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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human

beings, individually and collectively, and affirms their ability to improve their lives through the use of
reason and ingenuity as opposed to submitting blindly to tradition and authority or sinking into cruelty
and brutality.
Behaviorism was a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward
behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner
procedural, aspects as well; a movement harking back to the methodological proposals of John B.
Watson, who coined the name.
Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing ofsocial questions and
a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy.Reconstructionist educators focus on
a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.
The Perennial philosophy (Latin: philosophia perennis), [note 1] also referred to as Perennialism, is a
perspective in the philosophy of religion which views each of the world's religious traditions as
sharing a single, universal truth from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has
Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or
the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active
experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the
They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational
philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect. For Perennialists, the
aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western
Educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children
should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly. In thisphilosophical school of thought, the aim
is to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics
Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that some aspects of reality are ontologically
independent of our conceptual schemes, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can
know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Epistemologically,idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mindindependent thing.
What are the Idealisms Views on Discipline, Student and Teacher?
Article shared by Senthil Kumar
Idealism and Discipline
Idealism believes that there can be no spiritual development of the child without discipline. They give
importance to impressionistic discipline in comparison to expressionistic discipline.

According to Gentile, Teacher is a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Teacher leads a child toward
absolute perfection. That is why he is considered as pilot of God in perfecting man. He provides to
the child the knowledge of his cultural heritage. He is the priest of mans spiritual heritage.
He tells the child the way to reach God. He is a living ideal. Children imitate him. His personality
therefore must be ideal. He acts as a friend, philosopher and guide.
According to Aurobindo, The first principle of true teaching is that nothing can be taught. The
teacher is not instructor or task master; he is helper and guide. His business is to suggest and guide
and not to impose.
He does not impart knowledge to him; he shows him how to acquire knowledge for himself. In
idealistic philosophy the teacher has a very important role to play in education as he has to lead the
pupil from darkness to light and he has to help him in development of his personality.