You are on page 1of 7

CHAPTER 3

3.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

3.1.1 CONCEPT OF TRAINING


Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It
is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The
purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirements and present
competence of an employee. Training is aimed at improving the behavior and performance of a
person. It is a never ending or a continuous process. Training is closely related with education
and development but needs to be differentiated from these terms.

3.1.2 OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING

The main objective of training is to bridge the gap between the existing performance

ability and desired performance.

The training objectives are designed in accordance with the company goals and

objectives. The general objectives of any training programme are,

 To inculcate the basic knowledge and skill to the new entrants and to enable them to
perform their jobs well.

 To enable the employee to meet the changing requirements of the job and the
organization.

 To demonstrate the employees the new techniques and ways of performing the job or
operations.

24
3.1.3 FROM THE JOURNALS AND ARTICLES

O.JEFF HARRIS, JR. OBSEEVES states that

“Training of any kind should have as its objective the redirection or improvement of
behavior so that the performance of the trainee becomes more useful and productive for himself
and for the organization of which he is part/ training normally concentrates on the improvements
of either operative skills, interpersonal skills, decision making skills, or a combination of these”.

EDWIN B.FLIPPO states that


“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job.”

CARTER McNAMARA states that( MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC)


“As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer
to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs.”

PENN STATE HARRISBURG defines


“The Training and Development profession focuses on analyzing and improving
employee learning and performance. It encompasses such activities as performance analysis,
training, career development, organization development, and program evaluation.”

MACTEC states that

“A company is only as good as its people, and MACTEC’s goal is to have the best. We
focus on recruiting and retaining exceptional people, but we don’t stop there: we are committed
to the ongoing training and development of our staff. Ongoing development benefits not only our
employees, but also our clients because it keeps us at the leading edge of changing technologies
and regulatory issues”

25
3.1.4 IN AN ARTICLE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING BY KIKPATRICK MODEL
( June 2007)

EMPLOYEE TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS: A STRATEGIC WAY TO SUCCESS

Training is an important factor in all firms' business strategy, but firms don't assess the
impact of training programmes over the employees all the time. Training is effective only if it
produces desired outcome. When the organization is implementing a training programme, there
should be an ideal forum on which the evaluation scheme can be built, and assessment of
effectiveness of training and development activities can be done. The article elucidates the impact
of an effective training programme on the career growth and development of employees. I have
also put forward some suggestions for increasing the effectiveness of the training that will help
the organization to step into a bright future.

 Why Measure Training Effectiveness?

Measuring the effectiveness of training programs consumes valuable time and resources.
As we know all too well, these things are in short supply in organizations today. Why should we
bother?

Many training programs fail to deliver the expected organizational benefits. Having a
well-structured measuring system in place can help you determine where the problem lies. On a
positive note, being able to demonstrate a real and significant benefit to your organization from
the training you provide can help you gain more resources from important decision-makers.

Consider also that the business environment is not standing still. Your competitors,
technology, legislation and regulations are constantly changing. What was a successful training
program yesterday may not be a cost-effective program tomorrow. Being able to measure results
will help you adapt to such changing circumstances.

26
Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs

Level 4 – What organizational benefits resulted from the


Results training?

To what extent did participants change their


Level 3 -
behavior back in the workplace as a result of the
Behavior
training?

To what extent did participants improve


Level 2 -
knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a
Learning
result of the training?

Level 1 -
How did participants react to the program?
Reaction

3.1.5 IN AN ARTICLE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING BY DORN WILLIAMS


(JULY 30, 2007) STATES THAT
Training is a critical component in any organizations strategy, but organizations don’t
evaluate the business impact of a training program. Given the large expenditures for training in
many organizations, it is important to develop business intelligence tools that will help
companies improve the measurement of training effectiveness. These tools need to provide a
methodology to measure, evaluate, and continuously improve training, as well as the
organizational and technical infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology. Cross-
functional and reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the
measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS) and the
larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and positively affects
business result.

27
3.1.6 IN AN ARTICLE IMPROVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING BY (SEPTEMBER
8TH, 2008) STATES THAT
When you talk to instructors about the need to improve training effectiveness, what do you
discuss the most? Do you talk more about the things that need improvement or do you give equal
time to the “reasons” why improvement is important? If you balance your discussion between
what needs to change and why, you increase your chances of getting better performance.
Using this approach is easy, First, identify the behaviors you need instructors to improve.
Perhaps instructors need to start doing something or stop doing something. Second, identify the
kind of “positive” results that could occur if instructors exhibited these behaviors. For example,
performance improvement could have a positive impact on what the instructor does, what the
trainees learn, and even on the image of the training department. Consider this scenario:

 This Is The Behavior You Want Instructors To Improve


1. Increased ability of participants to master the information that is most essential for
performing their job.
2. More instances where trainees can immediately use the information learned during the
training back on the job.
3. More instances where training participants remain engaged and interested during the
training.
4. More instances where participants are challenged to think critically during the training.
5. Fewer instances where excessive time is spent discussing “non-critical” topics.
6. More instances where all components of the training program are covered in a timely and
complete manner.
7. Fewer complaints about training instructors and/or the training program.
8. Fewer instances where training classes must be cancelled due to lack of interest in the
training program
9. More instances where managers see the value of allowing their employees to attend
training programs

28
3.1.7 IN AN ARTICLE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL AND SITUATIONAL
CHARACTERS OF ON MEASURES OF TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS BY JOHN E.
MATHIEU, SCOTT I. TANNENBAUM AND EDUARDO SALAS (1992 , ACADEMY OF
MANAGEMENT )
A model of individual and situational influences on individual’s training-related
motivation and training effectiveness based on valence-instrumentality – expectancy theory was
developed. A training program designed to improve proofreading skills was tested with 106
university employees. The findings supported the hypothesized relationship between learning
and performance. Further, a hypothesized moderated relationship between training motivation
and reactions, as related to learning, was supported. We obtained minimal support for the
hypothesized antecedents of training-related motivation. A revised model was formulated in
which reactions to training play a complex role, moderating some relationships yet mediating
others.
3.1.8 IN AN ARTICLE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING BY HELEN (APRIL 1,
2005)
Employees need to be adequately skilled to do their job and require continued training to
maintain and develop their competency levels. With pressure to keep costs under control, the
manager needs to ensure that any training investment represents good value for money and
delivers the necessary skills and knowledge to staff.
There are a number of techniques that can be used to assess whether training has been
absorbed and put into practice in everyday work. The manager should use a combination of
methods to check whether the training has been effective in the real-life work setting.
The manager should meet with the employee to discuss it. This meeting demonstrates the
organization’s interest in the employees development and allows the manager to perform an
initial assessment of how effective the training has been. This meeting will investigate three
different aspects of the training effectiveness—reaction. Learning and behaviors.

29
3.1.9 IN AN ARTICLE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING BY VELMURUGAN. P.S,
SEENTHIL RAJA .A, PALANICHAMY. P (DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY 2, JULY 2009 )
The perceptions of the employee’s performance before the training programmes and after
the training programmes were measured. A part from it, whether the company was really
interested in providing training programmes to the employee’s equip the trainers with latest
technologies were also the employees said that the trainers were well equipped. The majority of
the employees suggested that the training programmes had helped them to do the job in a better
way. Thus it had been concluded that the programmes had increased the level of satisfaction of
the employees in discharging their duties, even though a small section of the employees differing
with the majority.

30