“Building the Best” Leonardo da Vinci Partnership
Contributors Roberta Bassan Monika Bieńkowska Eszter Csepe Silvia Grando Elizabeth Lenz Lukasz Sklarz Associazione NET, Italy Panstwowe Szkoly Budownictwa, Poland wisamar Bildungsgesellschaft mbH, Germany Associazione Lepido Rocco, Italy Järvamaa Kutsehariduskeskus, Estonia Institute Bonum Poland
“BUILDING THE BEST”.................................................................................................................................. 0 LEONARDO DA VINCI PARTNERSHIP .............................................................................................................. 0 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................... 2 PROJECT BACKGROUND AND AIM..................................................................................................... 3 CARRYING OUT THE PROJECT ........................................................................................................................ 4 GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PARTNERSHIP .................................................................................................. 4 2008 – 2010 BUILDING SECTOR REPORTS .................................................................................... 4 COUNTRY OF ESTONIA ................................................................................................................................. 4 COUNTRY OF GERMANY ................................................................................................................................ 7 COUNTRY OF ITALY ...................................................................................................................................... 8 COUNTRY OF POLAND .................................................................................................................................10 7-POINT BUILDING THE BEST MODEL ............................................................................................12 7-POINT MODEL EVALUATION – JÄRVA COUNTY VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTER (JKHK) ............................13 Overall system grade ........................................................................................................................16 7-POINT MODEL EVALUATION – WISAMAR MBH ..........................................................................................18 Overall System Grade .......................................................................................................................24 7-POINT MODEL EVALUATION – N.E.T ASSOCIATION ..................................................................................25 Overall system grade ........................................................................................................................31 7-POINT MODEL EVALUATION – PAŃSTWOWE SZKOŁY BUDOWNICTWA ........................................................32 Overall System Grade .......................................................................................................................37 7-POINT MODEL EVALUATION – INSTITUTE BONUM ..................................................................................38 BEST PRACTICES IN BUILDING TRAINING...................................................................................42 BEST PRACTICE ESTONIA ............................................................................................................................42 BEST PRACTICE GERMANY ...........................................................................................................................47 BEST PRACTICE ITALY, LEPIDO ROCCO ........................................................................................................52 BEST PRACTICE ITALY N.E.T. .....................................................................................................................54 BEST PRACTICE POLAND .............................................................................................................................60 CONCLUDING REMARKS ......................................................................................................................64 WEBSITE LINKS .......................................................................................................................................65
A consortium of six partner organizations from four countries (Estonia, Italy, Germany, Poland) successfully cooperated from 2008 – 2010 in a Leonardo da Vinci “Building the Best” Partnership project. Our mutual desire is to improve uniformity and functionality of vocational education delivery and to learn the unique differences of each country‟s educational system. The impetus for this project came from the project coordinator, Järva County Vocational Training Center of Estonia that faces the challenge of teachers needing knowledge about modern practices in vocational training as carried out at schools and enterprises in Europe, but also about educational systems and how educators in other countries resolve certain challenges. Partner meetings and visits to vocational schools and enterprises were an essential component for gathering information on modern practices and training arrangements. The results of this project are extremely gratifying in that it solidified relationships and networks, new ideas and insights were shared, and new projects are being pursued in order to continue discovering optimal and best training schemes in VET. This Partnership produced a CD that contains relevant partner country information as: economic summaries of each partner country regarding the construction sector; best construction training practices as determined by each partner; PowerPoint presentations; and other supplemental information deemed useful for decision makers striving to strengthen vocational education delivery in their respective European countries.
Project background and aim
The Leonardo da Vinci “Building the Best” Partnership project was essential for creating a foundation that is serving to increase the quality of construction training across Europe. The construction sector is a key economy growth driver in the European Union, improvements in quality and innovation in VET practices and transferring them from one country to another is a crucial element of European integration. With the construction industry continuing to rapidly change and expand, vocational teachers especially among new member countries are greatly challenged in keeping abreast of current information and updating their knowledge and skills pertaining to modern construction technologies, machinery and training practices. The aim of this “Building the Best” Partnership between VET schools, enterprises, and educational institutions was to facilitate a transfer of critical information through a combination of forums, workshops, and visits for data collection during a 2-year period. Information was shared among those with innovative industry knowledge and experience, and for the concluding work we are disseminating best practices as an important reference among institutions, construction industry experts and VET construction teachers. This partnership has served to increase information that will help to unify training delivery and further the development of pedagogies and practices. The product of this partnership is a CD that contains relevant country specific information as: economic reports covering the project period 2008 – 2010; construction industry statistics; best construction training practices as decided upon by each partner and relevant supplemental information for use by project participants among an expected subsequent broader audience of decision makers through disseminated in national channels.
Carrying out the project
The project relied on a multifaceted approach based on the observation of schemes implemented in partners‟ regions, meetings with local actors and beneficiaries, analysis of how different European countries approach construction training, the exchange of methodologies and the theoretical principles upon which the schemes are based, as well as consolidating the best practices or tools in common.
General objectives of the partnership
1. Deepening cooperation between VETs providing construction training and European construction enterprises. 2. Exchanging new knowledge pertaining to technology, construction practices, and employee training needs in Europe. 3. Furthering development of pedagogies and practice by improving training delivery through a unifying medium, a CD as a resource to be used by teachers and enterprise trainers of construction trades.
2008 – 2010 Building Sector Reports
Country of Estonia
According to the Statistics Office of Estonia (Eesti Statistika), there has been a steady deceleration of economic activity since 2008. Specifically regarding the construction industry construction volume in 2008 showed an overall 12% decrease in total production of construction enterprises both foreign and domestic markets combined from the previous year 2007. The main cause of the decline at this time was the decreased volumes in dwelling construction in the
domestic construction market.
The recession and the restricted loan terms
hindered the start of new dwelling construction projects. By 3rd quarter 2009, compared to the same period of the previous year, Estonia showed a decrease in total production among Estonian construction enterprises by 29%. The overall Baltic construction market fell in 2009 to the same level as 10 years ago during this region‟s previous major economic crisis. The market fell fast in 2009 because the Baltic business market was mostly domestic with only a small international market of 3% in Lithuania, 4% in Latvia, and %8 in Estonia. Being that Estonia‟s building market was slightly more diversified, the economic crisis was the lightest in comparison to the other Baltic States.1 Construction volumes shrank 54 percent in Lithuania, 48 percent in Latvia and 30 percent in Estonia in 2009 after the global credit freeze and spending cuts by their governments that worsened the region‟s recession triggered by the collapse of a debt-financed property bubble. Merko‟s Chief Executive Officer Tiit Roben, leading firm of Estonian construction industry, said “Estonia‟s construction volumes may fall a further 10 percent this year (2010) and start to recover next year, while Latvia and Lithuania will trail Estonian developments by about a year.2 Key indictors illustrating market trends Construction production in Estonia
Ascending total 23 181 31 131 39 127 33 839 21 471 1st quarter 2nd quarter 3rd quarter 4th quarter 3 729 5 455 7 233 6 764 5 000 7 921 9 521 8 689 7 314 9 975 7 161 9 445 4 543 5 989 5 810 5 129
11 689 9 381 10 149 7 852
Table code: CO0012 http://www.stat.ee/34159 Dwelling completions by type of building (new construction), year
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Number of dwellings total
http://www.stat.ee/34164 Non-residential building completions by type of building (new construction), year
Number of buildings Usable floor area, m² Cubic Number capacity, of m³ buildings
Usable floor area, m² Cubic capacity, m³ Number of buildings
Usable floor area, m² Cubic capacity, m³
920 779 5 945 057 993
1 004 6 140 402 964 572
4 805 838
Statistical data is still unavailable for 2010 and reports could not be found at other key building or road construction association websites. Regional expert Hillar Takk, Department Head of Building and Road Construction at Järva County Vocational Training Center, says that in terms of road construction the market has improved since 2009 with road contractor operational budgets increasing from 2 billion EEK in 2009 to 3 billion EEK in 2010. In terms of the building market, however, the situation is actually worse in 2010 than the previous year as a result of restricted government spending in road or building construction projects.
Country of Germany
Economic overview in the building and construction field
The overall situation in the German Building Industry remains stable in 2010
The economic stimulate package cannot absorb the crack in the building sector but it has moderated it. According to the statistics of the main association of the German Building and Construction Industry, in 2009 the revenue in main construction trades dropped by a nominal 4 percent (2009 the total turnover in the structural and civil engineering was EUR 83, 3 billions). For enterprises, the situation has been more painful but overall the building and construction industry is performing better than most other industries. In 2009, public building and construction was the most important segment concerning activities in the building and construction field. Enterprises reported an increase in turnover of a nominal 3, 4 percent, the incoming orders raised by a nominal 3, 6 percent. Especially important was the Federal State‟s (Bund) strong increase in investment with its expanded expenditures boosted by 18
percent. Comparing this with municipalities, who also implemented a future investment program, but at same time slashed their own building and construction programs. The commercial construction still smarts from the recession in 2009: Turnover in the building sector decreased to 9 percent, and incoming orders declined even at a nominal 15, 2 percent. But the tempo had slowed down by the end of the year: new orders in December decreased only at 5, 7 percent, however there is no turnaround in the economy yet. By contrast the residential construction developed more robustly than expected: the turnover was 4, 8 percent lower than in the previous year although the incoming orders show a rise in the second quarter 2009. Despite the sales slowdown in the building and construction sector enterprises have kept their workforce almost constant. The number of employees in the main construction trade decreased annually on average a mere 0, 1 percent and dropping to 705.000. Entrepreneurs had learned from their experiences of 2006 until 2008, when manpower squeeze prevented the upturn in the building and construction field.
Country of Italy
The building sector is going through a deep crisis which is expected to persist through 2010. Available indicators do not show any upturn in the economy and building firms are still worried about reduced activity levels and the decreasing volume of commercial orders.
According to survey results conducted among partnering firms and based on available ratings, ANCE (Association of National Construction Enterprises) calculates a downturn of investments in the building sector in 2009 by 9,4% compared to 2008, an additional 2,3% decrease when comparing 2008 to 2007; a further decrease is expected in 2010. From 2008 to 2010, the building sector lost 18% of investments. In particular, the sector of new houses is the most alarming, since such investments decreased by 30%. The downturn in the sector of public works began six years ago and by the end of 2010 the rate will have reduced by 23% compared to 2004. In other words, after 9 years of increase in this sector, the amount of production has decreased to the levels seen at the end of the „90s. Nevertheless, the housing potential and requirements are not fulfilled. Referring to the years 2004-2008, the comparison between the number of houses under construction and the number of new families highlights a lack of about 350.000 houses. In the current situation of financial difficulties, the need has not yet become demand. During the first 9 months of 2009, according to the ISTAT survey on the labour force, the number of employees in the building sector decreased by 3,9% compared to the same period in 2008. This downturn is higher than the National average rate of 1,5%. In the region, between October 2008 and March 2009, about 49,100 employees lost their job. According to a survey made in September 2009 among the firms in the partnership, a prolonging of the crisis is expected to develop with deeper intensity than in the other regions. The estimated production downturn in 2010 is - 9%.3
"Rapporto congiunturale sull'industria delle costruzioni in veneto - anno 2009" a cura della direzione affari economici e centro studi ance.
Country of Poland
Poland's access to the European Union, available EU funds and increasing investments were the main factors which have determined the situation in the construction field in recent years enabling an upward trend. Stable growth of the economy, high capital expenditure, a boom related to EURO 2012 guaranteed the positive impact on the construction market. First and foremost the positive effect resulted from an increase in infrastructural works. Year 2009 was difficult for the building industry. Admittedly, the crisis in Polish economy was considerably milder than in other European countries, but the consequences of the crisis in the European market did not omit the construction industry. A clear slowdown was recorded after many years of high increase. Whilst in 2008, companies named the lack of employment as a reason for obstacles in executing contracts. In 2009, competition between companies, high operating expenses and the lack of demand were to blame. Employment numbers in construction grew in 2009, but salaries decreased. Poland is still a relative attractive country in which to invest. Three main reasons why there is optimism about the construction industry in the future: 1. Stable growth of the economy at a rate of 4 – 5% of GDP 2. Increasing wealth of and ambitions of the Polish people 3. Delay in infrastructure and housing caused by many years of communism, now resulting in strong demand for housing construction. Current concrete data is not yet available from the Statistical Yearbook, but a few figures that illustrate the optimistic trends follow.
Dwellings completed: comparing with the previous periods 2007 - 133698 2008 - 165189 2009 - 160002 (in spite of the crisis) 2010 - Within the first three months of this year there was an increase by 16% in the building of dwellings in comparison with the same period of the previous year. Employed persons in construction in thousands (Excluding economic entities employing only up to 9 persons) 2008 - 421 2009 - 462 Data illustrating that the economic crisis did have a negative impact upon construction in Poland: Production of bricks (millions) 2008 - 329 2009 - 199 Production in cement (thousands) 2008 - 17017 2009 - 15347
7-Point Building the Best Model
A solid model is crucial for knowing what data to collect, analyze, and compare. This Partnership defined seven key attributes to use for analysis in attempting to find best practices from among the tools, methods and principles that are presently applied in vocational schools and enterprises where students practice. The seven (7) main points identified during our first conference and listed below serve as the framework of our model with which we observe and evaluated the system of vocational training of construction trades in partnering countries. In using this model we were able to do a comparative work between European countries for determining best practices. 1. apprenticeship system 2. level of cooperation between schools and firms 3. connection with construction unions 4. training of enterprise trainers 5. teaching materials/curriculum 6. continuing education program for teachers to gain new skills 7. feedback loop
1 2 4 3 5 Best Practices in Construction Training 3 6
7-Point Model Evaluation – Järva County Vocational Training Center (JKHK) 1. Apprenticeship Students in the construction program must complete 22 weeks of practical training divided between Year 2 and Year 3, training preferably done at enterprises. This year in 2010, enterprises have not been able to take on as many student apprentices for lack of work for their own full-time workers, let alone students. Nonetheless, with resources on hand and with what materials were available, teachers created practice/apprenticeship opportunities for students. The School in 2010 organized on-campus training projects overseen by a building foreman with extensive building experience. The school has requested additional funding for this expense, but the Ministry has not yet given approval. 2. Level of cooperation between schools and firms. No formal contract exists between JKHK and enterprises and is instead based on relationship. The reason being from unpredictability of job contacts so that firms cannot guarantee student placements. Students are responsible for finding their own placement, but the school does advise students to approach specific larger firms in the road and building sectors known for their consistency and reliability in taking students for training. However, most firms are small or medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and can only accept students if they have ample projects or jobs on which to train students. 3. Connection with construction unions JKHK is members of different trade unions because it provides an opportunity to get courses from them, albeit not fee of charge, and through memberships it is easier to find practice placements for students. The school could be more active
and work harder to cultivate these relationships, so there is room for improvement. Ideally, JKHK needs relationships with such progressive firms as IBM that has donated PCs to schools, on which students are trained and now are more likely to use IBM personal computers in the future; a wise business practice not often practiced in Estonia. At present, representatives of JKHK attend meetings at least 2 times a year. One such membership is with the Estonian Association of Construction Entrepreneurs. The E.A.C.E is a voluntary association of construction enterprises created in order to support and co-ordinate its members actions in matter of industry related economic issues and relations with employees and employee unions. This is a union primarily comprised of roofing companies uniting 100 companies active in Estonia whose overall turnover comprises more than 45% of the construction turnover of the entire Republic. Principle activities of E.A.C.E as relates directly to VET training are: participation in the elaboration of legislation concerning the Association and its members (including expressing opinion); generalization of construction and economic experience and their distribution; arrangement of marketing and economic research and elaboration of the respective recommendations; arrangement of construction associated refresher courses, encouragement of the development of the construction education by financing respective target programs; distribution of information concerning construction activities, including issue and distribution of advertisements and other publications. As things presently stand, JKHK can attend informative meetings as organized by the union, but often these topics do not directly aid the school in planning
training content or activities present or in the future. At most, JKHK attends these meetings in order to make their own contacts with enterprise representatives, but does not get special assistance in finding student apprenticeship placements. 4. Enterprise training Training of company trainers is only seen as a priority if the company is large enough and can expend the manpower for such specialized training. Mostly companies are SMEs and agree that, although it would be beneficial for trainers to know how to work with students, it is done at the company‟s expense rather than the State‟s. Companies are interested in having more of their employees trained as trainers of students by the vocational school, but this does not take place. In terms of motivating trainers, this role as trainer is mostly voluntary some companies give trainers a 10% wage increase to teach students. Company management believes this system could be improved by having the government to pay this amount, especially since the company is already losing out because workplace trainers are unable to do the job that they were hired for because their time is monopolized in training students. 5. Teaching materials and curriculum Vocational schools are given a State approved basic structure for teaching difference courses. The school then creates the curriculum and sends it to the Ministry of Education for approval. It is the schools responsibility to find materials and resources for training students using the budget annual amount given for each registered student. 6. Continuing education program for teachers to gain new skills There is some degree of retraining and updating of knowledge for vocational teachers, but is only in the form of 2 -3 day free seminars that provide pedagogical information (50%) and industry-specific training (50%). There are 15
other more extensive courses available, but this is at the teacher‟s expense and so is rarely undertaken. At JKHK, since 2008, most updating of skills and knowledge has been through sending teachers to European countries for observational visits at various enterprises or vocational schools through the Leonardo da Vinci Life Long Learning Programme. 7. Feedback loop The school tries to organize meetings with enterprise owners or managers twice a year in order to discuss ways of improving relations, work through problems, and discuss students‟ progress. Such meetings do not take place between EEEL and the School or between any other relevant stakeholders. Overall system grade 1. Needs improvement – school needs strengthening in establishing and maintaining strong and mutually beneficial cooperation with enterprises. Right now, enterprises take students when they can, but benefits of student employment is not well understood among enterprises, schools need help in approaching companies and explaining the benefits, enterprises do not make extra investments into student learning like material contributions, and the system does not promote stronger relations. 2. Needs improvement - connection exists in the form of a paid membership by the school so that it may receive current industry reports and attend seminars. Relations are good but not deep and there is room for improvement in finding ways to match market needs with student training. 3. Moderate – Students are ensured a place for practice, even if the school has to create a real project on which students can work as they would on a job site operated by enterprises. Dedication is strong by the school to make sure students gain solid, practical experience at job sites. This year 16
2010, because of a weak economy, not all students were able to find placements, so in the building program a professional foreman with training in education was placed in charge of student practice who created building restoration projects for students. 4. Needs improvement – There is a special Estonian program called Development of VET and in this program the State has money for updating skills of teachers, for which all training takes place in Estonia. The problem with this, however, is that teachers cannot take part in these trainings because they are overworked and have too many classes because the school cannot afford to hire more staff. Schools need their teachers trained in enterprises with advanced methods and technologies (preferably where students are not also practicing) or in international vocational schools. At present, the only updating of skills comes through the Leonardo da Vinci VETPRO program. But even this is not adequate because budget allowances are not enough to enable long-term training at a firm, at least 2 – 6 weeks. Rather it pays for teacher travel and use of a hosting service that develops programs for organized 1-day site visits to various companies and schools for a total of 1 week. Time and money does not allow more in depth study of a specific technology or skill. Teachers often use their personal holiday time for such study visits. 5. Needs improvement - no real structure or guidelines exists so it is up to the enterprise and dedication of the trainer and ample number of jobs on which to train students. 6. Needs improvement - teachers use curriculum authorized by the Ministry of Education. Materials are lacking, but teachers use what is available. 7. Needs improvement – Department Heads meet with enterprise managers at least twice a year for discussing students‟ progress. No other meetings take place between the vocational school and enterprise representatives, trade unions, and associations with the specific intent of making sure the school is providing courses and skills as demanded by the labor market. 17
Only higher level meetings take place, but there appears to be a disconnect between the school and planning initiates and discussions made at Ministry level between key decisions makers.
7-Point Model Evaluation – Wisamar mbH
Dual Vocational Training System 1. Apprenticeship System The term „dual system“ describes the special approach taken by vocational training in Germany. This system consists of firms and part-time vocational schools which together train young people. Although „firms“ and „part-time vocational schools“ are physically and legally separate areas of the education system, they work together when providing initial vocational training.
Part-time vocational school
In Germany‟s dual vocational training system, part time vocational schools are the partners to the firms providing in-company training. Trainees learn the theoretical knowledge required for their occupation at part-time vocational schools. These schools can also provide practical training that supplements incompany vocational training. Part-time vocational schools are regular public schools that offer just part-time instruction. The provisions on who is required to attend part-time vocational school vary from state to state. In North RhineWestphalia for example, individuals who start in-company vocational training before they turn 21 are required to attend such a school until they complete their training. Individuals who start their training after they turn 21 are entitled to attend part-time vocational school. The company providing the vocational training is required to register its trainees at a part-time vocational school, give them time off for school and see to it that they attend class.
Structure of instruction time at part-time vocational school: As a rule, trainees attend part-time vocational school an average of one or two days a week. Some part-time vocational schools offer a block of instruction that lasts several weeks and encompasses the entire period of schooling to be completed at part-time vocational school. During the period of instruction at part-time vocational school, they must do their homework outside their daily training and classroom hours.
A company that provides in-house initial vocational training must satisfy certain requirements regarding the suitability of the training premises. These requirements revolve primarily around the company‟s equipment. Each recognized occupation has a minimum requirement for equipment and furnishings that must be available for training purposes: rooms, machines, equipment and tools. Trainees should be able to learn in their training company everything that they will need for their future working life. Furthermore, the training company must have a sufficient number of qualified personnel if the success of the training it provides is to be ensured.
Inter-company vocational Training
Particularly in the case of technical occupations which are also taught in smaller enterprises, such as in the skilled crafts and trades, the company providing the training often does not have all the equipment and machines necessary for learning everything required for the occupation. But trainees are supposed to learn all aspects of their occupation. For this reason, inter-company vocational training is frequently used. Inter-company Vocational Training also serves a
pedagogical function as a “third learning environment” where practical and theoretical competence is systematically taught. The duration of inter-company vocational training depends on what the training company is not able to teach its trainee. Enterprises, chambers, guilds and the German government bear the cost of inter-company vocational training. 2. Level of cooperation between schools and firms Cooperation is tight in the written regulations, which is an obligatory action according to the Dual System, so there must be cooperation between vocational schools and firms. Such cooperation is good because companies ensure the latest and most up-to-date practical knowledge, but cooperation is not excellent as outlined in point 7B. Dual here means that the training takes place at two different places: an enterprise and a part-time vocational school. Upon completion of his training, a trainee sits an examination at the competent body (usually the Chamber of Industry and Commerce or Chamber of Skilled Crafts). The Vocational Training Act provides the foundation for in-company vocational training. It entitles enterprises sole responsibility in conducting vocational training. In other words: to hire and train trainees. This federal law lays down the requirements and conditions for vocational training that is provided on an in-company basis. All areas of vocational training that are under the direction of a training company are regulated by the Vocational Training Act. Instruction provided at part-time vocational schools is governed by school legislation of the respective state. In order to avoid a situation in which these different laws lead to inconsistency in the training provided, legislation is coordinated by the federal and state governments in various bodies.
3. Connection to Unions 20
One so-called sovereign task –in other words, a task that has been assigned by the state – is to support, regulate and oversee vocational education and training. Employers who want to provide in-house vocational training contact the training advisors at their local Chamber of Industry and Commerce. These advisors come to the individual enterprise and help in all matters regarding vocational training. 4. Enterprise training The owner of a firm decides whether his company will provide in-house initial vocational training, the occupations he will provide training in, and how many youths his firm will take on for in-house initial vocational training. He signs a training contract with each trainee and ensures that the initial vocational training is conducted in accordance with government regulations and legislation. Trainers are responsible for planning training content and schedules and for conduction in-company vocational training programmes. Only those persons who have the requisite personal and professional qualifications may provide vocational training. Following a six-year suspension of the Ordinance on Trainer Aptitude, the requirement that trainers pass a trainer aptitude examination was re-started on 1 August 2009. The trainer aptitude examination assesses the most important skills and competences for trainers (1. Assess vocational training requirements and plan training, 2. Prepare training and participate in trainee recruitment, 3. Conduct training, 4. Conclude training)
5. Teaching materials and curriculum As a rule, tasks to be assumed by the firm and the part-time vocational school are assigned so that the firm teaches practical know-how and the school teaches 21
theory. In reality however, firms also teach theory to go with actual occupational practice and part-time vocational schools often supplement extended technical knowledge with practice-oriented exercises. It is therefore important that they work together for the benefit of their trainees – so that they supplement rather than repeat one another. Period of training Initial vocational training programmes in the dual vocational training system last two, three or three and one-half years. The duration of the training is stipulated in the training regulations for the particular occupation. Each in-company training programme starts with a probation period that lasts at least one month and a maximum of four months. During this time, the persons responsible at the firm are also closely examined whether the individual trainee is a good match for the company. And the trainee should also consider one more time whether he has made the right decision. Once the probation period is over, a company can terminate a training contract only on serious grounds. There is also the option of undergoing initial vocational training.
6. Continuing education program for teachers to gain new skills Trainer Seminar In trainer seminars (also known as “training for trainers”), trainers learn everything they need to know in order to conduct vocational training in their own company. The content of trainer seminars is based on the four areas of activity that are outlined in greater detail in the framework plan set forth in the Ordinance on Trainer Aptitude. Trainer seminars are conducted by the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce, Chamber of Skilled Crafts and other bodies. The instruction schedule varies from region to region. A trainer
seminar generally encompasses 115 hours of instruction. Seminars are offered as all-day, weekend and evening courses. The competent body – the chamber that is responsible for the particular company (as a rule, the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce or Chamber of Skilled Crafts) determines whether a firm is qualified to provide in-company vocational training. Trainers who pass the examination have earned a recognized continuing training qualification and are issued a corresponding certificate. 7. Feedback loop A. Advantages of the dual system of vocational education: For trainees: No formal admission prerequisites: every school leaver has a chance to learn a profession (but in fact the chances of being accepted depend on pre-qualification) combination of learning and working professional and soft skills are acquired, easier start at the labour market relations to potential future employer (many companies keep their trainees) income
For the companies: train skilled workers according to the needs of the company reputation less personnel recruiting costs
interaction between different actors involved: tasks are not rigidly divided: school is not reserved solely for teaching theory, and in-company training involves more than simply practice – joint educational responsibility and by this permanent training for trainers promote employability in a changing workplace B. Disadvantages of the dual system of vocational education:
influence of the economical situation difficulties in realizing curricula if the training company is small or has limited possibilities different possibilities in schools and companies to react to changes (technical innovations…) question of coherency between demand and supply dependence on companies concerning quantity and quality Co-financing by the state necessary without the possibility of directly influencing the process Possible cooperation problems between teachers at school and trainers in the companies
Overall System Grade 1. Strong – this system is highly developed and has years of learned experience. Still needs more attention in coherency between supply and demand and does not work as well when companies are small. 2. Needs improvement to Medium – has an established and highly organized system of cooperation between firms and schools, but has disadvantages in that there is a dependency on companies concerning quantity and quality and possible cooperation problems between teachers at schools and trainers in companies.
3. Strong – Good and active intermediary body, the Chamber of Industry and Commerce, promotes and aides in cooperation by providing advisors who come to the individual enterprise and help in all matters regarding vocational training 4. Medium - strongly regulated. Ordinance on Trainer Aptitude reinstated in August 2009, so that it requires trainers to pass a trainer aptitude examination. The trainer aptitude examination assesses the most important skills and competences for trainers (1. Assess vocational training requirements and plan training, 2. Prepare training and participate in trainee recruitment, 3. Conduct training, 4. Conclude training). This may hinder the process by causing too great a requirement upon training firms and trainers. 5. Medium - Schools and enterprises theoretically work out that schools teach the theory and enterprise the practical, but in reality the enterprise trainers also teach a great deal of theoretical. Still needs work to improve ongoing communication between schools and teachers. 6. Strong – Company trainers attend Trainer Seminars conducted by the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce, Chamber of Skilled Crafts and other bodies. The instruction schedule varies from region to region. A trainer seminar generally encompasses 115 hours of instruction. Seminars are offered as all-day, weekend and evening courses. The Chamber is very active in the process and decides which enterprise are qualified to train students. 7. Strong – overall ongoing communication and strong involvement by trade unions, schools, and enterprises that keeps a constantly updated and learning system.
7-Point Model Evaluation – N.E.T Association 1. Apprenticeship system
In Italy, apprenticeship was instituted in 1955, it was later reformed in 1997, Law 196/97, and again in 2003 by Legal Decree n. 276. With the new law, specific training for apprentices has been improved and extended: the apprentice must attend 120 hours of out-of-company training; in-company practical training (corresponding to in-company work) must be supported by a tutor. Every young person between 15 and 18 years old has to attend school or vocational training, or work as an apprentice. On-the-job training is probably the most important principle of Italian apprenticeship. In fact, practical training corresponds to in-company work. Indeed, theoretical training and work must be complementary. The objectives of apprenticeship are to prepare young people for work by practical training and by out-of-company training and to make the entrance of young people in the labour market easier. In fact, firms are encouraged to train student because the State pays pension contributions that are generally employers‟ responsibility. Apprenticeship is addressed to young people ages 16 to 24 years old. They must have completed a compulsory education (that is, at least 9 years of school). The apprenticeship is regulated by a contract between the employer and the apprentice. Contractual characteristics are determined by labour laws (also the laws concerning youth employment) and by the National Collective Contracts of the Sector. Theoretical Training (Time and Place) Out-of-company training comprises at least 120 hours per year. The training must take place outside the company, but it must be within regular working hours. The apprentice also receives a salary for the training hours and can be absent only for reasons established in his contract. Training takes place in a training centre or in a technical school authorised by Regional Government 26
according to specific characteristics established by regional laws. National laws on vocational training and apprenticeship establish that the centres must receive a special validation from the Regional Government. Practical Training (Time and Place) Practical training corresponds to in-company work. The training centre staff can decide to organise practical lessons within the theoretical course (for instance in laboratories). There are no special programmes: the apprentice works according to his professional role. The law establishes that work must not be repetitive; the trainer is also the tutor within the company. Duration The duration ranges from 18 months to 4 years (5 years in craft companies), but not longer than the duration established by the Collective National Contract of the Sector. Manner of Payment and Financing Public authorities pay social and, partially, health contributions and the costs of theoretical training. The State pays the social contributions, while the regional administration provides financing for theoretical training and the in-company tutor‟s training. The Central Government can give financial contributions for apprenticeship training to the Regions. The company pays salaries and all employers, except for craft companies, pay a weekly charge for insurance against accidents.
2. Level of cooperation between schools and firms, and 3. Connection with construction unions
There is a high degree of involvement from the unions and employers‟ organisations. At national level, they contribute to define the model of apprenticeship, through a continuous discussion with the Department of Employment. They participate with the Commission regarding professional content. At regional and local levels, they contribute to organizing programme training, identifying professional needs and skills and to support firms and employees. 4. Training of enterprise trainers There is not a particular training for enterprise trainers and tutors. The Department of Labour has basically determined the characteristics of the incompany tutor. He has to be a qualified employee, engaged in the same field as the apprentice. He has to have the same or a superior qualification to the one being obtained by the apprentice at the end of his training. If possible, the tutor will have worked for at least 3 years in the firm. The law has established the tutor‟s role and necessary skills, i.e. to guide and support the apprentice and to assure a link between work and out-of-company training. The tutor has to attend a period of training of at least 8 hours to understand his role and its required skills. 5. Teaching materials/curriculum Apprenticeship laws have established the standards of educational content, but they are not complete yet. In fact, a special Commission (composed of representatives from the Employment Department, Education Department, Unions and Enterprise Organisations) is working to define the standards of technical content. At present, there are only the standards for the so-called "transversal content", established by the Department of Employment. This kind of content concerns communicative skills, all the most important laws concerning 28
labour and the workplace, safety in the workplace, economy and business organisation, basic skills (linguistic and mathematical). There is no fixed system for analysing training needs according to economic and technological progress. However, there are many studies carried out by the unions, employers‟ organisations, Chambers of Commerce, and regions at national and local levels. At present, many institutions are trying to organise a system. 6. Continuing education program for teachers to gain new skills There are no national standards for trainers of apprentices or for vocational training teacher. At the national level, there is only the National Collective Contract for Trainers that establishes professional requirements and relative skills. Every Regional Government can decide upon special standards for trainers and the procedure for their employment. Of course, every centre employs trainers according to its own standards. 7. Feedback loop The Building the Best project activities and transnational meeting gave us the opportunity to reflect and observe the apprenticeship and training systems in partner countries. The outstanding principle emerging from our visits abroad is the importance of “learning by doing” for our beneficiaries, and in general for students who prefer practice to theory. Many young people, indeed, benefit from learning away from a classroom atmosphere, and they can develop their skills, not only technical, but also communicative and social, in the „real life‟ situations experienced in the programmes of workplace learning.
All the partner countries seem to share this point of view and are active in this field proposing a number of policy measures that could speed up the further development of apprenticeship and practical learning. This is because apprenticeship is considered to have a considerable potential for promoting the economic development and welfare of countries and for improving the life chances of young people. A second point to be underlined is the strong collaboration of social actors in defining and contributing to the training programmmes. In all the countries, employers and trade unions are strongly committed to this issue, in the awareness that they are fundamental to identify skills needs in their sectors and plan how these can be met. Finally, a particular consideration should be made in relation to the building sector. In many countries, the building sector is experiencing a profound shortage of skills and manpower. This is the reason why all the actors need to act in synergy to reinforce the image of the sector and the jobs related to it. This is also possible through new and innovative training and apprenticeship offers.
7-Point BEST Model Applied
Associazione NET We selected our best practice based on our strengths in applying the 7-point model. Our best practice reflects in particular 1 point of strength that is fundamental for us and that we believe to be essential in the development of vocational training in the construction sector, that is the cooperation between schools and firms and construction unions. It is, in fact, thanks to this strong cooperation that it was possible for the students to practice and spend their practical training within a real working context, where they are provided stimulation and motivation, and besides that practical learning. In implementing such experiences, the cooperation of all the stakeholders is required: public administration, enterprises, and unions.
At the basis of these initiatives there is hard work by organizations, but students‟ feedback shows that they are appreciative and successful.
Overall system grade In applying the 7-point model, we made the following determination: 1. and 2. – Strong from the high degree of involvement from the unions and employers‟ organisations. This is particularly evident in some vocational training centres such as CPIPE, collaborating with NET, where the representatives of companies and unions work together in defining the training programmes, identifying professional needs and skills and to support firms and employees. 3. Strong, the apprenticeship system seems to be efficient, especially for trainees. There can be some difficulties due to the fact that sometimes employers are not happy that their workers have to go to the training centres to be trained, but as they have economic advantages in employing them, they accept this agreement. 4. Medium to Strong, it would be better if there were a standardized path to get training for tutors and teachers. 5. Medium, there is no fixed system for analysing training needs according to economic and technological progress; independent bodies are each looking for a fix. However, there are several representing stakeholders involved in the education restructuring process. 6. Needs improvement, no national standards in place stipulating or assisting teachers to maintain a certain qualification level. 7. Needs improvement, no defined systemic feedback of information between various stakeholders for sharing and updating of information.
7-Point Model Evaluation – Państwowe Szkoły Budownictwa Vocational education is much more expensive for the government than general education, which is the reason why the number of hours of practical training is limited; the low hours of practical training equates a lower level of vocational education. The first solution is to increase financing of vocational education (discussed later). And second, the system of education should be changed, which can be done by introducing a dual system of vocational education when pupils partly gain theoretical knowledge in the school and practical knowledge in a company or a practical training centre. Another solution is a module teaching program where pupils receive theoretical basics in school, then get training at practical training centres, after which they continue practical education in a company. Of course, short-term, it is more expensive for the government, but more effective overall as an educational process and less stressful for pupils, because before real training in a company they can see what the work “looks like” in practical training centres. For companies it is also advantageous since they can host pupils with at least basic professional experience gained at practical training centres. 1. Apprenticeship The apprenticeship system is carried out in two ways: in school‟s workshops (or in local practical training centers) and in enterprises. The problem that students face is apprenticeship carried out in small firms that are often not well equipped. Not every school can boast about its own workshops because they are too expensive for local authorities to equip. 2. Level of cooperation schools and firms
Some schools use its private connections and encourage well known construction enterprises to invest in the equipment of the school workshops. For companies it is also advantageous because they can prepare students to use the company‟s technology. They also carry out training for vocational trainers to ensure that the student will be well taught on proper use of machines and technologies. In this way they are sure to gain a qualified worker in the future without much expenditure. The main aim of a firm‟s existence is profit. Company management usually decides to organize internships only if it is profitable for them. The general principle is that a company‟s profit from a pupil‟s work should be higher than the cost of time and efforts needed to teach her/him practical skills. There should be a systematic solution found such as a centralized or regionalized vocational training fund (collected from taxes) or/and tax incentives for employers who decide to organise vocational training for pupils. Companies can be encouraged to organize internship for pupils if it will be profitable for them (recommended solution) or is less expensive. 3. Connection with construction unions Trade unions in Poland work intensively to analyze the building educational sector in noticing problems and finding possible solutions. Trade unions as a group have greater influencing power on government decisions. Currently, trade union representatives are also members of committees working on educational reform that is planned to be introduced in Poland in 2012. At the moment trade unions focus on low skilled specialists in the building and construction area comparing to the situation in the 1980‟s and 90‟s when the educational system “produced” much better building specialists. Trade Union “Budowlani” shows vocational schools managed by companies to be a proper and effective model of schools. Such schools were previously co-financed by the State and a company, the curriculum was influenced by the company‟s needs for specialists. Nowadays such a model rarely exists. It requires economic stability when the risk of
company bankruptcy or economic distress is very low. Economic and political turmoil in the early 90‟s and the current worldwide crisis are not conducive to the existence of such schools, it is simply too risky. Nowadays, cooperation between trade unions and vocational schools is very limited and mostly involves advisory help given by trade union specialists. 4. Training of enterprise trainers The current educational system in Poland does not dictate educational requirements or background of enterprise trainers. Previously it was obligatory for trainers to gain pedagogical preparation, but found it was too difficult to encourage trainers to finish their studies for lack of interest; thereby resulting in removal of this requirement by the Ministry of Education. An additional complication is that students have no long-term employment guarantee. If the student shows promise and if there is a need, the company will employ them. But in the meanwhile the actual contract only applies to the apprenticeship period (technical vocational school - 1 month a year, vocational school 2 or 3 days a year). . Current market circumstances show that construction engineer can earn several times more being a supervisor at a building site than a teacher at a school. It can happen that a vocational school employs a vocational trainer who has completed full time studies in pedagogical preparation or instructors who are professionals (e.g. carpenters). It is not easy, however, to attract architects for example to work as a teacher, because as a newcomer he will earn only enough money for "food". As an exception, headmasters are allowed to employ a professional (with MA degree or MS) without pedagogical preparation as a theory teacher if they do not find a fully qualified teacher. Such teachers can be employed only for one year and must be accepted by the local department of education. The situation is a big challenge for decision-makers working now on new educational reforms.
5. Teaching materials/curriculum Presently, the curriculum in vocational secondary schools is “overloaded” requiring too much by students. During the whole education, which lasts 4 years, students are expected to learn over 30 subjects and spend 8 or 9 hours a day at school. Another disadvantage is of today‟s educational system concerns the centralization of the educational program and curriculum causing slow response by the Ministry of Education that many times disregards local labour market needs. Regional institutions like vocational schools, practical training centers, companies, local government, and labor offices should have an opportunity and the tools for monitoring the labor market in the context of forecasting future trends. Based on these facts, headmasters of vocational schools should be able to decide about programs their schools offer. Decentralization of decision making and greater independence of local educational management should be introduced. 6. Continuing education program for teachers to gain new skills Teachers who want to gain new skills, have only to apply for an appropriate training course carried out either by a construction enterprise or educational institution by filling out a form applying for a school refund paid by local authorities, a minimum of 50%. This continuing educational program can include courses of specialization in specific professions, postgraduate studies, trainings organized by practical training centers or other educational private and public units. 7. Feedback loop
The new reform of education is going to be introduced in Poland in 2012. The committee working on the reform includes representatives of various groups like; government, trade unions, schools, practical training centers, teachers, companies. Reasons of planned reform in 2012, mainly: 1. Education sector needs: quality of education and implemented new grounds of general education. 2. Domestic development: needs of Polish economy and labor market as well as strategy of Poland‟s development. 3. EU context: European projects in frame of European Social Fund, aims of renewed Lisbon Strategy (mainly: lifelong learning), European and domestic frames of qualifications and certification, exact given competence during the education process (e.g. Europass) and mutual recognizing of qualifications in EU. The main areas of planned changes in vocational education encompass: 1. Classification of vocational education professions. 2. The structure and organisation of vocational education. 3. The educational program offer. 4. Development of vocational consulting and advisory. 5. System of qualification and certification. 6. Education, supplement education of teachers and improving of teachers‟ skills. 7. Distance vocational education. 8. System encouraging employers to join into the vocational education process. 9. Financing of vocational education. 10. Promotion of vocational education.
Synthesizing the main points about the educational system in the building and construction area at a secondary school level in Poland is worked out as a result of gathering the information from various Polish institutions and specialists active in this sector: Vocational schools: Building Secondary School No. 1 in Krakow with Andrzej Mielczarek – the Headmaster www.zsbnr1.republika.pl Państwowe Szkoły Budownictwa from Gdańsk www.psb.neostrada.pl Practical training centers: Practical Training Center in Krakow with the Headmaster Marek Filipczyk and Vice Headmaster Piotr Pasternak www.ckp.krakow.pl Trade unions: “Budowlani” Trade Union with the Head Andrzej Piotrowski and Vice Head Jerzy Turchan www.zzbudowlani.pl Enterprises‟ representatives: Tomasz Czyszczoń, Stanisław Antolec.
Overall System Grade 1. Strong - 2 ways for student to carry out training, in training centers or in enterprises. 2. Strong - companies understand the benefits of having strong ties with vocational training centers and help in this education process through material donation and contribution of trainers on school premises. 3. Medium - historical relationships and involvement were strong so the pattern exists. Cooperation levels have decreased, but unions do serve an advisory role as specialists.
Needs improvement – difficult to attract and retain highly skilled and
pedagogically trained teachers with a professional skill. 5. Needs improvement – centralized decision making that is inflexible and nonresponsive to market needs. 6. Strong – State and regionally financed continuing education for specific professions, postgraduate studies, trainings organized by practical training centers or other educational private and public units. 7. Strong – continual gathering of information from various Polish institutions and specialists active in this sector.
7-Point Model Evaluation – Institute BONUM
What Institute BONUM would like to introduce here is a possible solution that could be strengthen the Polish vocational education system. Focusing particularly on the construction sector, we see that none of the points in the Building the Best 7-point model qualify as a best practice, with each point having disadvantages that make the system inappropriate in comparison to today‟s needs of the labour market. We propose that most important is the 7th point in the model, namely the feedback loop that, if adequately carried out, could make the other 6 points work much more effectively. We understand the term “feedback loop” as the information gained from regular evaluation of the educational system (done either among all the stakeholders at the same time or between two directly cooperating stakeholders). We know that the world/economy/labour market etc. is changing and the educational system should react quickly and effectively in order not to “lag behind”. Good feedback and evaluation is crucial in finding proper changes that the educational system could develop in the right way. The
other 6 points from our model form the educational system. Each of these 6 points is a very important factor of the system and the system cannot function properly without any of these 6 working effectively. But their effective work depends on the proper feedback. This is one of the conditions for effective improvement of the system in our proposal. The second is appropriate monitoring and prediction of the economy and labour market. To explain our reasoning of this choice we provide a more comprehensive overview of Polish history. In the time of communism in Poland, workers were one of two important social classes in the country. For the government it was very important to have well qualified vocational specialists that could work on developing large infrastructure projects of that time. The system of vocational education operated at a high level in adequately fulfilling the needs of the labour market. After 1989 the situation changed. The market economy started to be introduced instead of a planned economy. The market was supposed to dictate its needs, but the transition was not so easy or so quick because this was a new and unknowing situation for the government. The country was in crisis, there were no new infrastructure projects and people had problems with lack of money and work. The vocational specialists were no longer needed as before. In 1999, new educational reforms were introduced that significantly changed the educational system. The new reforms decreased the importance of vocational education focusing mostly on general education and forcing young people to continue education at the university level. Through this way government wanted to reduce high unemployment rates, especially among graduates. The government wanted to limit well qualified vocational specialists and increase the number of people with a general education. Five years after introducing the new reforms, Poland joined the EU. Most vocational specialists who had been taught in the old system and had good skills and experience decided to look for a job abroad. Being an EU citizen gave everyone the possibility to find an official job in 39
many West European countries. Additionally, the jobs abroad paid much better than similar ones in Poland. Moreover, a flow of European funds to Poland initiated many investments in the country mostly in the construction sector. These investments caused higher demand on the labour market for good vocational specialists. Reformed schools after 1999 could not offer so many specialists as before the reform. It was the reason why the cost of work increased drastically. The Polish government tried to find a solution, by encouraging people from Eastern Europe and even Asia to come to Poland to work on building sites. Finally this crisis lessons and to some extent solved the problem. In our opinion the biggest challenges in adjusting the educational system to meet economic demands are: 1. Lack of simple predictability of future economic trends, e.g. the new reform introduced in 1999 could be more thought over. Experiences of other countries that joined the EU first should be taken into consideration especially if everyone knew that Poland was going to join EU in the near future. 2. Lack of flexibility of the educational system, e.g. the programs and curricula do not change through the years. School directors do not have a “free hand” to adjust educational offerings and curricula to changes on the labour market. Programs are standardized in all of Poland, which is one cause for failure, as labour markets in various regions are different and have different needs. In order to have the educational system working more effectively, two factors should be fulfilled: 1. An institution responsible for monitoring the national and the local economies should be set up in order to specify the trends and to predict the needs of the labour market in the short, middle and long-term future.
This is being some to some extent by several institutions, but there is no single overseeing institution coordinating and monitoring these activities. 2. Good communication between stakeholders of the vocational education system should be established e.g. by organising regular meetings (once a year) by a committee composed of representatives from government, schools, teachers, companies, trade unions, and labour offices that will facilitate good cooperation between them and proper legislation in this matter. Especially hard to achieve would be this second point. As usual, the solution is not easy to implement, as each stakeholder has different aims and needs: companies – profit; schools – attractive educational offerings; teachers – high salary; government – developing economy. There are also different obstacles and limitations: for companies – lack of time and money to teach pupils; schools – problems with lack of infrastructure and no successful enrolment because of low demographics; teachers – aversion to change in curricula; government – national budget limits. The system consists of groups with different needs and limitations. Every group receives benefits from the system and so every group a well functioning system is/should be the goal. The problem is only how to make the system well functioning. Good communication, discussions about the needs and obstacles and looking for a common solution among stakeholders could be the basis for increasing the operational level of the system in general.
Best Practices in Building Training
Best Practice Estonia
At Järva County Vocational Training Center we have given equal attention to the teaching of theoretical knowledge and to teaching the practical skills of students. Everything that students learn in their classes they exercise through their practical work, during which we explain to each student the necessity and purpose of the work. The following are cases examples illustrating the close link between theoretical and practice as carried out on school property by building students. Before Before
Our first example of excellence came from the performance of students pursuing a profession as Restorers. During This successful practice was conducted at Särevere Manor where restoration students gradually opened Manor rooms by removing old doors, floors, staircase handrails made of materials available during Soviet times, as well as old layers of paint.
After removal of old materials and old layers of paint we undertook restoration and returned the interior to its original historic appearance.
During the restoration work we consider the historic layout of the premises. We salvaged as much of the original materials as possible. For example, we replaced the fallen plaster with lime plaster and used water-based paints with all our restoration works approved by the National Heritage Inspector.
The second example on the premises of Järva County Vocational Training Center focused on the vacant and dilapidated barn that had stood empty for twenty years and was in a very bad condition. We decided to rebuild and make it functional for use as a horse stable.
School funding is limited, so this presented an interesting challenge to both students and teachers. We didn‟t wait better economical times, but rather decided to search for solutions from the school‟s property. The School has a store of demolished old buildings and also materials available for recycling. Construction reusing old materials teaches the attitude and mindset of creativity. In the beginning students were not so optimistic about reconstruction of the stables, but as the project progressed student optimism increased. Step by step they worked until the end of November when we gave achieved Stage 1, where 11 horses received a brand new home.
This event gave great delight to students who saw that their efforts went smoothly and had tangible results. Such activities that tie together theoretical and practice serves to broaden the horizons of young people by showing them that achieving results, even when faced with great obstacles is not impossible if you use your imagination. During the 2010 school year we are continuing this project in Stage 2 by reconstructing the other side of stables, after which we will house 13 additional horses. Stage 3 will see the reconstruction of an adjacent room for staff and supplies. Finished work
The third example of our practical application is about our construction students working on the school‟s 72-square meter auditorium- classroom building on the Särevere Campus. The aim of this practical training was to increase school room efficiency that once stood vacant unused. Classrooms are being readied for the new study year 2011-2012. This project also incorporates daily repair and maintenance tasks.
In conclusion we can say, that giving students the opportunity to develop their skills at specific construction sites allows students to achieve a higher level of skills and understanding so that , in addition to gaining vocational skills, students will continue to develop independent thinking and the ability to find sensible and practical solutions in difficult circumstances. They know how to apply the principles of sustainable renovation work and it embeds the acquired knowledge in practical work.4
Best practice Germany
Written by IVAR KOHJUS, Practical Trainer – Järvamaa Kutsehariduskeskus
Translated by Tiina Kroll, Edited by Elizabeth Lenz
Introduction: Arwed-Rossbach Schule – Berufliches Schulzentrum der Stadt Leipzig
Arwed-Rossbach School – Vocational School Centre of Leipzig City
For the German best practice we chose the Arwed-Rossbach Vocational School Centre because of its wide range of specialities. The school can be introduced along the following adjectives:
Integrative: It collects a wide range of school forms which allow young people to
choose the appropriate qualification path according to the duration and content of the vocational education being pursued. Arwerd-Rossbach School – until 2007 named as Vocational School Centre 6 of City Leipzig - was established in 1992 and includes these different school forms: In the “Vocational Secondary School” students can get their Higher Education Entrance Qualification after 3 years in the following subject areas: constructional technology. In the “Technical Secondary School” young adults get the chance, after finishing their vocational education, to gain an advanced technical certificate. The third school form includes the regular Vocational School (Berufsschule), where the school and apprenticing company cooperate within the frame of the dual educational system. In a two or three year period of education, students get theoretical knowledge in diverse building and construction occupations. Basic Vocational School (Berufsgrundbildungsjahr, BGJ) is offered in the fields of constructional engineering and metal engineering. A successful degree earned engineering as well as Informationand communication
at a vocational preparation school can be recognized and credited as the first year by this subsequent basic vocational education. The “Vocational Preparatory Year” (Berufsvorbereitungsjahr, BVJ) is offered in the field of building technique and wood technique for young people who have no training contracts with the any company. After the successful completed of the BVJ, the certificate of secondary education can be gained. Through this vocational preparatory year the compulsory vocational school training is fulfilled. Curricula: s. attachment
The curriculum of the Arwed-Rossbach Vocational School Centre is divided in three segments. Depending on what year of training, there is a different number of hours planned each year for theoretical education and for practical training. In the first year of education the number of hours for the theory is higher than the number of hours for practice. According to the Dual Educational System vocational education is focused on more delivery of practical knowledge, which means that in the second and the third year the number of days spent in companies actually increases. There are three actors which are involved directly in the vocational education and training: 1. Training company – provides in-house initial vocational training. The training companies must satisfy certain requirements regarding the suitability of the training premises and must have a sufficient number of qualified personnel. The competent body – in other words, the chamber that is responsible for the particular company (as a rule, the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce or Chamber of Skilled Crafts) – determines whether a firm is qualified to provide in-company vocational training. 2. Inter- company vocational training centre provides those parts of a trainee‟s training that his company cannot. In addition, trainees become 49
acquainted with the latest technical developments in their field at such facilities. Inter-company vocational training also serves a pedagogical function as a “third learning environment” where practical and theoretical competence is systematically taught. The duration of inter-company vocational training depends on what the training company is not able to teach its trainee. The enterprises, chambers, guilds and the German government bear the cost of inter-company vocational training. 3. Vocational School – has to offer the theory for the adequate profession
Teaching Plan: example
Green: Company + holidays Yellow: Inter-company vocational training Red: Vocational school White: total number of days 50
National Relations: The Arwed-Rossbach Schule has been cooperating with different national partners since 1992 and organizes student exchanges in Leipzig and in the partner countries which ensure a high reputation of the school Saxony wide. In the region of Leipzig the school works with diverse local and regional companies and institutions responsible for the development and accreditation of curricula as with the Chamber of Crafts, Chamber of Commerce and Industry Leipzig, Corporate Training Centre and University of cooperative education.
International Partners: Since 1990 the Arwerd-Rossbach Schule carried out different bilateral projects with the Istituti Aldini Valeriani Bologna (IT), Matthew Boulton College Birmingham (UK), Stredni Odborne Ucilište Tradicnich Remesel Brno (CZ), Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Zespol Szkol nr 7 Wroclaw (PL) and with the Stredné Odborné Ucilište Stavebné Levice (SK). Speciality of the school The school pays attention not only on the quality-oriented education and practical training but also on the personal development of the students. Though different project works as the project “Building and Environment” or “Construction – past and present” students learn during their work to think analytically, to plan systematically, problem solving but also how to work in teams as well as how to present the outcomes of the project (regarding the content, rhetoric and behaviour). The project weeks are regularly planned in the last school week and students are involved in the first year of apprenticeship to motivate and encourage them for their further education.
Best Practice Italy, Lepido Rocco
Lepido Rocco Association GOOD PRACTICE: HYGIENE AND SAFETY AT WORK Locker rooms and basic health care and sanitation measures are essential to the comfort and cleanliness of the construction site staff. Therefore it is necessary to build up appropriate spaces or to use prefabricated buildings, conveniently insulated, lightened, aerated and warmed during the cold season. This allows all employees to work in the essential conditions of self-respect and wellbeing.
Related to the care of oneself, it is important to be ready for sanitary emergencies which might occur, such as avoiding further harm to a person‟s health and taking the right measures. some These are are a practices described: arrest; of case which cannot be improvised. Here examples and fibrillation cardiac
concussion, and one of burning. What follows are simple and easy first aid practices which could make the difference between life and death. To intervene even if supported by a minimum medical knowledge is far better than stand still and stare. The training is organized by the association “Unindustria Treviso” and each training path is developed of by the National Association training Firms Construction of the are training Enterprises surrounding constantly courses
(ANCE) which collaborates with vocational schools and provincial or regional area. enterprises the informed about
available and they receive a monthly newsletter and other specific advertising. Some of the training courses, though, are compulsory, such as the safety course. Teachers of these specialized courses are professionals from the field of construction and specifically regarding the safety course are trained experts. The duration of the courses depends on the training path they are pursing: from 20 to 30 hours if the course is part of an initial education path, or from a 53
minimum of 24 hours to a maximum of 96 hours if it belongs to a compulsory training course. Although safety training is incorporated in most vocational training programs, the possibility to attend such courses on-line makes it a best practice, in allowing a wider number of employees to attend the trainings.
Best Practice Italy N.E.T.
NAME OF THE PROJECT ESF 3-YEAR TRAINING COURSE “COLLABORATOR AND RESTORER FOR THE HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC HERITAGE” PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT (starting and finishing year): 2007 - 2009 PLACE OF DEVELOPMENT: VILLA NIEVO BONIN LONGARE, MONTECCHIO PRECALCINO, VICENZA
RATIONALE FOR THE PROJECT: Specific training related to preservation and restoration of cultural heritage and frescos (during the third year); it included also CAD lessons. TARGET GROUPS The training course, funded by Veneto region and ESF, is addressed to young unemployed / jobless persons with a high school diploma, persons about to graduate or with a degree in restoration or preservation of Cultural Heritage. For the ones attending a university, they can earn credits with this course. Furthermore, the completion of such a course enables the participants to have access to public State exams. The participation was completely free and the trainees had an attendance grant of 3.00 € per hour. The course lasted 900 hours (560 theoretical and 340 onsite, including a week of observation abroad). CONTENT Objectives: o Restoration of the external façade of Villa Nievo Bonin Longare, Montecchio Precalcino, Vicenza Learn innovative restoration methods in order to be able to have access to this particular labour market o Have the necessary training to have access to the public State exams o Improve their knowledge in the field o Learn also new and interesting tools and techniques
The Nievo family of Montecchio Precalcino inherited this building in 1333 and they have been modifying, restructuring and restoring it many times to arrive to the current neo-gothic palace in 1880-1882. In particular it is the result of a radical intervention by the architect Michele Cairati from Milan, who restored the existing building remaking them in a neogothic style, except for the monumental entrance and the contiguous portico designed by Giacomo Varga in 1824. The façade was characterised by richly decorated plasterworks with neo-gothic patterns but when students arrived here for the ESF course they found them in very bad condition: wide areas detached, cracking, and lifting of the pictorial layer.
After surveying the situation of the building they started with restoration interventions guided by the restoration trainer: o Poultices with an innovative method using soluble salts o Stone cleaning o Plasterworks removal o Plasterworks redressing
o Disassembling and re-assembling of the stone elements o Pictorial retouch (spolvero technique). Results: o Beautiful restoration of the façade of the villa o Evaluation of the situation of the building to restore before intervention o Access to the specific labour market related to restoration SOURCE OF FINANCING EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND The European Social Fund (ESF) is one of the funding tools of the European Union aimed at promoting the economic and social cohesion and reducing the existing differences between the countries and regions of the Union. Within the framework of the cohesion policy, ESF has the objective to improve the work possibilities, encouraging a high degree of employability and new and better job places. It supports actions to strengthen productivity and competitiveness and promote a real economic growth and sustainable development. The European Social Fund, implementing the Lisbon strategy, deals with the education and training, combating social exclusion, promoting equal opportunities and non discrimination. The main priorities of the actions funded by this are: o Increase the adaptability of workers to the new labour market needs and situation o Improve the employability to prevent unemployment o Strengthen social inclusion of disadvantaged people o Give potential to the human resources through quality training o Promote partnership, initiatives at transnational, regional and local level to encourage reforms in the labour market. According to the European Planning 2007-2013, Veneto region focused the Operative Regional Planning ESF on the Objective “Regional Competitiveness and Employment” that defines the orientation and the funding for Upper Training. 58
EVALUATION BY THE PARTICIPANTS This project gave the trainees the opportunity to experience directly the restoration and see the final result, and on the other hand learn new and innovative restoration techniques and legislation related to this field that will enable them to have access to this specific sector of the labour market, that as many other suffer from lacking of public funds. As evaluation and positive outcome of the course I‟d like to bring the example of three of the trainees, what they are doing now, after the completion of the course: 1. Adriana works for the restoration company they work with during the course, 2. Giacomo started a PhD in Archaeology, his passion and 3. Giorgia is starting a new job for a restoration company specialized in laser technology applied to restoration The course was successful and gave them the opportunity to find a job place in their field. So this means that the course was a successful experience that improved their knowledge and gave them the opportunity to find a job placement in their field of expertise.
Best Practice Poland
Państwowe Szkoły Budownictwa Cooperation level between a school and companies
Our with base
Szkoły how to of
Budownictwa (PSB), was grappling question many in labour a reorient and modernize our didactic after years communism. Running the school workshops changing the dynamically meant material market field:
close cooperation with leaders in construction producers, tool producers, devices producers and their direct users – executives in construction market. The analysis of the current and future producers‟ and executives' market indicated unambiguously, what should be the form of the cooperation and how it should be realized, so that the needs of future staff in deficient professions would meet requirements made by future employers. The school needs were defined together: techno didactic equipment, materials and also requirements that should be fulfilled by the school towards the partner (company).
Forms of cooperation were based also on common definition of prospective aims having an influence on both school development and benefits for companies. Only in this way is there clear understanding in the cooperation between school – company and company – school allowing us to reach intended goals with benefits for both interested sides. Companies involved in the project „Building the Best” BRAAS Cooperation with leading companies turned out to be a unique initiative to improve the standard workshops. of We our have underinvested
been fostering successful cooperation since 1997 with such companies as:
FAKRO, JUNKERS, BOSCH, HETTICH, GEBERIT ROCHWOOL, SANITEC KOŁO, OTTIMO, COMAP, ATLAS, VELUX, NIDA GIPS, SCHIEDEL, WAYNE DALTON, APEKS, warehouses AL KOR, FEMAX, ATM, ASP, which are leaders in the construction market not only in Poland but worldwide as well.
In recent years the scope of cooperation has widened considerably and has focused on transferring new technologies, professional equipment, high quality materials, tools and devices for practical training. Moreover, the connection with the labour market, meeting potential future employers, and gaining certificates increases the possibility for our students to get an interesting job. Key to the success is unfettered access to new technology coupled with the development of skills and abilities gained not only by our students but also by teachers and trainers. Our trainers trained by companies can train another interested people or workers from the labour market not connected with the school and use this paid service as additional support to PSB. KNAUF
Cooperation with a vocational school can be the most effective way for companies to ensure introducing their own technology into the curriculum and gaining school graduates as employees knowing the technology and materials used by them. Without a doubt we recognize here the importance of an innovative way of widening the range of free advertisement. Another advantage for companies is the possibility of using school facilities for their own commercial trainings. Companies do not get money for using their own
products during the training of external workers at PSB, because they benefit from gaining know-how of their own products and technologies. Most our students choose the workshop at PSB instead of having a placement in private firms because of our quality and reputation of cooperating with companies, fully equipped training rooms, and well qualified trainers and practitioners from companies.
Apart from the obligatory curriculum students gain additional qualifications in specific technologies by attending different courses. Continuing education is one of the necessities in the rapidly changing labour market. Students taking part in professional courses get a certificate issued by the company and the school, which confirms their knowledge and skills in a specific technology. This fact has a significant influence on their qualifications. Obtaining a certificate gives the graduates the possibility of getting a better job on the executive market, because they are perceived by employers as qualified staff and do not need additional investment in their training. Successively equipped training rooms and tool rooms with new technological materials, tools and didactic devices resulted that one of the biggest accredited exam centre of REB (Regional Exam Board) is now located in our school, along with a few Training Centres of internationally recognized producers.
This “Building the Best” Partnership project was successful in many ways. We established lasting relationships and new networks; learned about educational systems, challenges and successes in Partner Countries; exchanged knowledge, innovative ideas and training approaches; and more. Above all, this Partnership was successful because we found a „best practice‟ in Poland that could greatly strengthen and improve quality and innovation and enhance the attractiveness of vocational education and training in Europe. Several partners from this project have therefore applied for a Leonardo da Vinci Transfer of Innovation for introducing and testing this exemplary model.
Estonia – JKHK http://www.paidemek.ee/. Paide MEK AS, location of building company operations. http://www.eeel.ee. Estonian Association of Construction Entrepreneurs. http://www.hkk.ee. Archimedes Foundation, Center for Educational Programmes http://www.hm.ee. Estonian Ministry of Education and Research
Germany - Wisamar Website links to the German Partners, which were visited during the meeting in Leipzig: Arwerd-Rossbach Vocational Educational School: http://www.arwedrossbach-schule.de/cms/ Überbetriebliches Ausbildungszentrum Leipzig: http://www.baubildung.de/leipzig.htm Betonwerk Oschatz: http://www.betonwerk-oschatz.de/ Förderverein für Handwerk und Denkmalpflege Schloss Trebsen: http://www.schloss-trebsen.de/ Links to further contacts: Chamber of Commerce Leipzig: https://www.leipzig.ihk.de/de/DesktopDefault.aspx/15_read-14743/ HausHalten e.V. Leipzig: http://www.haushalten.org/
Drees&Sommer: http://www.dreso.com/english/default.htm Zimmerei und Holzbau Göbel: http://www.zimmerei-goebel.de/ Berufliches Schulzentrum 12 "Robert Blum“: http://www.bsz12leipzig.de/start.html
Italy NET Centro Provinciale di Istruzione Professionale Edile (Building Vocational Training
Associazione Nazionale Costruttori Edili (National constructions Employers‟
Collegio Costruttori Padova (Construction Employers‟ association - Padua) www.costruttoripadova.it Federazione Italiana Lavoratori Costruzioni e Affini (Italian Association of
construction workers) www.filca.cisl.it
Federazione Nazionale Lavoratori dell'Edilizia industrie affini e del Legno (Italian
Association of construction workers and carpenters) www.feneal-uil.it
Federazione Italiana dei Lavoratori del Legno, dell' Edilizia, delle industrie Affini ed estrattive (F.I.L.L.E.A.) (Italian Association of workers of wood, construction
workers and similar) www.filleacgil.it
Fondo Ambiente Italiano (Italian Environment Foundation) www.fondoambiente.it
Italy Lepido Rocco http://www.ance.it/ance/jsp/home.jsp?sTipoPagina=HOME%20PAGE http://www.cassaedile.it/ http://www.tv.camcom.it/ http://www.regione.veneto.it/Servizi+alla+Persona/Sanita/Prevenzione/Salute+e +Sicurezza+nei+luoghi+di+lavoro/SPISAL.htm
POLAND - PSB GEBERIT (Innovative Sanitary Solutions) www.geberit.com.pl BRAAS (Building materials for pitched roofs, innovative roof, chimney and
ventilation systems) www.monier.pl
KNAUF (Plasterboards) www.knauf.pl
POLAND – BONUM Centrum Kształcenia Praktycznego w Krakowie (Practical Training Center in
Krakow) - www.ckp.krakow.pl
Związek Zawodowy "Budowlani" (“Budowlani” Trade Union) www.zzbudowlani.pl Centrum Nauki i Biznesu “Żak” (Science and Business Centre “Żak”) www.zak.edu.pl
Zespół Szkół Budowlanych nr 1 w Krakowie (Building Secondary School No. 1 in
Krakow) – www.psb.neostrada.pl
Polska Izba Przemysłowo-Handlowa Budownictwa (Polish Construction Chamber
of Commerce and Industry) - www.izba.budowlany.pl
Stowarzyszenie Architektów Polskich (Association of Polish Architects) www.sarp.org.pl Polska Izba Inżynierów Budownictwa (Construction Engineers Chamber in
Poland) - www.piib.org.pl
Polskie Stowarzyszenie Budowniczych Domów (Polish House-Builders
Association) - www.psbd.com.pl
Śląska Izba Budownictwa (Silesian Building Chamber) - www.izbabud.pl
Credits Names of organizations and main authors. References.