchase of tickets and
otherwise, are mainly for the purpose of orientation of the visitor within the walled city - providing a
schematic map - and city offerings, but are also means of direct and indirect interpretation along
with visitors amenities and heritage walks, trails and museums.
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Within the Interpretation planning work and subsequently the realization of Interpretation centre, a
specific publication could be carried out in order to provide a new contribute to the literary world
about Jaipur. Publications for children such as for visually impaired (audio books) should be
explored and developed.
Post cards and posters could be provided and sold at the interpretation centre shop or in Albert
Hall museum or in City Palace museum
REPEAT VISIT:
If a visit has been successful and fulfilling as an experience then there will be a greater likelihood
of a repeat visit. Therefore, it is important to ensure from the first visit a comprehensive overview
about the several opportunities that Jaipur offers in terms of cultural and natural enjoyment
promoting their significance and the provision of facilities linked to them. Once this has been
achieved to encourage further visits and a greater frequency of visits by the same visitors there are
other measures which will need to be employed. One method is to incorporate a level of adaptive
interpretation by sequential events created in occasion of particular dates (during festivals) and
based on storylines having as subject lectures on topics derived from the different interpretation
about the urban layout i.e. influence of astronomy on urban planning in ancient civilizations.
6.5 INTERPRETATION CENTRE
Even if well defined by the surrounding wall, the historic core of Jaipur is a wide area that does not
allow a clear overview of its urban structure and of its historical urban development traces. For
these reason, as suggested by many references around the world, the Interpretation Plan should
encompass the creation of an Interpretation Centre.
The concept for the Centre should be driven by the identified themes and messages that could
provide a contextual understanding and appreciation of the significance of the city and explaining
its history and value.
The centre should be housed in one of the historical building within the Walled City. Indeed, the
integration of this new function within an existing infrastructure follows the principles expressed at
the last General Assembly of ICOMOS: The use of old buildings of heritage value should be in the
development of new urban infrastructure. Moreover, the adaptation of heritage to new functions
related to cultural development of cities is a
good way to implement sustainable
tourism 70.
If re-planning of the two museums of Jaipur the Albert Hall museum, City Palace and the
small Shree Sanjay Sharma Museum - with
more communication and interpretation tools,
can turn them into heritage resource centres,
the integration of a Jaipur Interpretation
centre could take place into the Sawai Man
Singh Town Hall which is currently being
converted into a world class museum and
exhibition area, representative of Rajasthan's Fig. 64: Sawai Man Singh Town Hall (photo tapanmallick)
history.
70

ICOMOS, Heritage a Driver of Development , proceedings of XVII General Assembly Symposium Paris 2011 p.18

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Fig. 65: Selected view of proposal, Auditorium and media display for Sawai Man Singh Town Hall Museum (Refer Schematic
Design Package, LORD Cultural Resources)

The new function hosted inside the mid 19th century two-storied structure would help in attracting
more visitors and also integrate it with other heritage structures included in the Walled City area.
The proposed programme of the new museum already encompasses the following aim: "the
exhibitions at the museum would tell the story of Jaipur with an emphasis on the regional and
historical aspects of Rajasthan, and include a gallery dedicated to children and families [] There
would be a life-size touch screen model of the city to depict its development from the time of
maharajas to the present scenario. It would have a conservation lab with artefacts from all over
Rajasthan and a dynamic gallery where artists can display their works at a nominal fee," the
source added. The main assembly hall with the help of multi-media software would acquaint the
tourists with the entire concept of the museum and elaborate on the details of the various sections
besides explaining in detail about the features of Jantar Mantar. 71
The integration of a Jaipur Interpretative Centre within the new museum seems therefore a feasible
proposal. An alternative solution should in any case, encompass the integration of interpretation
themes and messages concerning the Walled City within the communicative contents proposed by
the new museum.
The Centre core will be based on the history, the heritage and the meanings of the Walled City as
a whole. It is this interesting mix of history, heritage and significances, supported by the identified
vision and objectives of the Interpretative Plan that provides for the concept for the Centre. The
Centre should act as a focal point of reference for the Walled City, helping to orientate people both
physically and intellectually. It will seek to explain the significance of the urban landscape within

71

Rachna Singh, TNN, Interactive museum to come up near Jantar Mantar, Mar 7, 2011
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-07/jaipur/28665762_1_jantar-mantar-interactive-museumplanning-commission

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

the social development of Jaipur, and the way in which the social system of casts has impacted
upon the landscape from the past to the present day.
At the same time, it will allow comparisons and connections to be made
between Jaipur and other Indian historical cities - given awareness about
the IHC network - particularly those related to urban development and
heritage.
The Centre should bring together information in digital format relating to
the history and heritage of Jaipur, from a wide variety of sources but
especially from the local community. It should provide a rich variety of
programmed outputs around the idea of story-telling, which will be
designed to engage with its target key markets among which are the local
community, education and lifelong learning audiences. It should make use
of the new digital technologies to bring resources together in virtual terms
to inform its programmes. The Centre should represent a physical
expression of the Walled city brand and its values.
The role of the Centre will not simply be to tell the story of Jaipur
foundation, as this can give the impression that the Centre is onedirectional (from us to them) and that it has a monopoly of
understanding. Rather, it will provide multiple opportunities and multiple
Fig.66: Example of touch
choices - on-site, off-site and on-line for people to participate in and screen device for
contribute to the Centres work in the context of the site. In these ways, it interpretation centres
will help visitors to contribute to the Centres data and to explore and engage with the resources
that illustrate the history, the different interpretations and the heritage of the city. One of the
challenges facing the Centre is to show and display not just a single story but the many different
meanings and messages that the city hold, seen from many different perspectives. In this respect,
the Centre should act as a facilitator rather than a teacher. The visitor or users role is one of
explorer and discoverer. At the same time, the Centre will inspire interest in the stories being
presented in order to build and maintain audience interest.
The idea of programming is a powerful one, because it puts a strong emphasis on change and
renewal and this encourages repeat and regular visitation, particularly by the local community, a
key audience for sustainability reasons.
The approaches to story-telling will encompass a number of different activities such as:
Innovative technologies: touch screen fitted to the inside of the centres window will allow visitors
to manipulate a computer display to obtain the answer to their specific enquiry, even if they are not
adept at using the various functions of their mobile phone;
temporary exhibitions;
conferences and seminars;
workshops and classes.
Additional interpretative material could include:
3D models of havelis and temples typologies should be designed for visually impaired people
(and others) to feel and thereby understand a building or landscape.
Simplified models of havelis and mohallas dismountable in their main parts as interpretative toys
for children

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

INTERPRETATION CENTRE IN BELGIUM AS REFERENCES

Digitalized historic plans of Jaipur ->1711; 1734; 1775; 1884-85;1925; + projection paintings
reproducing Jaipur;
Interpretative plans -> graphic animations of drawings synthesizing the different theories about
the origin of the urban layout.
Ultimately, the story of the Walled City is the story of its inhabitants. It is through that story that the
history and heritage of the Walled City will be brought alive for visitors and users, therefore local
community need to be represented and illustrated directly or indirectly, through permanent or
temporary exhibitions to underlying the cultural and human impact and significance that each
community has within the development of its own territory.
EXPERIENCE BRUSSELS EXHIBITION:
AN EXHIBITION FOR EVERYONE, EDUCATIONAL, FUN AND
INTERACTIVE, WHICH PRESENTS THE BRUSSELS CAPITAL-REGION
FROM EVERY ANGLE, IN A SINGLE PLACE AND IN A SINGLE STAGE.
THROUGH A SCENOGRAPHY ACCESSIBLE TO EVERYONE, THE
EXHIBITION SHOWS AND EXPLAINS TO VISITORS HOW BRUSSELS
URBAN DEVELOPMENT IS ORGANISED, WHO THE PEOPLE OF
BRUSSELS ARE, WHO WORKS IN BRUSSELS, WHAT IT HAS TO OFFER
IN THE WAY OF CULTURE, WHAT ITS SPECIFIC FEATURES AND
CHARACTERISTICS ARE, ITS FLAVOURS, ITS ACCENTS, ITS CUSTOMS
AND ITS ECCENTRICITIES. ALSO AN INTERACTIVE EXHIBITION WHERE
EVERYONE CAN TEST THEIR KNOWLEDGE, LEARN, DISCOVER
THINGS, IMPROVE THEIR MIND, HAVE FUN ON THEIR OWN OR AS A
FAMILY.

HALLES SAINT-GRY, BRUSSELS:


THE INFORMATION AND EXHIBITION CENTRE
HALLES SAINT-GRY IS LOCATED WITHIN
THE HISTORIC CENTRE OF BRUSSELS IN THE
ARCHITECTURE OF THE COVER MARKET BUILT
IN 1881 WHERE ONCE WAS THE GOTHIC
CHURCH OF SAINT-GRY DESTROYED IN
1798. THE CENTRE IS DEDICATED TO THE
HERITAGE OF BRUSSELS ILLUSTRATED
THROUGH INFORMATION PANELS AND
MULTIMEDIA SUPPORTS EXPLAINING THE
EVOLUTION OF THE URBAN CONTEXT.

TOURIST OFFICE GHENT:


THE OFFICE, LOCATED WITHIN THE HISTORIC CENTRE OF GHENT,
IS BASED ON A HIGH-TECH CONCEPT TO WELCOME TOURISTS.

THE SHOWPIECE IS THE CENTRALLY LOCATED MULTIMEDIA DATA


TABLE, WHICH VISITORS CAN USE TO REQUEST INFORMATION
ABOUT GHENT THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOUCH TECHNOLOGY.
INFORMATION IS PRESENTED IN ACCESSIBLE MANNER, ALSO FOR
PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL OR VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS.

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

EXAMPLES OF INTERPRETATIVE GRAPHICAL CONTENTS

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

6.6 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND PREVIOUS INITIATIVES: THE ROLE OF NGOs


Community participation leads to a wide range of benefits both for the project in which it is involved
and for itself. Looking for inclusiveness of local community the interpretation project will increase its
range of skills, knowledge and experience, getting richness, new perspectives and new ideas or
ways of working. Meanwhile, the project has to ensure that it reflects local needs, represents
communities in a sensitive way and avoids negative impacts.
For the other hand the collaboration of local community should lead to transfer skills and
experience to other community projects and activities, linking people together far from a feeling of
isolation from institutions and public interest. Inclusiveness in a project that aims to enhance the
recognition of the heritage value leads to strengthen local pride, getting people learning about and
enjoying their local heritage. The direct effect of this is people taking action to look after heritage
assets with also major precautions in using it.
Community participation work can allow each individual to contribute, and give enough data to
allow an objective appraisal of the value that a community gives to its multi-faceted heritage
resources. This helps to ensure the possibility to have within the collaboration the same stature for
each group or individual, despite social status, caste, family, profession etc.
Local community should be involved from the inception of the preparation of interpretation plan.
This might be carried out through a series of focus groups, workshops or public meetings at which
discussing the significance and meaning of the urban layout such as of the cultural and built
heritage asset and inviting their thoughts and contributions.
The developing phase of the interpretation contents might include the preparation of scripts or
quotes for interpretive panels and interpretation centres displays, or community illustrations such
as a visual representation of the features of a local chowkri.
The outcome of seminars or workshops of arts projects and activities could become part of the
interpretation. A good example would be an artist working with a school group to create an
interpretive mosaic about a site.
Often community consultation will confirm what experts might say, but by involving the community
the plan will have more support, and agencies may feel more able to support it.
A number of conservation projects and programmes have been already undertaken in the city
supported by UNESCO New Delhi Office, the World Monuments Fund (WMF) and government
departments such as the Department of Art and Culture, Amber Development and Management
Authority, Jaipur Municipal Corporation and Rajasthan Urban Infrastructure Development Project
(RUIDP). Most of these initiatives have been promoted and carried out by local NOGs involved
since years in the safeguard of tangible and intangible heritage as well as in community
participation, sustainable tourism development and poverty reduction.
We already mentioned the initiative of heritage walks for which during its preparation phase, an
important part was devoted by JVF to make contacts with local communities, explaining them the
projects and asking for their feedback.
The Jaipur Virasat Foundation works mainly for the enhancement and preservation of the
intangible heritage of Rajasthan being the main promoter and supporting local festivals in villages
around the state and in Jaipur: Our primary focus is on the large number of people in rural
Rajasthan and its urban settlements who have traditional values, arts, crafts and knowledge and
struggle for life security and dignity in today's fast changing world. We address issues of poverty
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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

and marginalization. We use creativity and skills to generate new opportunities for livelihood and
create demand for inherited skills and traditional knowledge.
Vikas & Virasat is an innovative pilot program for social development and economic transformation
in Rajasthan, to be implemented over four years with continuous review and monitoring. It sets out
to conserve and reposition heritage resources, to strengthen a people-based, modern economy
that is inclusive, sustainable and adaptable to changing circumstances.
Jaipur is the first Indian city with a plan for the
streetscape and architectural control of facades
along the main axis of the city. The conservation of
the Walled city of Jaipur initiated in July 2009 with
a pilot project for faade control & restoration for
the main bazaars from Chaura Rasta Tripoliya
Bazaar Jauhari Bazaar Bapu Bazaar. This falls
within the wider framework of JNNURM Urban
Renewal project for the city and has been carried
out by DRONAH.
The DRONAH is the acronym of Development and
research Organization For Nature, Arts and
Heritage. It is an interdisciplinary organization
consisting of highly motivated professionals from
various fields who shared a vision for a better
quality of life and thus working on three main
fields: built heritage, ecology and environment,
community. The organization collaborates with
several partners including all the local and state
authorities involved in its areas of expertise such
as UNESCO office in New Delhi, Jaipur Municipal
Corporation,
INTACH, Jaipur
Development
Authority and recently IHCN for which the
DRONAH director, Dr. Shikha Jain wrote the
publication Walking into the microcosm of Jaipur.
Within the main projects carried out by DRONAH,
a part the Urban Design and Faade Control for
Jaipur Walled City, there are Nomination Dossier
Fig. 67: JVF initiatives: from the top: Ger dance,
and Management Plan for the Jantar Mantar in
collaborated with UK percussionistPete Lockett, Dharohar
project (photos by JVF)
Jaipur for nomination as UNESCO World Heritage
Site, same documents prepared for Hill Forts and
Step wells of Rajasthan for proposed serial nomination for nomination as UNESCO World Heritage
Site; the Heritage Management Plan of Jaipur, an initiative of the Jaipur Heritage Committee
(JHERICO), Government of Rajasthan, (Joint Project with JVF); conservation Master Plan for the
City Palace Complex, Udaipur; renovation of M.I. Road and the restoration work at Ghat Ki Guni,
Jaipur to Amber Development and Management Authority (AD&MA), Jaipur.

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Fig. 68: Proposals for signage and street furniture (Refer Urba Guidelines for Walled City of Jaipur) drawings by DRONAH

Indeed, the role of local NGOs and their professional support through high specialized teams, it is
crucial for the quality of a project and the guarantee of the outcome. The several initiatives carried
out in the context of heritage preservation in Jaipur demonstrate the potentiality that the city holds
in terms of professional resources.
In the - heritage - tourism development field the present top-down approach is leading to great
social stress at the local level that could be mitigated by involving local NGOs in the decisionmaking process going toward the formulation of more appropriate strategy for tourism
development.

6.7 ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS


Interpretation teams work
As tool able to link tourism phenomenon with heritage preservation and sustainable development,
the interpretation work about the Walled city of Jaipur has to take the opportunity to illustrate to
visitors the most common and unexpected features created within the foundation of the innovative
urban system of Jaipur in 1727. Exploring the way in which issues currently affecting the city, had
been addressed 250 years ago and finding the right way to communicate it in an appealing manner
will not just contribute to raise knowledge or awareness about a certain topic but it will also fulfil the
duty of heritage preservation concerning its role in the future. The awareness of a past that can
give us hope and inspiration to address contemporary circumstances, that otherwise could seem
ineluctable and inescapable, is the pivotal significance of efforts made for heritage preservation.
If conserving the memory of ancient know-how is the first step to achieve this purpose, presenting
the meaning and the value of those tangible and intangible witnesses is the following one. The real
sense of what we call heritage 72 is to be understood as human achievement both in positive and
negative (i.e. battle fields) terms. Past is a lesson to learn to go ahead in the most sustainable way
towards a real progress.

72

Here we are specifically referring to human artifacts and intangible issues, although in some way natural heritage
can have the same function.

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Environmental sustainability:
In a place like India were management and recycle of solid waste is a growing issue that find many
difficulties in practical application also as a cultural attitude, it is necessary to inform any plan and
initiative in the light of sustainability and friendly environmental notion.
Hence, also in developing interpretation plan it is possible to contribute to this scope considering
some issue. For instance:
When choosing materials and manufacturers, use local suppliers so long as their quality is good
enough;
Build the interpretation to last by combining a high specification, high quality and durable
infrastructure (such as panel frames, audio equipment and display cabinets) with easily updateable
content (such as graphic panels, audio files and objects on display). In this way when will be
required to change part of the display it will not be necessary to manufacture everything again;
High-quality specifications will also mean lower financial and environmental costs when it comes
to maintenance and repairs;
Use recycled materials (e.g. timber, stone, glass, metal or complete display cabinets) as far as
possible;
Use local and natural materials as far as possible;
For publications use chlorine-free recycled paper printed either digitally or by a litho print
company that recycles its aluminium printing plates;
Use low-energy A rated technology for any technology-based interpretation. LCD screens, for
example, are much more efficient than plasma screens.

Fig. 69: The continuity of stone crafts till date with use of the traditional knowledge systems (photos by DRONAH)

Social impact:
Moreover, from the promotional point of view of the cause of the poor, it is equally important to
highlight their role to the tourists, especially from foreign countries and higher sections of the
society as an increasing recognition of the products coming from the poor is visible worldwide. As
such, the poor require outlets for the sensitized tourists. Among merchandising handmade works
could be produced showing how the earnings from the sales of these products are utilized for the
poor: may be for the education of girl children, medical intervention or nutrition for the poor mothers
or disabled. The approach has to explore the sentiments of the tourists and at the same time make
them understand a different reality, give them the opportunity, if it is asked to participate or just see
the work beyond this initiatives and make them feel proud in owning the programmes under the
financed or free patronage of the public institutions, through their contribution.

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6.8 PRECONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE INTERPRETATION PLAN

TOURISM LEVEL

Heritage Tourism and Visitor Management Plan:


Interpretation is part of a range of heritage-related communication work that includes marketing,
visitor information and orientation. These forms of communication often use the same media, such
as panels and leaflets, but there are crucial differences between them. Marketing materials, for
example, try to sell a heritage product, whilst visitor information tells people what there is to do and
see, and orientation helps people find their way around. Interpretation, on the other hand, reveals
the underlying story and meaning of its subject.
Therefore, as for the Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, the Interpretation plan of the Walled city has to be
conceived as a strategic plan being part of a Heritage Tourism and Visitor Management Plan for
the Walled city of Jaipur. The HTVMP should be conceived within the frame of policies and
recommendations outlined within the Heritage Management Plan and the proposals of the Master
Development Plan 2025.
The main principles outlined in UNESCO manual for a World Heritage sites tourism
management 73, should be taken as references:
- INVOLVING STAKEHOLDERS: any sustainable tourism programme must work in concert with
stakeholders, or interested parties, including government agencies, conservation and other nongovernmental organisations, developers and local communities. Their participation in the planning
and management process is of paramount importance. Tourism-related public participation issues
form the basis of a checklist to avoid unnecessary conflicts. Knowledge of these issues is an
essential prerequisite for effective public participation, particularly when planning stakeholder
meetings and setting up tourism advisory councils.
- SETTING POLICY GOALS AND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES: goals and objectives give direction to site
management and set the agenda for defining the experiences that will be offered to visitors, as well
as for determining the limits of tourism development. Setting goals and objectives is also the key to
success for other programmes including carrying capacity assessment. Detailed management
objectives are essential for setting monitoring standards.
- CARRYING CAPACITY AND RELATED PLANNING ISSUES: Understanding the subject of carrying
capacity is essential for planning and decision making. Understanding the limitations of the concept
and knowledge of methodologies that have replaced it is essential not only for implementing
practical management plans but also for evaluating suggested projects. These methodologies
generate impact indicators and standards that are linked to site policy goals and management
objectives. They are essential for determining when undesirable change is taking place at a site.
- CLASSIFYING AND ANALYZING TOURISTS categories: according to their preferences, behaviours,
focusing on visitors needs and expectations in order to set objectives including infrastructure
development.
- PROMOTING: Promotion can play an important role in meeting educational and financial goals
and objectives. If a site can accommodate greater numbers, and has a mechanism for retaining
tourism earnings, it can be promoted to draw in additional visitors and generate increased revenue
for sustaining operations, solving management problems and meeting goals and objectives.
73

Pedersen A., Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers,
UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris 2002

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As the manual has been conceived mainly for managing World Heritage Sites and not for historic
urban centres, it should be necessary adapting some concept to the specific subject.
The Heritage Tourism and Visitors Management plan should provide policies and specific
proposals for tourism services and infrastructures that should arguably benefit local people too.
HERITAGE LEVEL
Urban culture is continuously undergoing a process of change, interacting with new elements and
assimilating new ideas as well as the aspirations and creativity of its people. Cities thus renew
themselves while maintaining their unique and diverse heritage, both cultural and natural.
Yet, in order to retain authenticity and achieve a heritage-based development that includes also
tourism respectful of the identity of individual heritage sites, a great deal of knowledge and
understanding is required.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTIONS FOR JAIPUR have been set out and proposed by UNESCO New
Delhi 74. Beside the two points concerning heritage awareness programme and the interpretation of
the heritage resources of the city, the following recommendations have been conceived:
- Legislative and regulatory framework for heritage conservation
- Incentive mechanisms for heritage management
- Adaptive reuse
- Mainstreaming local crafts into the modern market
- Infrastructure improvement through community participation and public private partnership
- Improved physical access to the heritage resources
Those actions represent the basic actions to be taken in order to create the solid ground where
further developing any heritage based programme

URBAN LEVEL
The relationship between the World Heritage Site of Jantar Mantar and the city surrounding it is not
based only on a spatial connection due to its geographical location on the territory.
Jantar Mantar is located in the core of the walled city, within the royal quarter which holds some of
the most visited monuments in Jaipur. Its spatial relation with the walled city generates mechanism
of interdependences and outcomes of cause-effect.
The visualization of the intended urban setting area shows three levels of boundaries which can be
interpreted also as three levels of interrelation. Starting from Jantar Mantar, the first border is
defined by the observatory surrounding wall followed by the border of its buffer zone defined within
the nomination procedure. The third level of boundary is the border of the walled city itself in its
physical or just conceptual form (fig.70)
Skipping the first architectural level and focusing on the analysis at urban level, from now on we
will consider the buffer zone as reference area of the whole World Heritage property as unique
area. We can hence visualize three zones: zone A as the listed property area; zone B as the
walled city area and zone C identifying the expansion of the city outside the wall.
Focusing on the first two zones, we can imagine them as container and contents of which value
is recognized for both of them.

74

See IHCN, Walking in the microcosm of Jaipur, op.cit

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HERITAGE INTERPRETATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE WALLED CITY OF JAIPUR

Fig. 70
On the left: Definition of boundaries as levels
of interactions between the Jantar Mantar
area, its buffer zone and the rest of the
Walled city.
Above: Identification of three zones starting
from the Jantar Mantar buffer zone.

The interaction of Jantar Mantar buffer zone with the historic centre lies in a dynamic of mutual
effects. The results of the interaction can have either a nature of identity, meaning that the same
phenomenon present outside is visible inside the buffer zone; or it can manifest itself as a form of
secondary effect, with a different aspect. The first case could refer for instance, to cultural factors,
which can bypass boundaries this is a field where interpretation could work on while others
factors, typical of urban assets, such as mobility, facilities, etc., can create different reactions within
the interrelation system on which they are based.
Create conditions to successfully conduct the initiative foreseen by the interpretation plan such as
heritage walks, means interfacing with all issues and challenges that the urban environment of
Jaipur has to deal with. Solid waste management, water infrastructures, electricity wiring and
services, fire safety, vehicular traffic and parking and management of stray animals are a set of
problematic that impact both on heritage and on tourism management. Addressing vehicular traffic
and parking through a mobility plan that seriously takes into account the pedestrian circulation of
groups of tourists within the Walled city, is an essential support for the success of heritage walk
initiatives.

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CONCLUSIONS

What is the real utility of interpretation?


Along this study it has been underlined several times that the main objectives of interpretation is
making people aware of meanings and value held by heritage so they can contribute to its
preservation. But why do we want to preserve heritage? It is interpretation the armed arm of a
certain kind of tourism that looks for heritage commodification seeing on it a mere source of
income?
And furthermore, in a place like Jaipur, in India, where the level of poverty such as the quantity of
people living in miserable conditions in a urban environment goes often beyond western
imagination, how can make sense talking about heritage preservation when human rights do not
seem have a room in public concern?
The answer lies on the level of efficiency of the interpretation outcome. Because making people
aware means or, should mean spreading culture in order to change people mindset.
Interpretation, hence, is a cultural tool that has to fight against the neglect and cultural pollution to
give back to communities their pride, their sense of place and identity as instruments to make them
participate for their own future, asking for inclusiveness in all levels of public choices. It is, thus a
tool to keep under control the changes and the new development phenomenon impacting our lives.
Being aware of our own history and past means also having the possibility to recognize the
structural, historical conditions that have caused the decline in the first place and working,
authorities and local communities together, to avert or at least soften regional developments often
destructive cultural effects.
Hence, a demand for cultural preservation attitude is not a call for cultural freezing.
Culture is a living system and will continue to evolve regardless of government efforts to
standardize it. Rather, the wisdom that is unique to a given culture, the knowledge that has
accumulated over generations, and the values that have contributed equitably and effectively to
humans living together must be protected. Within this new paradigm of culture and development,
policy makers need to address their attention to key themes which emerge as dominant in terms of
the dynamics of the culture sector as a socio-economic force.
Interpretation effects, in terms of cultural awareness, could subvert the top-down decisional system
applicable to all those populations unconscious of its own power as community. Opposite to this,
when in a regime of democracy is the population asking for actions by government, then policies,
recommendations, plans, projects, byelaws and regulations answering those requests will provide
undoubtedly effective results. Cultural and heritage preservation and management policies
expressed by byelaws and regulations can result ineffective if their reasons are not understood by
people. Indeed, in Jaipur, the prove of the importance of the role that interpretation can play within
the heritage safeguard, lies in the deteriorating conditions of heritage buildings such as in ongoing
difficulty to find young figures carrying on traditional technological works, arts and crafts etc. In built
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heritage field a number of monuments are poorly maintained while violations of rules and
regulations for heritage conservation are a common phenomenon. This happens despite a
regulatory and legislative framework that, even if not in the most perfect expression, has been
developed and it is present.
Therefore, together with a strict control on the observation of those regulations, an interpretation
plan involving local community and school programmes, having acted on people cultural attitude,
could assist the government in its scope to make heritage as a part of the future development
accepting the wisdom of investment in potentially profitable cultural tourist attractions while
supporting and asking for a more balanced policy of long-term conservation of the entire range of
heritage without selectively exploited resources.
The results of the present study have been affected by lack of possibility to work in situ. Therefore,
the final outcome resulted in a set of guidelines and recommendations based on a methodology
strengthened by academic studies and debate around heritage interpretation.
The framework about the interpretation of Jaipur provided within the present study, needs to be
extended and deeper analyses under mainly points of view and through a major availability of
resources. This can be achieved only working on site and through a direct contact with local
communities. Indeed, as the second principle of the ICOMOS charter for interpretation and
presentation states: Interpretation and presentation should be based on evidence gathered
through accepted scientific and scholarly methods as well as from living cultural traditions.
Aware of the study limits mentioned above, it is here strongly recommended to integrate what has
been already carried out in terms of interpretation objectives, themes and choice of interpretative
media with an accurate evaluation in situ. Moreover, an evaluation of the projects from the
audience should be part of the interpretative planning process from the inception as it can provide
data about feeling, thoughts, misconceptions etc., about the topic. This should ensure that future
developments of the plan will, as much as possible, fulfil communitys wishes and take into account
their concerns.
The philosophy in which the present work has been based is well expressed by the following vision
of the Jaipur Virasat Foundation:
In a time when poverty and inequality are such critical issues, Rajasthan's heritage can be utilised
to contribute to a local, holistic growth model for the state for other parts of India and the world.
Heritage-based growth, being value- and people-based, inclusive and ecologically appropriate, can
offer a corrective to a purely GDP-driven strategy. To conserve and reposition heritage resources,
to strengthen a people-based, modern economy that is inclusive, sustainable and adaptable to
changing circumstances75.

75

http://www.jaipurvirasatfoundation.org/vikas_aur_virasat.php

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