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CHAPTER 2: METHODS

The second chapter of the study describes in detail how the study is to be/was conducted and how to evaluate the appropriateness of the methods and
reliability and the validity of the results. The subsections are identified as to apparatus/instruments used, procedures in the execution of the research, tests or
evaluation conducted, simulation, prototyping, etc.
Methods from the APA format usually have SIX (6) parts:
Research Design
Sources of Data
Participants
Materials
Procedure
Data Analysis Plan
1. For the Research Design part, identify what type of research method did you used for your study. A table below is given as to identify which type of
research method is done. After identifying which method was used, explain why your study fell under the category you have chosen. This will be in
paragraph form and has a label of Research Design before the paragraph.
Research Method

This is

This works best for these


kinds of questions

This doesnt work well for


these kinds of questions

Descriptive-Qualitative
(Ethnography/Case
Study)

This type of research methods involve


describing in detail specific situation using
research tools like interviews, surveys, and
Observations. Qualitative Research is primarily
exploratory research. It is used to gain an
understanding of underlying reasons, opinions,
and motivations. It provides insights into the
problem or helps to develop ideas or
hypotheses for potential quantitative research.
Qualitative Research is also used to uncover
trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper
into the problem. Qualitative data collection
methods vary using unstructured or semistructured techniques. Some common methods
include focus groups (group discussions),
individual interviews, and
participation/observations. The sample size is
typically small, and respondents are selected to
fulfill a given quota.so it is useful for each and
every methods.

How do people implement this


program?
What challenges do people
face?
What are peoples perceptions?

Did the program cause any


changes in the participants
outcomes?

Additional Things to
Note

Research Method

This is

This works best for these


kinds of questions

This doesnt work well for


these kinds of questions

Additional Things to
Note

DescriptiveQuantitative

This type of research methods requires


quantifiable data involving numerical and
statistical explanations. Quantitative Research is
used to quantify the problem by way of
generating numerical data or data that can be
transformed into usable statistics. It is used to
quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and
other defined variables and generalize results
from a larger sample population. Quantitative
Research uses measurable data to formulate
facts and uncover patterns in research.
Quantitative data collection methhelloys, faceto-face interviews, telephone interviews,
longitudinal studies, website interceptors,
online polls, and systematic observations.

How many people are


participating in this program?
What are the characteristics of
people in this program?
How well did participants in this
program do?

Did the program cause any


changes in the participants
outcomes?
Why did the program work
this way?

Correlational/Regressi
on Analyses

This research method involves determining the


strength of the relationship between two or
more variables (e.g. are violent video games
correlated with aggression in children)

What is the relationship


between various school or
classroom context factors and
student achievement?
Is the extent of implementation
of a program across sites
correlated with better
outcomes?

Did the program cause any


changes in the participants
outcomes?

Look for words such as


more likely than, less
likely than, associated
with, related to, and
correlated with.

Quasi-experimental

Comparing a group that gets a particular


intervention with another group that is
similar in characteristics but did not receive
the intervention no random assignment
used

Did the program cause any


significant differences in
participants outcomes as
compared to nonparticipants with similar
characteristics who did not
receive the intervention?

How are people


implementing the
program?
Why did the program get
the results it did?

Look for the phrase


compared with.
Look for results that are
both statistically
significant and
meaningful.
NOTE: Did the study test
the equivalence of
treatment and control
groups prior to the
intervention?

Research Method

This is

Experimental

Using random assignment to assign


participants to an experimental or
treatment group and a control or
comparison group (e.g., one receives the
intervention and one does not)

This works best for these


kinds of questions
Did the program cause any
significant differences in
participants outcomes as
compared to the control
groups outcomes?

This doesnt work well for


these kinds of questions
How are people
implementing the
program?

Additional Things to
Note
Look for words such as,
causes or leads to.
Look for results that are
both statistically
significant and
meaningful.
NOTE: The intervention
should be clearly defined
so that you know what it
was designed to entail,
and to what extent it was
implemented in the
study. Also look for
information on the
experience of the control
group.

Meta-analysis

This research method is useful for finding


out the average impact of several different
studies.

Over all studies conducted on


a particular intervention or
strategy, what can be said
about the direction or
Synthesis of results from multiple studies to strengths of the impacts?
determine the average impact of a similar
What does the totality of
intervention across the studies.
research studies say about
the effectiveness of a
program?

How are people


implementing the
program? What are
peoples perceptions?

Look for selection criteria


used to include studies
and look for measures of
effect size.
Look for differences in
results among the
studies. Do some studies
show positive results
while others show
negative or do all studies
show positive results?

2. For the second part, Sources of Data, just expound in paragraph form what is written on the Input part of your conceptual framework.
3. For the third part (Participants), if you created a survey, identify (in paragraph form) the people that were surveyed, for what they are being surveyed
about, and the purpose of this survey. Note: If you havent created a survey, you can skip to number 4.

4. For the fourth part, Materials, identify individually all materials that are used in your research/study and explain how did you used them, in what form
are they used, etc. This should be in paragraph form. One paragraph for each material with the (Material) at the beginning of each paragraph.
Example: Bamboo, Water Hyacinth, Sample Test Box, Doypack, etc.
5. For the fifth part, Procedure, just expound in paragraph form what is written on the Process part of your conceptual framework.
6. For the last part of the chapter, Data Analysis, explain and expound clearly how you would analyze the data/results obtained from the procedures that
you presented. It should be in paragraph form and must be as precise and detailed as possible. Although this is the last part of the method, it serves as
the introduction of the next chapter, which is the Results.