You are on page 1of 6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

AccordingtotheIEC61660
FromOpenElectrical

Contents
1Introduction
2CalculatingtheTotalShortCircuitCurrent
3PartialFaultCurrents
3.1FaultCurrentfromBatteries
3.2FaultCurrentfromCapacitors
3.3FaultCurrentfromRectifiers
3.4FaultCurrentfromDCMachines
3.5CorrectionFactors
4References

Introduction
ThescopeofIEC61660istodescribeamethodforcalculatingshortcircuitcurrentsinDCauxiliary
systemsinpowerplantsandsubstations.Suchsystemscanbeequippedwiththefollowingequipment,
actingasshortcircuitcurrentsources:
rectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionfor50Hz
stationaryleadacidbatteries
smoothingcapacitors
DCmotorswithindependentexcitation.
NOTERectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionfor60Hzareunderconsideration.Thedataof
otherequipmentmaybegivenbythemanufacturer.
ThisstandardisonlyconcernedwithrectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnection.Itisnotconcerned
withothertypesofrectifiers.
Thepurposeofthestandardistoprovideagenerallyapplicablemethodofcalculationwhichproduces
resultsofsufficientaccuracyontheconservativeside.Specialmethods,adjustedtoparticular
circumstances,maybeusediftheygiveatleastthesameprecision.Shortcircuitcurrents,resistances
andinductancesmayalsobeascertainedfromsystemtestsormeasurementsonmodelsystems.In
existingDCsystemsthenecessaryvaluescanbeascertainedfrommeasurementstakenattheassumed
shortcircuitlocation.Theloadcurrentisnottakenintoconsiderationwhencalculatingtheshortcircuit
current.Itisnecessarytodistinguishbetweentwodifferentvaluesofshortcircuitcurrent:
themaximumshortcircuitcurrentwhichdeterminestheratingoftheelectricalequipment
theminimumshortcircuitcurrentwhichcanbetakenasthebasisforfuseandprotectionratings
andsettings.
FormoreinformationpleaserefertothestandarditselfIEC616601
(https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/5700).

CalculatingtheTotalShortCircuitCurrent

Figure1.Equivalentcircuitdiagramforcalculatingthepartialshort
circuitcurrents

EachDCsourceduringthefaultshallcontributetothetotalshortcircuitcurrent.Thesuperposition
principleisbeingapplied.Whenonesourceisobservedthentheotheronesarebeingdisconnectedandignored.ThepotentialDCsourcesarebattery,rectifier,capacitorand
machine.
Thepartialshortcircuitcurrentsarecalculatedforeachofthosesourcesasfollows:
for0

tp:

Wheretpisthetimetopeakofthepartialcurrentand1istherisetimeconstantforthepartialcurrentsource.
fortp

Tk:

WhereTkisthefaultdurationtimeand2thedecaytimeconstantforthepartialcurrentsource.

http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

1/6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

Andthetotalshortcircuitcurrentisthesumasfollows:

for0

Tk.AndnDCisthenumberoftheDCsourcescontributingthefaultcurrent,jistheobservedDCsource.

PartialFaultCurrents
FaultCurrentfromBatteries
Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedas:

Thequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedasfollows:

Thedecaycomponentiscalculatedas:

Therisetimeconstant(1B)andtimetopeakofshortcircuitcurrentsofbatteriesis
takenfromthediagram(Figure10.inIEC61660:1997).Thetimeconstantofthebattery
TBisassumedtobe30ms.Thedecaytimeconstant(2B)isassumedto100ms.RBBris
thesumofthebatteryinternalresistanceandtheline(path)resistanceuptothefault
location(RBBr=0,9RB+RBr).LBBristhesumofthebatteryinternalinductanceandthe

Figure2.Timetopeakandrisetimeconstant(Figure10.IEC61660:1997)

line(path)inductanceuptothefaultlocation.
Risetimecurrent,for0ttpB:

Decaytimecurrent,fortpBtTk:

Andthetotalcurrentfromthebatteryis:

FaultCurrentfromCapacitors
Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

WhereECisthevoltageofthecapacitorterminalbeforethefault,andRCBristhesumof
capacitorandbranchresistance,uptothefaultlocation.ThefactorCdependsonthe
eigenfrequency0andthedecaycoefficient,asfollows:

LCBristheinductanceofthecapacitorandcommonbranchuptothefaultlocation.
a)If>0:

http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

Figure3.Factork1Ctodeterminerisetimeconstant(Figure14.IEC61660:1997)

2/6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

b)If<0:

c)If=0:
Figure4.Factork2Ctodeterminedecaytimeconstant(Figure15.IEC61660:1997)

WherethetimetopeakistpC.Andtherisetimeconstantis:

Andthedecaytimeconstantis:

Andcoefficientsk1Candk2Caretakenfromthediagrams/tables(definedinFigure14.IEC61660).Thequasisteadystatecurrentofthecapacitorisconsideredtobe0.
Risetimecurrent,for0ttpC:

Decaytimecurrent,fortpCtTk:

Andthetotalcurrentfromthebatteryis:

FaultCurrentfromRectifiers
ThequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentIkDofarectifierinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionis:

WhereUnisthenominalsystemvoltageonACsideofrectifier,ZNisthenetworkimpedanceACside,UnTLVandUnTHVaretransformerratedvoltagesoflowandhigh
voltageside,respectively.ThefactorDiscalculatedusing:

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

AndthefactorDand

iscalculatedusing:

http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

3/6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

ThetimetopeakiscalculatedforallvaluesD1,05asfollows:
for

itis

for

itis

(ms)
(ms)

Therisetimeconstantforrectifiersis:
ForD>=1.05:

ForD<1.05:

Thesuitableapproximationisgivenas:

Thedecaytimeconstantiscalculatedusing:

FaultCurrentfromDCMachines
Thequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

WhereLFisthefieldinductanceandLOFistheunsaturatedfieldinductanceatnoload.Thisequationisvalidonlyifthemotorspeedremainsconstantduringtheduration
oftheshortcircuitfault.OtherwiseIkM=0.

Figure5.FactorMfordeterminingthepeakshortcircuitcurrentipM(Figure17.IEC
61660:1997)

Figure6.FactorsfordeterminingtpM,1Mfornominalanddecreasingspeed(Figure
18.IEC61660:1997)

Thearmaturetimeconstantiscalculatedas:

Thetimeconstantofthefieldcircuitiscalculatedas:

http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

4/6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

Andthemechanicaltimeconstantiscalculatedas:

Theeigenfrequencyiscalculatedas:

Thedecaycoefficientiscalculatedfrom:

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrent:

Thefactorsk1M,k2M,k3Mandk4Maretakenfromthediagrams(Figure18,20,21inIEC61660).ThefactorMistakenfromthediagram(Figure17inIEC61660).

Figure8.Factork3Mfordeterminingtherisetimeconstantt1Mfordecreasingspeed
(Figure20.IEC61660:1997)

Figure9.Factork4Mfordeterminingthedecaytimeconstantt2Mfordecreasingspeed
(Figure21.IEC61660:1997)

ThetimetopeakincasewhenMec10F:

Andtherisetimeconstant:

Thedecaytimeconstant:
2M=Fwhenn=nn=const.
2M=(k4M)(Mec)(LOF/LF)whenn0
IncasewhenMec<10Fthenthetimetopeakistakenfromthediagram/table(Figure19.IEC61660).

Therisetimeconstantandthedecaytimeconstant1Mand2Marecalculatedusing:

Risetimecurrent,for0ttpM:
http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

5/6

07/05/2016

AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

Wheretpisthetimetopeakofthepartialcurrentand1istherisetimeconstantfortheobservedvoltagesource.
Decaytimecurrent,fortpMtTk:

AndthetotalcurrentfromtheDCmachineis:

CorrectionFactors
Duetothefactthatallnonobservedsourcesatthetimeareneglectedalongwiththeirbranchesit
issuggestedtousecorrectionfactors,whicharesupposedtoimprovetotalresults.Each
calculatedcorrectionfactorismultipliedwiththepartialfaultcurrentoftheeachsource,as
follows:

WhereIjistheinitialpartialfaultcurrentandjisthecorrectionfactor,bothforthesource"j".

Correctedresistancefortheeachsource

Yreferstothebranch(Br).

References
IEC61660:Shortcircuitcurrentsind.c.auxiliaryinstallationsinpowerplantsandsubstationsPart1:Calculationofshortcircuitcurrents.
FormoreinformationpleaserefertothestandarditselfIEC616601(https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/5700).
Relatedtopics:
ShortCircuitCalculation
accordingtotheANSI/IEEE946
Retrievedfrom"http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660"
Categories:Calculations|Protection
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon9May2015,at01:38.

http://www.openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660

6/6