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EDU 340 Developing Literacy for Young Children in a Multilingual Society
Log #2

Pun Jie Zhen Denise
Matriculation number: 15AWE044U
Wheelock College

Name: Pun Jie Zhen Denise

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Log #2
Child’s Name/Age/Grade: Chiam Tat Lui, 6 years old, K2
Date of Session: 20 January 2016, Wednesday
Phonological Awareness – Inventory Teacher Directions sheet
Plans

What actually happened

Reflections, Instructional
Implications

Administer the
Phonological
Awareness test to
Tat Lui

We started off the day by doing the
Phonological Awareness
assessment. When asked if ‘bed’
and ‘fed’ rhyme, Tat Lui said yes.
When asked if ‘mess’ and ‘yell’
rhyme, Tat Lui said yes too. When
asked if ‘skip’ and ‘hip’ rhyme, Tat
Lui said yes again. After that, in the
‘Rhyme Production’ section, when
asked to provide a word that
rhymes with the word that I’m
about to read out to him, Tat Lui
was unable to provide any words
that rhymed. He answered ‘car’
when I said ‘see’, ‘see’ when I said
‘cake’, and ‘a’ when I said ‘sip’.
Tat Lui was able to complete the
‘Syllable Blending’ and ‘Syllable
Segmentation’ with 100% accuracy.
When it came to the ‘Syllable
Deletion’, Tat Lui was not able to
answer any of the 3 questions
correctly. During the ‘Phoneme
Identification’, Tat Lui was able to
identify the sound that is the same
in all the words with 100%
accuracy. During the ‘Phoneme
Isolation’, Tat Lui was also able to
identify the initial sounds of all the
words with 100% accuracy. Tat Lui
was unable to provide the final
sound of all 3 words during the
‘Phoneme Isolation’. Tat Lui was
also unable to complete the
‘Phoneme Blending’ and ‘Phoneme

Tat Lui answered 2 of the rhyming
questions under the ‘Rhyme
Identification’ correctly. However,
he provided the same answer to all
3 rhyming questions. Hence, it is
still unclear at this point whether
Tat Lui is able to recognize
rhyming words. In the ‘Rhyme
Production’ section, Tat Lui
showed that he was unable to
produce rhyming words.
According to Cecil (2011), there is
a hierarchy of phonemic awareness
competence. According to the
hierarchy, Tat Lui is able to blend
words, segment syllables, and
identify beginning sounds.
However, he is unable to achieve
the lower and easier levels in the
hierarchy, which is the ability to
rhyme and recognize rhyming
words. During the next session, I
will attempt to pick a book that
contains rhyming words so that I
can reinforce the ability to rhyme
and recognize rhyming words.
During the phoneme identification
and phoneme isolation section of
the assessment, Tat Lui displayed
his competency in the area of
recognizing beginning sounds in
words and is able to match the
beginning sounds of the words to

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Segmentation’ with any correct
answers.

their corresponding letter.

Conclusion: Tat Lui is competent in the area of recognizing beginning sounds and is able to
name the corresponding letter. However, Tat Lui is unable to rhyme and recognize rhyming
words. He was also unable to isolate phonemes in in the test and recognize the ending sound of
words.
Reading Lesson Goals: Tat Lui to be able to predict the masked words in the book. Tat Lui to
read the book. Tat Lui to practice the strategy – ‘what to do when readers get stuck’.
Materials Used: ‘Kim’s Trip to Hawaii’ by Carlie Cohen
Plans

What actually happened

Reflections, Instructional
Implications

Take a picture walk
of the book

I started the reading session by
asking Tat Lui if he knew what we
would be doing today. Tat Lui said,
“last time you say reading and
writing, right?” I replied, “Yes, you
remembered what I told you last
week.”

According to Ray and Cleaveland
(2004), “children need a general
sense of what writing workshop
time is for and what they will be
doing during this time” (p. 27). Tat
Lui displayed his ability to
remember what was told to him
about what we would be doing
every Wednesday. He recalled that
during this time of the day on
Wednesday, we would be doing
reading and writing.

Tat Lui to attempt to
read the story
Tat Lui to make 
predictions about 
what the masked 
words are based on 
pictorial clues and 
what makes sense in
the sentence

I brought out the book, ‘Kim’s Trip
to Hawaii’ and placed it on the
table before saying, “Covers
usually tell us more about what the
book is about. What do you see on
this cover that may tell us more
about the story?” Tat Lui then said,
“This girl took a aeroplane and the
captain is inside, he will fly the
plane” I then said, “Oh, you are
saying that this girl took an
aeroplane and that a pilot will be
inside to fly it. Where do you think
the plane going?” That Lui replied,
“I think Indonesia. Yes, just like my
kakak go home. I see the luggage.”
He said this while pointing at the
luggage in the picture on the cover
page. I said, “Oh so people bring
luggage when they are going on

According to Cecil (2011), children
at the early stages of reading
development use their fingers to
point at the words while they are
reading. Tat Lui made use of his
index finger to point at each word
as he was reading through the
book, and when he was stuck at a
word or when he encountered a
masked work, he stopped and did
not continue pointing at the next
word. This shows that Tat Lui has
mastered the one-to-one
correspondence between spoken

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aeroplanes.” I then said, “The title
of the book is Kim’s Trip to
Hawaii, written by Carlie Cohen
and illustrated by Don Tate.” Tat
Lui then said, “her name is kim.” I
then said, “readers look at pictures
to make guesses too and you just
made a guess that this girl in the
picture is Kim.”
I flipped to the next page, which is
the title page, and Tat Lui
immediately pointed at the word
“Hawaii” and read it out. I asked
him, “how did you know this word
is Hawaii.” He replied, “because I
just saw the word in front.” I then
replied, “You remembered that this
word is “Hawaii” and sometimes
readers remember some words that
cannot be stretched out easily.” I
flipped to the next page and asked
Tat Lui, “what do you see on this
page?” Tat Lui said, “The ocean. A
map.” I asked, “What country is
this map for?” Tat Lui then pointed
at the word ‘Hawaii’ on the book
and replied me, “Hawaii.” I then
said, “Oh you remembered this
word is ‘Hawaii’ again.” I flipped
to the next page and asked, “Who
are these people?” Tat Lui then
said, “I don’t know.” I then asked
him if he saw the name of the girl
anywhere in the book before. He
then flipped to the cover page and
said, “Kim and daddy.” I then said,
“you remembered that the girl’s
name was on the cover page and
also remembered how it is read.
Where do you think they are?” Tat
Lui then said, “In the beach.” I
said, “Oh you are saying that they
are on the beach.” I then continued
the picture walk with Tat Lui and
asked some questions about what
he saw in the pictures. After

and written words.
Tat Lui displayed his knowledge in
the area of taking aeroplanes when
he said that his kakak, who is his
domestic helper, flies home to
Indonesia by taking an aeroplane.
Cecil (2011) supports this
interactive process as she stated
that reading would require children
to tap into their own prior
experience to construct meaning of
the book and in this case, Tat Lui
constructed meaning of the picture
he sees on the cover page by
speaking out about what he already
knows about taking aero planes. In
addition, Cecil (2011) also
mentioned that guided reading
allows the teacher to make use of
“teachable moments” to clarify
misconceptions and introduce new
vocabulary. In this case, I made use
of the moment to reiterate Tat Lui’s
words using replacement words
that are more appropriate instead of
bluntly correcting his words and
sentence structure: an aeroplane
instead of a aeroplane; a pilot
instead of captain; on the beach
instead of in the beach.
According to Cecil (2011),
questions asked during guided
reading should be open-ended and
should engage children in critical
thinking that is supported with
evidence from the book. I aim to
ask more open-ended questions
during the next session to engage
Tat Lui in more critical thinking
and ask fewer questions that would
require a one-word answer.
According to Fountas and Pinnell
(1999), when children are reading
books that matches their learning

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completing the picture walk, I then
told Tat Lui, “readers look at the
pictures to make guesses about the
story. That’s what readers do. Now
that we have already looked at the
pictures. Would you like to read the
book?” Tat Lui replied, “I don’t
know, you.” I then told him, “Let’s
read the book together shall we? If
there are any words you don’t
know, we can look at the pictures
and make guesses. Sometimes
readers look at pictures to make
guesses too.” Tat Lui made use of
his index finger to point at each
word as he started reading. He
pointed at the title on the cover
page and said, “Kim’s trip to
Hawaii.” He flipped to the second
page and read, “dear bate.” I then
pointed at the word ‘kate’ and said,
“try that again, look at how the
word begins.” Tat Lui then reread it
and said, “dear kate.” He
continued, “We are in Hawaii. Here
is a map of the….” I then pointed
and said, “state.” Tat Lui continued,
“The state has eight…..” I then
pointed and said, “islands.” Tat Lui
then continued, “We are staying on
the big island. I like Hawaii. Your
friend, Kim.” I then said, “after I
read the words state and island for
you, you were able to remember
and read them out again.” I then
turned to the next page. Tat Lui
pointed at the first word in the page
and started reading, “Dear Kate, are
is a picture of Dad and me.” I
pointed at the word ‘here’ and
corrected it from ‘are’ to ‘here’ by
reading it out correctly for Tat Lui.
He continued reading, “we were at
the….” The next word was ‘beach’
and it was masked I then told Tat
Lui that “readers look at the

processes, they will be able to
recognize a large number of words
quickly and easily. Cecil (2011)
supported this belief by stating that
early readers are able to make use
of prior knowledge and meaning
cues to recognize some words on
sight. During this session, Tat Lui
displayed his ability to recognize
and read most of the words in the
book ‘Kim’s Trip to Hawaii’. This
also shows that the book matches
Tat Lui’s current reading and
learning processes.
In addition, Fountas and Pinnell
(1999) also mentioned that when
books of a suitable level are
provided to children, they would be
able to solve a word that is
unfamiliar to them through the use
of strategic actions. Tat Lui’s
ability to make predictions on what
the masked words were and solve
unfamiliar words based on the
clues he got from the pictures
supported this belief. This shows
that Tat Lui achieved one of the
objectives in the reading session
and practiced the strategy: “what
do readers do to help them when
they get stuck.”
Cecil (2011) also mentioned that
teachers should give children ample
time to formulate their response
after posing a question. In my log 1
after session 1, I aimed to be able
be able to bear the silence more
after I ask a question to allow Tat
Lui to think before he answers.
During this session, I was very
conscious of this aspect and did not
rush Tat Lui into answering my
questions by reiterating the
questions or rushing him for an

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pictures to make guesses.” Tat Lui
then pointed to the picture said,
“beach.” I said, “you just did what
readers do, you looked at the
pictures to guess what this word
may be.” He started that sentence
again, “we were at the beach. We
saw the sun set. I like the sunsets in
Hawaii. Your friend, Kim.” Tat Lui
turned to the next page and pointed
and read, “Dear Kate, here is a
picture of Nick and me. We were
playing on the beach. We
played…..” The next word was
masked and was ‘ball’. Tat Lui then
looked at the picture and said,
“ball”. He unmasked the word to
reveal the word ‘ball’. He
continued, “ I like the beaches in
Hawaii. Your friend, Kim.” Tat Lui
turned to the next page and pointed
and read, “Dear Kate, here is a
picture of Dad and me. We were
looking at the….” The next word
was masked and was ‘dolphins’.
He immediately said, “at the ocean.
At the dolphins.” I asked him,
“how did you make those
guesses?” He then said, “I just look
at the picture and guess.” I then
said, “your guesses make sense in
the story. Readers make guesses
that make sense in the story.” He
revealed the masked word and read
it as ‘dolphins’. He then continued,
“The dolphins played and jumped.
I like the dolphins in Hawaii. Your
friend, Kim.” Tat Lui turned to the
next page and pointed and read,
“Dear Kate, here is a picture of
mom and me. We were shopping at
the market. There were many
things to buy. I got a gift for you. I
like the markets in Hawaii. Your
friend, Kim.” He turned to the next
page and pointed, “Dear Kate, here

answer.
In addition, Cecil (2011) also
mentioned that there are some sight
vocabulary words that cannot be
easily sound out and that they must
be thought whole. One of these
words in the book ‘Kim’s Trip to
Hawaii’ was ‘here’. Tat Lui read it
as ‘are’ several times. As this word
is a word that cannot be easily
sounded out and is difficult to
decipher using pictorial clues or
guess using the context
surrounding it, I gave the word to
Tat Lui by pointing at the word and
reading it out correctly for him
after he said ‘are’, instead of
getting him to sound it out or guess
it. In addition, there were a few
more words that Tat Lui struggled
with and I did not force him to
decipher it by sounding it out as
those words would be difficult to
sound out or guess using the
pictures. The words are, ‘state’ and
‘islands’,

Tat Lui was able to reiterate one of
the strategies readers do when they
get stuck when he said that, “I just
look at the pictures and guess.” He
also made use of the knowledge of
what makes sense and sounds right
in the context of the story to guess
the word that was masked (Fountas
and Pinnell, 1999). Tat Lui made
guesses that the masked word on
page 8 of the storybook was either
‘ocean’ or ‘dolphins’. In this case,
both words make sense and sounds

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is a picture of Dad, Nick, and me.
We were swimming in the….” The
masked word was ‘pool’ and Tat
Lui immediately said, ‘pool’ and
continued reading after unmasking
the word. “We went down a
big…..” The masked word was
‘slide’ and Tat Lui immediately
said ‘slide’ and continued reading
after unmasking the word. “I like
the pools in Hawaii. Your friend,
Kim.” I said, “readers look at
pictures to make guesses and you
did that, good for you.” Tat Lui
turned to the next page and pointed
and read the page accurately. He
turned and pointed and read, “dear
Kate, here is a picture of Dad and
me. We were getting on the plane.
We give good-bye.” I then said,
“does that make sense? You said
we give good-bye. Look at the
picture to help you.” Tat Lui looked
at the picture and said, “wave”. I
said, “readers not only look at
pictures to make guesses, the
guesses have to make sense in the
story too and you did just that.” Tat
Lui then continued, “We waved
good-bye. I had lots of fun in
Hawaii. See you soon, Kim.”

right in the context of the story and
his answers were accepted.

According to Cecil (2011), the
context in which an unfamiliar
word is met may help the child to
decipher what that word might be.
Tat Lui displayed his ability to gain
meaning from the context, as he
was unable to read the word
‘waved’ and was directed to look at
the pictures and think about what
makes sense for clues. Tat Lui was
then able to make an “educated
guess” about what the unfamiliar
word was. From my perspective,
both the words ‘wave’ and ‘give’
have the same letters at the end:
‘ve’. I think that Tat Lui guessed
that the word was read as ‘give’
based on the letters ‘ve’ he saw at
the back of the word.

Conclusion for reading: Tat Lui spoke more in sentences during session 2 after some
encouragement to speak more in sentences. He also expressed more about what he thinks the
book will be on based on what he saw on the cover page and based on his prior experiences.
These are two of the few instructional implications I included in log #1 and have accomplished
in session 2. In the previous session, I aimed to make use of the strategies from the article “What
Can You Say Besides “Sound it out” “ to facilate Tat Lui in the reading section during session 2.
I have imbedded some of the strategies throughout my picture walk and reading of the book with
Tat Lui. I had to repeat some of them a few times for Tat Lui to be able to practice them. For
example, I repeated “readers look at the pictures to make guesses” several times. Tat Lui was
able to reiterate the strategy back to me after I have repeated it several times. It felt like such an

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accomplishment. Tat Lui was slightly more distracted during session 2 than he was during
session 1, as there were other teachers walking in and out of the teachers’ room. I had to ask for
Tat Lui to focus several times during the entire duration of session 2. If possible, I will request
for a different room during the read aloud session and session 4 so that distractions will be
minimized. Also, in this session, Tat Lui was willing to read the storybook himself instead of
having me to read it. He was able to make educated guesses on what the masked words were. I
also gave more positive comments during this session than I did in session 1. I was also
consciously reminding myself constantly to bear the silence, not ‘pummel him with questions’
and provide time for Tat Lui to think before answering my questions.

Writing Lesson Goals: Tat Lui to identify the reason why an author writes a book. Tat Lui to
choose if he would like to continue his book from last week or start a new book. Tat Lui to pick a
topic for his book if he starts a new book. Tat Lui to draw pictures for his book. Tat Lui to use
invented spelling to spell the words of his story.
Materials Used: Crayons, pencils, eraser, Tat Lui’s book from last week and a new ready-made
book, 1 book for writing; ‘Germs’ by Judy Oetting
Plans

What actually happened

Reflections, Instructional
Implications

Read the writing book,
‘Germs’ by Judy
Oetting

I read the book ‘Germs’ by Judy
Oetting and told Tat Lui that
writers write about things they
care about and know about. I then
asked him what he thinks the
writer knows about or cares
about. He then replied, “Germs.” I
asked him further, “Can you tell
me more?” He said, “Because the
writer write when the germs go
down and go inside my mouth, I
will coughing.” I said, “Oh you
are saying the author wrote about
germs because he know that when
germs enter your body from your
mouth, you will get cough.” I then
asked Tat Lui if he would like to
continue last week’s book or start
a new book today. Tat Lui said,
“Can I see the book?” He then
took the previous week’s book
and flipped through the book. He
then said, “I want to do a new

According to Ray and Cleaveland
(2004), the language we use when
we speak to children about
writing will become the language
they use when they themselves
speak about writing. During this
session, I attempt to imbed the
language about writing into my
interaction with Tat Lui by
informing him of some of the
things writers do, i.e., writers
write about things they care about
and know about, what would you
like your readers to find out more
about your story on Legocity?

Tell Tat Lui that writers
write about things they
care about and know
about
Ask Tat Lui to guess
why he thinks the
writer wrote the book
Tat Lui to talk about
what he cares and
knows about
Tat Lui to continue on
his previous book or
draw and write a new
book
Tat Lui to make use of
invented spelling

During the writing of the word

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one.” I passed the new readymade book to Tat Lui then told
him, “We know that writers write
about what they know about and
care about, so what do you want
to write about today?” He said, “I
care about Lego.” He then started
drawing what he said was 2
policemen on the cover page. I
then asked, “What do you want
your readers to know about
Lego?” He said, “I want to write
about Legocity. Can you tell me
how to spell?” I replied, “why
don’t you try it yourself this
week? Think about what the word
sounds like. Say the word slowly
and listen to the sounds in the
word.” Tat Lui then said the word
‘Legocity’ slowly and attempted
to write down the letters that
corresponds to the sounds he hear.
Before he wrote the first letter
down, he asked, “is it ‘l’?” I told
him not to worry about wrong
spelling and just write what he
hears. He then continued
sounding out the word and wrote
the letter ‘e’ down. He then wrote
the letter ‘e’ down again before
immediately saying, “AHH.” He
then took an eraser and erased the
letter ‘e’ and wrote the letter ‘g’
and ‘o’. He shouted, “LEGO.” He
then said, “How about the city?” I
said, “Okay let’s try to stretch that
word.” He then said the word and
wrote ‘C’. He then stretched the
word ‘city’ again and asked if the
next letter was ‘e’. I asked him,
“the sound you are making is /i/,
so what letter has the sound /i/?”
Tat Lui then immediately replied,
“i”. He then wrote the last letter
‘T’ after sounding out the word
again.

‘Legocity’, Tat Lui wrote a wrong
letter and immediately let out a
small cry. I was tempted to jump
in and question him about what
has happened there and what the
correct letter should be. However,
I remembered what Judith told the
class today in session 6. She said
that we have the tendency to
“pummel the children with
questions”. I made the decision
then to withhold my opinions and
whatever questions I wanted to
ask, and watch what Tat Lui was
about to do next. He corrected his
mistakes and engaged in selfcorrection without any prompting
from me. Judith mentioned in one
of the sessions that one of the
most important things we would
want children to master would be
the skill of self-correction.
Looking back at the situation, it
was the right decision to withhold
my opinions and allow Tat Lui to
engage in his own self-correction
process.

From previous interactions with
Tat Lui, I knew that he knows the
sounds of the letters ‘I’ and ‘E’.
Hence, I scaffolding Tat Lui by
asking him what letter has the
sound /i/ rather than accepting his
answer when he asked if the next
letter to write was the letter ‘e’.

According to Ray and Cleaveland
(2004), it is better to get children
to think about how some high-

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Tat Lui turned to the next page
and started drawing what he said
was 3 policemen. After drawing,
he pointed at the drawing of the
policeman on the right hand side
of the page and said, “the head
came out.” He started writing on
the top of the page. First, he wrote
‘3’. He then stretched the word
out with some prompting from me
and wrote ‘polismn’. Tat Lui then
said, “I write he is dead.” He then
asked, “how to spell ‘he’, please
tell me.” At this point, I sounded
out the word for him and he
spelled it out correctly.
Tat Lui then said, “is….. is…..
Teacher Denise, how to spell the
word ‘is’?” I then replied him, “I
noticed that just now when we
were reading the book ‘Kim’s
Trip to Hawaii, you were able to
read the word ‘is’. This shows
that you are able to remember this
word. Could you close your eyes
and try to remember what it
looked like and write it down?”
Tat Lui then closed his eyes for
several seconds before opening
his eyes and writing down the
word ‘is’ accurately onto his
book. I then said, “sometimes
writers don’t always have to
stretch out words they don’t
know. Writers can think about
where they have seen the word
and try to recall how it is spelled.
Look at what you have achieved
when you try to help yourself
with the spelling, good for you!”
After Tat Lui has finished
stretching out the next word,
‘dead’, writing down the
corresponding letters of the
sounds he could hear in the word,
he ended up writing, “dad” and

frequency words are spelled each
time they generate it rather than
allow them to copy as copying
doesn’t require children to think
about how the word is spelled.
When Tat Lui requested for me to
spell the word ‘is’ to him, I
decided not to spell it out for him
or sound it out for him as I know
that he not only remembers this
word, he is able to recognize it
and read it in books. Hence, I
made the decision of adopting one
of the strategies mentioned by a
child in a video that was shown to
us in one of the sessions. The
child spoke about how he “looked
inside his brain” to figure out how
some words are spelled or read.
Tat Lui now knows of 2 strategies
he could make use of whenever
he doesn’t know how to spell
some words: he could stretch out
the words and listen to the sounds
or he could recall where he has
seen the word and how he
remembered it to be spelled.
According to Ray and Cleaveland
(2004), a teacher could encourage
a child to engage in rubberbanding by encouraging the child
using some strategies such as
thinking about what the word
sounds like, asking him to say it
slowly and to listen to the sounds
in the word. One of my
instructional implications of
session 1 was to encourage Tat
Lui to engage in more
independent rubber-banding.
During this session, I encouraged
Tat Lui to engage in rubberbanding himself by using the
strategies listed above on him. It
was a successful attempt as Tat
Lui attempted to be more

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looked up at me. I asked him to
read what he has written on that
page. He then pointed at what he
wrote at the top of the page and
said, “2 policeman”. He then
pointed at what he wrote at the
bottom of the page and said, “he
is dead.” I then asked him, “oh
you said that you wrote the words
‘2 policeman’ on this page, but I
see that you drew 3 policemen on
this page. Can you explain to me
why is that so?” He then said
while pointing at the 2 policemen
on the left hand side of the page,
“these 2 policemen are alive.”
Then he pointed at the policeman
on the right hand side of the page
and said, “he is dead. See his neck
come out.” I said, “do you think
readers would like for the words
to be clearer about what they are
referring to? How do you think
you could make it clearer for
readers to understand the words
you have written and the pictures
you drew?” He thought for a
while before saying, “I do arrow!”
Tat Lui then picked his pencil
back up and drew 2 arrows
linking the 2 policemen who were
‘alive’ to the words “2 polismn”.
He then drew 1 arrow linking the
1 policeman who was ‘dead’ to
the words “he is dad”. He then
said, “okay, finish” and started to
pack his crayons. I told him to
stop packing and said, “you were
very focused during this session.
And your writing and drawing
included arrows, which helps the
reader understand more about
what the words are saying and
what the pictures mean.” I then
informed him that I would see
him next Wednesday again.

independent in sounding out the
words and identifying the
corresponding letters.
According to Newkirk and Atwell
(1988), to know the hierachy of
spelling skills would be helpful
for a teacher to assess what a
child already knows about
spelling and what should the child
be learning next. The hierachy of
spelling skills include “a strings
of letters, then beginning sounds,
then beginning and ending
sounds, then beginning, middle
and ending sounds.” (p. 66)
Through Tat Lui’s spelling of
‘policeman’ which he spelled as
‘polismn’, it is evident that Tat
Lui is competent in the area of not
only identifying the sounds in the
word ‘policeman’, he could match
the corresponding letters to the
sounds he heard and write them
down in the sequence he hears
them while stretching out the
word. In addition, according to
Cecil (2011), early writers
progress through the stages of
invented spelling through writing
the initial consonant sound of a
word to using conventional
spelling. Although it has already
been established that Tat Lui is in
the stage of invented spelling and
is not yet at the stage of
conventional spelling, he is able
to spell out the word ‘policeman’
almost accurately using the
phonemes he heard in the word.

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Conclusion for writing: In session 1, one of the instructional implications I included was to
encourage Tat Lui to engage in stretching the words he wanted to spell himself instead of having
me do it. During session 2, he attempted to stretch the words out himself at the start of the
writing session and was successful at it. There were a few times that he asked me to stretch the
word out for him and I did it for him so as not to overwhelm him by asking him to do it himself.
In log 1, I also aimed to encourage Tat Lui to reread the book he has written and drawn. I did get
Tat Lui to reread the book he wrote and drew although it did not happen at the end of the session.
Tat Lui was clearer about what we would be doing during session 2, as he was able to anticipate
at the start of the session that we were going to do reading and writing again. Although Tat Lui
has only written and drawn 2 pages for his book in session 2, I consider this session to be a
success as he was able to engage in stretching independently for a few words and he was able to
reiterate the fact that he could look at the pictures to guess what words were in the book I read.
Self-reflection: During the previous session, I was uncomfortable with not using the usual
repertoire of praise I was so accustomed to prior to attending this course. I aimed to be more
conscious about the kind of encouragement I was giving and message I was sending to the child I
was working with. After session 2 where I commented on what Tat Lui has done as a form of
praise, I realized that it had to be a conscious effort to not slide back into the habit of giving
generic praises such as ‘well done’ and ‘good job’. During session 2, I was actively looking out
for opportunities to commend Tat Lui’s efforts and the content of his work. I was also actively
looking out for opportunities to bring in the reading and writing strategies I have picked up in
class. To be a teacher of reading and writing really takes a lot of effort and observation skills.
Before I started my degree at Wheelock College and during my time as a Kindergarten teacher, I
carried out a pilot literacy program from the Ministry of Education (MOE) called Starlight.
Starlight was refreshing as it believes in reading big books aloud and they provide an abundance
of Joy Cowley’s books. Her books included many ‘Singaporean words’ such as ‘kopi’ which
means coffee and ‘teh’ which means tea. It also portrayed the main characters in the child to be
of the same races that we can see in Singapore. The illustrations also showed the Singapore
coffee shop. It was extremely refreshing and I enjoyed conducting the Starlight literacy program
so much. However, after 2 sessions with Tat Lui, going through the sessions of this course and
completing the readings, I realized that there is so much more to being a teacher of reading and
writing than reading big books aloud. The language used around children is so different and it
really taught me that learning about reading and writing does not only occur in the classroom,
during interactions with children in class. Learning about reading and writing occurs even
through children’s conversations with each other during other times of the day about their writing
and what they have read. I have always believed that the learning of reading and writing could be
made into a meaningful and fun process for both the children and teacher. I have seen it for
myself in videos and heard it for myself from a senior who has implemented this, that there is a
place for Writers’ Workshop in preschools in Singapore. Therefore, I would be very interested in
implementing Writers’ Workshop in my future workplace.

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Tat Lui said that this page showed, “Legocity”

43

Tat Lui said that this page showed, “2 policemen” and “he is dead”. He drew the arrows after
some prompting to make it clear to the reader what the words were referring to.

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References
O

Cecil, N. L. (2011). Striking a balance: A comprehensive approach to early literacy. Scottsdale,
AZ: Holcolm Hathaway.

O

Cleaveland, L. B. & Ray, K. W. (2004). About the authors: Writing workshop with our youngest
writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
O

Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. (1999). Matching books to readers: Using leveled books in
guided reading K-3. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

O

Newkirk, T. & Atwell, N. (1988). Understanding writing: Ways of observing, learning and
teaching (2nd ed.). Chapter 8. Sowers, S. “Six Questions Teachers Ask about Invented Spelling”.