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Host

Zoonotic?

Life cycle/ Pathogenesis

How did animal acquire it?

Ancylostoma caninummost common


(hookworm/nematode)

Dog

Yes

-L3 ingestion from environment


or infected animal
-Larval skin penetration
-transmammary

Ancylostoma
tubaeforme
(hookworm)
Uncinaria
stenocephala
(hookworm/nematode)

Cat

1. ingestion of infectious larvae


2. migration to lungs
3. coughed up and swallowed and
mature in intestines
4. adult worms lay eggs in small
intestines

Dog, cat

Yes

Same as ancylostoma

Toxascaris leonina
(roundworm)

Cat, dog

No

Same as Toxocara canis

-*ingestion of embryonated egg


Not zoonotic
No larval migration

-young puppies/kittens
-potbellied
-rough hair coat
-hepatitis (liver migration)
-jaundice

1. Fenbendazole
2. pyrantel pamoate

Toxocara canis
(roundworm)
*ruffled edge

Dog

Yes
ocular
&
visceral
larval
migrans

PPP: 21-28 days after infection


1. Egg passed in feces
2. embryonated egg with larvae
3. infective eggs ingested
4. larvae hatch in GI, migrate into
portal vein to liver and circulate to
alveolus/somatic tissue
5. coughed up and swallowed and
remain in GI or migrate and encyst in
somatic tissue

-*ingested embryonated egg


*Larvae passed transmammary
*transplacentally

-young puppies/kittens
-potbellied
-rough hair coat
-hepatitis (liver migration)
-jaundice

1. Fenbendazole
2. pyrantel pamoate
3. Ivermectin, selamectin
4. mibemycin oxime

Parasite

Microscopic Identification

Diagnostics/ Clinical
Presentation
Eggs in Feces
Neonates: history and
presentation
Dogs/cats: eosinophilia
Anemia, hypoproteinemia

PPP

Treatment/ Control

14 d

-pyrantel pamoate
Prevention
-milbemycin oxime
-selemectin
-FBZ

Smaller than ancyclostoma?

Seen in vomit
No immunity in cats
<1yr immunity develops
dog

Toxocara cati
(roundworm)

Cat

Yes
ocular
&
visceral
larval
migrans

PPP: 8 wks
-embryonated eggs ingested from
environment
-adult worm lays eggs in large
intestines
-eggs are passed

-embryonated L1
*transmammary larva
*ingested eggs

Trichuris vulpis
(whipworm)

Dog,
(Cat,
ruminant
s)

No

PPP: 7-9 weeks


1. Ingestion of embryonated egg
2. adult worms lay eggs in large
intestines
3. Eggs pass in feces
*eggs can remain in environment for
over 1 yr (eventually decay in 1-5yrs)
low fecundity

-embryonated egg
ALL ages susceptible to whipworm
(not seen in young puppies)

Pyrantel every 2 weeks until 3


1/mo til 6 mo. 4/yr after 6 mo
infection become patent

FBZ x3days
Pyrantel

-fecal float and visual ova


-few eggs laid at a time, so
hard to find
*must use double
centrifugation 80x36
-use >1.2 SG solution
-may be asymptomatic

FBZ, febantel, milbemycin o


IVM/modidectin topical

Capillaria sp.

Rumina
nts,
dogs,
cats

No

1. embryonated eggs are ingested


2. eggs grow into adults in airways
3. eggs are coughed up in swallowed
into the intestines
4. unembryonated eggs pass in feces

Dirofilaria immitis
(heartworm)

Dog,
cat,
human

No

A. reconditum

Dog

No

-tapered head
-thicker than RBC
1. Mosquito ingests microfilaria from
infected dog and larvae develop to
infectious L3 in mosquito
2. Mosquitoes deposit L3 during
blood meal
3. Larvae spend about 2 months in
subq tissue where they mature to L4
4. Larvae migrate to lungs/heart and
mature to adults w/in 5 months reproduce!
5. Microfilaria released into blood
-blunt head
-curved tail
-thinner than WBC

Host
Species
Cat, dog

Zoonotic
?
zoonotic

Dog, Cat

If eat
infected
flea or
adult
tapewor
m

(whipworm)

(microfilaria)

Parasite
Paragonimus kellicotti

Microscopic Identification

(lung fluke/trematode)

Dipylidium caninum
(tape worm/cestode)

Ingestion of embryonated eggs

-fecal float and visual ova


*must use centrifugation
-use >1.2 SG solution
60x30
-Immiticide
Antigen test for adult
female worm antigen
(immunobased assay; AgAb complexes=false
negative); microfilaria test
(Modified Knott's test=mf
in blood; carbonate filter
test=filter mf out of blood;
Direct blood smear/capillary
tube examination)

Life cycle

Infectious Stage

1. eggs passed in feces


2. ingested by first IH-snail
3. parasite released from IH
4. Second IH-crayfish
5. second IH is ingested by dog/cat
6. Adult flukes in lungs produce eggs
7. eggs are coughed up and swallowed
so that eggs are in the intestines
-PPP= 2-3wks
1. infected adult flea ingested by
dog
2. adult worms in small intestine
3. posterior segments (egg packets)
are passed in feces
4. segments/egg packets in feces on
fur in perineal area
5. eggs ingested by larval flea
6.infectious larvae develops as larval
flea develops into an adult

-ingestion of IH crayfish or ingestion


of paratenic host that ate crayfish

-ingestion of infected flea

Diagnostics

Treatment
-PZQ

-proglottids seen
-fecal exam

PZQ
-flea control

Echinococcus sp
(tape worm/cestode)
(taenia type egg)

Taenia sp.
(tape worm/cestode)

Giardia spp.
(Protozoa)

Cystoisospora ssp.
(coccidia)

Dog,
Cat,
Rumina
nts

Yes

1. Oncosphere (eggs) excreted in


feces of DH
2. Ingestion of eggs by IH (sheep,
goat, swine)
3. Oncosphere hatches and penetrates
intestinal wall
4. development of a hydatid cyst in
the IH tissue
5. ingestion of cyst (in organs) of IH
1. adult tapeworm is found in GI of
DH and cause little harm
2. posterior segments of adult worm
passes in feces
3. eggs released from segments
4. eggs ingested by IH
5. tissues of IH ingested by dog or
cat

-ingestion of eggs in feces

-finding oncospheres in
fecal floats (doesnt effect
dog, but zoonotic!)

-PZQ

Dog,
cat,
ruminant
s

No

-ingestion of infected tissue

Oncospheres found in feces


(look just like
Echinococcus)
-passing of proglottids (by
owners)

PZQ

Dog,
cat,
ruminant

Yes

1. ingestion of infective cyst


2. development into trophozoite in GI
3. cysts and trophozoite expelled in
feces

-infective cyst

-Troph, wet mounts or cyst


-fecal float with ZnSO4
-immunoassay
-PCR
-Collect samples several
days in a row

-FBZ/metronidazole
-bathing and cleaning environ

Cats,
dogs

Yes

-Infects small intestines


-SI cell destruction

-immediately infective
-ingestion of sporulated oocyst or
paratenic host
Transmmammary

-fecal exam

-Sulfonamides drugs (albon)


-Ponazuril (Marquis)

Dog,
cat,
ruminant
s

Yes

-ingestion of sporulated oocyst

-acid fast stain/fecal smear


-antigen testing
-immunofluorescence*

-supportive care, rehydratio


young animals (~1wk)
-no drugs approved for rumin

Cat,
dog,
ruminant

Zoonoti
c: fetal
malfor
mation,
abortio
n

Direct life cycle, oocysts infective


Thick walled sporocyst (sporulated
oocyst) that gets out into environment
and thin walled oocyst (sporulated)
that constantly reinfects the animal
that is shedding it
1. fecal oocyst is ingested by IH
2. tissue cyst forms
3. host ingests IH
4. unsporulated oocysts excreted.
Need o2 and warmth for it to
sporulate in environment!

-ingestion of sporulated oocyst via


IH

-cyst: thin walled, trypsin


resistant, non-inflammatory

Feline:
-clindamycin hydrochloride
-pyrimethamine plus sulfonam
-trimethoprim- sulphonamid

-fecal-oral

-difficult to detect
-culture using pouches and
PCR

-ronidazole (use with caution


to neurotoxicity)

(Protozoa)
Cryptosporidium
(Protozoa)

Toxoplasma gondii
(cat)/ Neospora (dog)
(Protozoa)

Tritrichomonas
(Protozoa)

Cat

Parasite
Parelaphostrongylus
tenuis

Eimeria

Microscopic Identification

Host Species
Ruminants

Zoonotic?

Life cycle

Infectious Stage

Diagnostics/How to ID

Treatment

Ruminants

No

Ingestion of
sporulated oocyst

Fecal float has 4


sporocysts inside
ova

-Amprolium
-Sulfamethazine

Ruminants

No

1. Oocyst
2. unsporulated oocyst
3. sporulated oocyst
4. sporocysts
5. trophozoite
6. schizont
7. Merozoites released from
schizont
1. Eggs are freed from proglottids in
feces.
2. Mites ingest the eggs, and
become infective cysticercoid
3. ingestion of these mites on
pasture and subsequent digestion
frees the cysticercoid

Ingestion of
infectious
cysticercoid from
mite

Fecal float

-niclosamide
(PZQ not approved in
ruminants in the US)

Small
Ruminants

No

1. L4 are blood feeders in


abomasum
2. Eggs passed in feces
3. eggs hatch and larvae develop to
L3 in soil
4. infective larvae are ingested by
small ruminants

L3

-to differentiatePeanut lectin Stain


-Egg trichostrongyloid
85 m
-Adult 2-3 cm on
abomasal surface w/
barberpole appearance

-ivermectin,
moxidectin,
albendazole
-FBZ
-pyrantel

(coccidiosis/protozoa)

Moniezia sp.
(tapeworm)

Haemonchus
(barberpole worm,
wireworm)

-anemia
-no blood in diarrhea
Ostertagia ostertagi

Ruminants

(nematode)

Trichostrongylus spp.

Ruminants

(nematode)

Cooperia spp.
(nematode)

Ruminants

-disrupts glands in abomasums


-L3 ingested In environment
-L3 migrates into glands and
develops to L4
-matures to adult when optimal and
migrates back into lumen
1. Develop to L1, L2 in fecal pat
2. L3 on pasture
3. Ingested by host
4. develop into L4 and move to
abomassum or small intestine

-ingestion of L3
from environment

Strongyle type

-ingestion of L3

-qualitative fecal (to


make ddx)
-quantitative fecal
(monitor control)
- Strongyle type
Strongyle type

-ivermectin,
moxidectin,
albendazole
-FBZ

-ivermectin,
moxidectin,
albendazole
-FBZ
-pyrantel

Strongyloides

Ruminants, pig

(nematode)
Parasite
Strongyloides westeri

Microscopic Identification

Zoonotic?

Life cycle

Infectious Stage

Diagnostics

Treatment

Foals

ZOONOT
ICurticaria

-PPP 7-10 days


-ingestion of L3/penetration of skin
-adults lay embryonated eggs in
small intestines
-L1 passed in feces

-ingestion of
larvated L3

-fecal float
-expected in horses
<5mo.
Larvae causes urticaria.
Adult=diarrhea

-ivermectin
-levamisole

Horses

No

-ingestion of
Larvated eggs L3

-tape test
-perineal scraping
=ova

-FBZ

Horses

No

Horses

No

-ingestion of L3
larvae

-fecal float (cant be


differentiated from
each other)=unlarvated
egg
Larval
cyathostominosis

-FBZ
-moxidectin

Horses

No

-infectious L2 in egg
ingested from
environment
-transmammary

-fecal float =eggs

-FBZ
-pyrantel

Horses

No

1. adults in dorsal colon


2. female migrates through anus to
lay eggs around perineum (itchy!)
3. eggs with infective L3 develop
and are ingested
4. L3 develop into L4 and adults
(*no larval stages in envirionment)
1. L3 is ingested from environment
2. L3 migrates in
arteries/liver/abdominal tissues
3. Molt to L4 during migration
4. return to intestines, molt to
adults, copulate and produce eggs
PPP: 2-4 months
1. L1-L3 develop on pasture
2. L3 are eaten when horses are
on pasture (will die in extreme
temps)
3. L3 invades mucosa of Large
intestines and insite inflam resp
4. L4 develop and emain in mucosa
5. L4 molt into adults in lumen and
mate and have eggs
1. infectious L2 ingested from
environment
2. penetrate GI and travel to liver,
then to lungs
3. larvae are coughed up from lungs
and swallowed into GI tract
1. Larvae develop to infectivity
within the oribatid mite over 2 to 4
months.
2. ingestion of infected mite
3. tapeworms mature in about 6
weeks within the horse.

-ingestion of
oribatid mite that
ate egg packet

-fecal float

-PZQ
-ivermectin

(nematode/pinworm)

Strongylus vulgaris
(large strongyles
/nematode)
Cyathostomes
(small strongyles,
nematode)

Parascaris equorum
(roundworm)

Anoplocephala spp.
(tapeworm)

Larvated egg

Host Species

(nematode)

Oxyuris equi

-infection oral,
percutaneous,
prenatal, transmmary

-ingestion of L3

Sarcosystis

Intermediate
host: Horse,
deer, cow, goat,
sheep

(protozoa)

Dog

No

-predator-prey life cycle


1. excretion of unsporulated oocyst
2. development into sporocyst
3. ingestion by aberrant host or
intermediate host (horse, small
mammals)
4. ingestion of sarcocyst within
muscle of IH

-ingestion of
sarcocyst in meat
-fecal oral larvated
egg
-transplacental

histopath

-Ponazuril
-dexamethasone

Ectoparasites
Common Name

Scientific Name

American Dog Tick

Lone Star Tick

Picture

Striking Characteristics

Agent it can vector

Dermacentor variabilis

Fat body, short mouth, rectangular basis


capitulum, festoons

RMSF

Amblyomma
americanum

White dot on back, long mouth parts,


differentiate males and females by
scutum! (Females have soft scutum that
will expand when they are pregnant!)

Ehrlichia, Tularemia,
Cytauxzoon felis

Brown Dog Tick

Rhicephalus sanguineus

Short mouth parts, hexagonal basis


capitulum

Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus
carries Babesia bovis

Blacklegged (Deer)
Tick

Ixodes scapularis

Long mouth part, dark top, anterior anal


groove, no festoons

Borrelia burgdorferi
(Lyme disease)

Spinose Ear Tick

Otobius megnini

Spiney

Unknown

Common Name

Scientific Name

Sarcoptic mange
mite, scabies

Sarcoptes scabiei

Identification

Characteristics

Host

Life Cycle

Round, legs short, suckers on


long unsegmented stalks
differ between sexes, terminal
anus

All domestic
animals and
humans

N/A

Feline scabies

Notoedres cati

Long, unsegmented pretarsi


on front legs

N/A

Demodectic mange
mite

Demodex canis

Cigars with legs

Dogs

Entirely in hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Transmission


from bitch to newborns.

House fly

Musca domestica

adults 5.5-7.5 mm, light to


dark grey; sticky hairs on pads
of legs; mouthparts fleshy
adapted to sponging

Domestic
animals and
humans

Egg>Larvae>Pupa>Adult

Face fly

Musca autumnalis

Found by secretions on
animal face (induce ocular
and nasal discharges) and
wounds, mechanical vector

Animals

Same as house fly? See notes about discharge

Stablefly

Stomoxys calcitrans

adults 5.5-7.5 mm, proboscis


rigid, conspicuous and
forward projecting. Sits on
wall head up

Most animals
and humans

Similar to face fly but prefers decaying organic materials and


feeds on blood 1-2 times a day. Found anywhere on cattle

Horn fly

Haematobia irritans

4 mm long fly, smallest of


bloodsucking muscids.
Distinguish from stable fly
being size and shorter
proboscis

Cattle, cluster
around horns
when not
feeding

Screwworm

Cochliomyia
hominivorax

Bluish green flies with stripes


on thorax and orange brown
eyes

Livestock

Larvae feed invasively on living tissue. Eggs laid on fresh,


uninfected wounds. Rapidly leads to death of host. Causes
blowfly strike. Treat wounds and release sterile male.

Warble fly

Hypoderma
bovis/lineatum

Typical oestrid

Cattle

3rd stage larvae found in lumps (warbles on backs of cattle in


spring). Tx: Macrolides

Sheep nasal bot fly,


warble fly of sheep

Oestrus ovis

Fleas

**Ctenocephalides
felis (cat flea)
Ctenocephalides
canis (dog flea)
Pulex irritans
Pulex simulans
Echidnophaga
gallineacea (poultry
flea)

Sucking Lice

N/A

Adults 1 cm long, nasal bots 3


cm long, yellowish-white

Narrow head, penetrate blood


suckers

Sheep, goats,
llamas, can
infest humans

Female deposits 1st stage larvae to nostrils of sheep during


flight. Overwinter stage (2 weeks -9 months) Attach to mucous
membranes, feed on mucus, cause irritation. In frontal sinuses
develop to 2nd and 3rd instars. Reach 3rd instar stage (3 week several months) before sneezed out to pupate (4-7 weeks).
Adults emerge, females survive for 2 weeks, depositing 500
larvae

Dogs, cats,
lots of other
animals

Eggs>Larvae>Pupae>Adult. Remember they are carriers of


tapeworms! Also need to treat environment to get rid of fleas.
Flea medications: Synthetic pyrethroids (toxic to cats!), Fipronil
(kills adult fleas in 24 hours), Selamectin, Afoxolaner (dont
use in cats!)

Leave eggs or nits attached to hair, can remain even after


treatment (may be dead on animal). Eggs or nites on
hair>nymphs hatch out, feed (molt), adults

Chewing Lice

N/A

Broad head, surface chewers

Leave eggs or nits attached to hair, can remain even after


treatment (may be dead on animal). Eggs or nites on
hair>nymphs hatch out, feed (molt), adults

Jar Identification

Nematodes

Cestodes

Trematodes

Ectoparasites

Diagnostic Tests:

Fecal float: ova +/- larva


Modfied knotts: microfilaria
Baermann fecal: active swimmers-larvae

Additional Notes
Modified Stoll, Wisconsin, and Cornell-Wisconsin are procedures to count parasite ova floated after a cetrifugation step to
increase sensitivity
3 errors done while performing a centrifugation that can give false negative results: 1) Not mixing the initial sample
thoroughly enough; 2) Not mixing the pellet with the float solution; and 3) Making the bulging meniscus too big
Formula for making a sugar flotation solution: 454 grams of granulated sugar and 355mLs of warm tap water (specific gravity
of 1.27)
10X obective, object that is 10 ocular divisions = 100 microns in length
10X = X10
40X = X3
100X = X1
Endectocides = An antiparasitic drug that is active against both endoparasites and ectoparasites
Pyrantel is not well absorbed, effective against common adult GI nematodes and has no effect on ectoparasites
The FDA is responsible for regulating the manufacture, distribution of drugs, food additives, and medical devices used in
veterinary species. The EPA regulates insecticides, fungicides, and rodenticides.
AMDUCA extralabel use definition = The use of an approved drug in a manner that is not in accordance with the approved
label directions.
It is not legal to use an external pesticide product (with no systematic activity) off label
We use Baermann sedimentation as a tool used to recover the larvated (actively motile) stage of certain nematodes.
To use the Baermann, samples need to be refrigerated overnight for optimal parasite recovery and sensitivity (circle): Yes No
List 2 parasite genera for which this would NOT be an appropriate diagnostic technique: Cysts, oocysts, eggs
Resistant nematodes to one or more dewormers have now been reported and demonstrated in the following species (circle each
species where this statement is now applicable): Small ruminants, Horses, Cattle, Camelids, Dogs
Heating a HW sample causes destruction of immune complexes and the release of antigen for detection
It takes dogs 180 days to become positive for HW antigen and 6+ months to become positive for microfilaria

Not all infected dogs become microfilaria positive because there could be single sex infections, the immune system could be
destroyed, the adults may have died, or they are on a low dose preventative
Two tests that can be used to detect microfilaria: Carbonate filter and capillary tube
Stolls test and McMasters test are used for quantification (Strongyle-type!)
For young dogs think: roundworms, hookworms, and coccidia
Direct smears only look for motile protozoa!
All suitable float solutions are greater density than water, and need to be a minimum of 1.18 specific gravity, somewhat
better is 1.20, and 1.25 is a better target.
You can do a simple sedimentation to: 1) remove heavy debris that could hinder microscopy; 2) concentrate eggs, larvae, etc.,
from a large sample so that the diagnosis is somewhat more sensitive; 3) search for Fasciola hepatica eggs or others that
would be too heavy to float.
FECRT stands for a fecal egg count reduction test that measures pre- and post-treatment samples to determine drug efficacy.
You want 90-95% reduction to feel confident the drug is working properly, or, treatment was given properly.
Dictycocaulus arnfieldi: if donkeys housed with horses and horses get respiratory illness