You are on page 1of 214

GE

Oil & Gas

Centrifugal Compressor Antisurge


Course Description
The training course provides control Eng. with the fundamentals of compressor anti surge control
system. Basics of Load Sharing concepts will be provided.

Prerequisite:
Trainees must have already performed the Centrifugal Compressor Basic course.

Expected Audience:

Control (ENG, Nouveaux & Anciens)

Course Content:
1.

GE OIL & GAS CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

2.

3.

4.

Centrifugal compressor introduction

COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE CURVES

Introduction to Thermodynamic planes

Performance and system resistance curves theory

Operating Point and Conditions

ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS

Centrifugal Compressor Unsteady Flows Overview

Choking or Stonewall

Rotating Stall

Surge

ANTISURGE CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Control system introduction

Antisurge valve description

Antisurge block diagram sequence description

Antisurge control and protection philosophy

Antisurge control and protection operation

GE
Oil & Gas

5.

ANTISURGE SCREENS - BASED ON SPEEDTRONIC MARK FAMILY

Main screen field description

Auto/manual operation

Antisurge control status description

6.

LOAD SHARING AND BALANCING OVERVIEW

7.

QUESTION AND ANSWER

Course Duration:

2 Days

GE
Oil & Gas

&HQWULIXJDO&RPSUHVVRU$QWLVXUJH
TRAINING MANUAL

Customized for: SONATRACH (ALGERIA)

GE Oil & Gas

GE Oil & Gas

Customer Training Job: 0622457


Customer : SONATRACH (ALGERIA)

This manual contains proprietary information of GE Oil & Gas Nuovo Pignone
S.p.A. (GE Oil & Gas), and is furnished to its customers solely for customer
training courses purposes.
This manual shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents
be disclosed to any third party without the written approval of GE Oil & Gas.
The instructions and information contained in the manual do not purport to
cover all details or variations in equipment, or to provide for every possible
contingency to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance.
Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise that
are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purpose, the matter should
be referred to GE Oil & Gas.

Reviewed
Massimiliano Romizi
Manual Specialist
/1/2013

Verified

Validate

Vito Antonio Tondolo

Sandro Fantini

Mechanical
Instructor Leader

Customer Training
Manager

/2/2013

/2/2013

GE Oil & Gas

GE Oil & Gas

&HQWULIXJDO&RPSUHVVRU$QWLVXUJH
TRAINING MANUAL
INDEX

SEZ .1 $QWLVXUJH3UHVHQWDWLRQ
SEZ .2 'UDZLQJV

Customized for: SONATRACH (ALGERIA)

GE Oil & Gas

GE Oil & Gas

&HQWULIXJDO&RPSUHVVRU$QWLVXUJH
TRAINING MANUAL

SEZ .1 $QWLVXUJH3UHVHQWDWLRQ

Customized for: SONATRACH (ALGERIA)

GE Oil & Gas


Oil & Gas Industry Applications

Centrifugal Compressor Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


What is a compressor?

Driven machine
Rotating machine
Its duty is to increase the gas pressure

How it works?

Increase the kinetic energy throgh rotating components and converts it into static pressure through the stator
components, using the torque given by the driver

Why do I need to compress a gas?

Transport
Create chemical reactions
Gas storage
Enhance oil production

2
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Pipeline inspection device

Oil/Gas field
Offshore production platform
Re-injection plant

Oil / gas processing plant


Subsea equipment

Gas boosting station

Power generation plant


Oil boosting station

Natural Gas storage plant


LNG liquefaction plant

LNG receiving plant


Refinery / Petrochemical /
fertilizer plant

3
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


According to the section arrangement of a centrifugal compressor, the internal components can be resumed in different
sections.
This section nomenclature is used to identify the different areas where the gas passes and this is also called GAS PATH.
The gas flows through the compressor along the gas path.
A compression stage consists of the impeller, which is the rotating part, and the diffuser, which is the stationary part.
We can split a compressor gas path into different main sections:
Suction stage
Discharge stage
Intermediate stage/s (multistage compressors)

4
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

5
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The gas flow from the pipe arrives at the suction stage traveling in a radial direction and must be reoriented into an axial
direction to enter the impeller.
The purpose of the suction stage is to convey the gas into the first impeller with low load losses and with uniform pressure
and velocity.
Usually, the suction stage has a fin positioned at the opposite side of the suction flange, which splits the flow of the gas to
avoid gas recycling in the inlet volute.

Fin
Casing
Blade
Impeller

Shaft
Inlet Volute
Suction Nozzle

Suction Pipe

6
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Gas inlet

Gas inlet

7
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The intermediate stages are the stages between the suction and the discharge; their number depends on how many
impellers are installed on the shaft.
Due to the fact that each compressor is fully customized, the geometry of the intermediate stages will change from
compressor to compressor, according to operating specifications.
Labirinth seals

Blades
Diffuser
Return
channel

8
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


A compressor stage consists of the impeller, the diffuser and the return
channel.
The impeller rotates with the shaft, increasing both the velocity and
the pressure of the gas.
Regarding the pressure increase, we can say that it occurs within the
impeller and the diffuser, and that the magnitude of this increase
depends on the design of both of these.

P3,C3

P2,C2

P4,C4
P1,C1

Increased velocity and pressure


9
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Velocity
Pressure

Energy

1
Impeller Inlet

Blade
Inlet

Diffuser
Inlet

Diffuser
Outlet

As shown in this diagram: in the impeller both the velocity and pressure increase; in the diffuser the pressure increases and
the velocity decreases due to the convergent design; and in the return channel there is no increase in pressure because the
convergent design is chosen only to avoid load losses.
The return channel is bladed in order to more effectively convey the gas toward the next impeller inlet, thus reducing load
losses, but there is no further increase of pressure downstream the diffuser outlet.
We can state that all the pressure increase realized within a compressor stage is made between the blade inlet and the
diffuser outlet.
10
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The discharge section of the gas path is the connection between the
inner parts of the compressor and the piping. The most important part
is the Discharge volute.
The discharge volute is installed after the last diffuser and convey the
gas into the discharge piping.
The volute has a variable section to impart low load losses to avoid
decreasing the pressure.
A fin is usually installed near the discharge flange to prevent gas
recirculation within the volute

Last impeller

Discharge volute

11
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The performance curves are a graphical way to display the perfomance parameters, always related to Inlet flow.
Each of the curves is related to a certain fixed speed.
The parameters shown are:

Polytropic Head
Polytropic Efficiency
Pressure Ratio
Power
Discharge Temperature
Discharge Pressure

12
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Maximum
continuous speed
(MCS)

Discharge pressure (bar a)

Normal operating point

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%

Minimum
operating speed
(MOS)

65%

Inlet capacity
13
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

Operating range

Surge Limit
Line
105%
100%
98%
90%
80%
65%

Choking Area

14
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


External system
resistance curve

The plot represents the envelope of all the


possible operating conditions relevant to
the given suction parameter.

The actual operating point is unique and


it is always the intersection between the
compressor curve at the given speed
and the plant resistance curve.

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%

Operating
point

65%

15
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

The plant resistance curve can change


during operation

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%
65%

16
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%
65%

Operating
stability

Turndown Range
17
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Looking back at this performance curve diagram, the left and right limits for the perfomance map of a centrifugal
compressor are called: Surge limit line and Choking area.
To introduce the topic, choking is related to the maximum flow rate that the compressor can handle at a certain speed while
surge is related to fluid dynamic instabilities that will occur if the flow rates decreases over a certain threshold at a certain
speed.

Operating range

Surge Limit
Line

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%
65%

Choking Area

18
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Choking rapresents the right limit of the perfomance curves.
It is the maximum flow that the compressor can handle at that speed, given by the geometry of the impellers.
Due to a change in system resistance, if the operating point reaches the choking limit, the flow remains constant but the
discharge pressure will rapidly drop.

Rapid decrease in performances and efficiency.


The increase of gas speed inside the compressor can lead to
high vibrations alarms.

19
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Choking is a physical limit of the compressor but it will mostly affect only the output.
No detection or protection system is required to provide choking.
What happens if the compressor chokes:

The flow reaches M=1 at the inlet of the impeller (restricted section);

Shock wave causes a dicontinuity of p and T.

Maximum flow rate;

Flow rate remains constant

Discharge pressure will drop

Gas velocity will increase

Shock wave

20
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

What is it surge?
"Axis-symmetric stall", more commonly known as "compressor surge" or "pressure surge", is a complete breakdown in
compression resulting in a reversal of flow. This phenomenon occurs when the machine operates at a compression ratio close the
maximum that the compressor can furnish at the speed at which it is running.
What is it due to?
Its due to the compressor's inability to continue working against the already-compressed gas behind it.
What happens?
The compressor either experiences conditions which exceed the limit of its pressure rise capabilities or is highly loaded such
that it does not have the capacity to absorb a momentary disturbance, creating a rotational stall which can propagate in less
than a second to include the entire compressor.
Which are the main factors leading to Surge?
During the normal operation: Increase of discharge pressure, downstream the compressor; decrease of suction pressure;
increase of suction temperature.
Due to high plant resistance, during Start up and Shutdown theres a high risk of surge phenomenons.

21
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

Surge is the left limit of performance curve, on the left of this line the compressor operates in unstable condition;

Represents the maximum polytropic head of the curve;

All surge points, defined for different speeds represent the Surge Limit Line SLL;

22
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


P2

P2 > P1

P1

Axial thrust

23
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

P2

P1 > P2

P1

Axial thrust

24
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Flow

Pressure

Time

Time
Rapid pressure oscillations with process instability

Rapid flow oscillations


Temperature

Rising temperatures
inside the compressor

Time
25
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

Flow reverses in 20 to 50 milliseconds

Surge cycles at a rate of 0.3 sec to 3 sec per cycle

Compressor vibrates, shakes

Temperature rise

Whooshing noise or clanking noise

Conventional instruments and human operators may fail to recognize surge

26
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

Unstable flow and pressure


Damage increasing with severity to seals, bearings, impellers and shaft
Increased seal clearances and leakage
Lower efficiency
Trips
Reduced compressor life

27
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The purpose of the antisurge control system is to keep the operating point, at each respective speed, from surpassing the
surge limit line SLL.
At the same time, the antisurge control system allows the compressor to maintain a safe working range.
The opening of the antisurge valve causes an increase of compressor suction flow that will reduce the slope of the external
system resistance curve, so the working point of the machine remains safely on the right of the critical surge flow.
External system
resistance curve

In order to maintain the compressor


operation within a safe operating range, all
the centrifugal compressors are equipped
with an antisurge system.

Operating range
Surge Limit
Line
105%
100%
98%
Operating
90% point
80%
65%

Choking Area

28
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The Antisurge System is composed by:

Antisurge Valve

Instrumentation:

Flow indicator trasmitter

Pressure indicator trasmitter

Electronic controller

Antisurge valve: Is a regulating valve, to avoid excessive recycles of flow that will reduce the output of the machine. Recycles
flow from discharge to suction in order to reduce system resistance. Cv of this valve, according to the stroke, is first
equiexponential, for smooth regulation, then linear, for protection. Is a Failure Open valve and is equipped with a solenoid
valve for quick opening. Antisurge valve fully open (ZSL XXX) is a permissive to start.
Instrumentation: The flow transmitter can be a rotameter, an annubar or, more commonly, a differential pressure transmitter
across a calibrated orifice. In the last case we need also to measure the gas temperature to calculate the right density of the
gas.
29
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


Antisurge valve: Is a regulating valve, to avoid excessive recycles of flow that will reduce the output of the machine. Recycles
flow from discharge to suction in order to reduce system resistance. Cv of this valve, according to the stroke, is first
equiexponential, for smooth regulation, then linear, for protection. Is a Fail to Open valve and is equipped with a solenoid
valve for quick opening. Antisurge valve fully open (ZSL XXX) is a permissive to start.

30
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


The goal of this system is to maintain the operating point within a safe operating area.
But we have to avoid to reach the SLL, surge limit line.
For this reason, inside the controller, is stored another curve called SCL, surge control line, directly related to SLL.
The relationship between SLL and SCL is the safety margin that we want to maintain, usually the points on SCL have 10% flow
more than the points on the SLL at the same rotational speed.
If the operating point remains on the right of the SCL, the antisurge valve will remain closed, otherwise it will start to open.
During the Start-up the antisurge valve remains fully open until the compressor reaches the MOS, once reached that speed
the valve turns in control, according to where the operating point is.
As soon as the Shutdown sequence begins, antisurge valve becomes immediately fully open to prevent surge.

31
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


AS control curves
The actual Surge Line is the place in which the machine surge, it can change its position because can change the
thermodynamic parameters of the gas. All the other curves are calculated using a specific thermodynamic condition so they
can not change

SL

SPL

SCL

32
Antisurge

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction


AS control curves
It is possible to have that after some change in the thermodynamic parameters, the surge line has moved while the
surge protection line did not move (because set points must be inserted manually):

SPL

SL

SCL

33
Antisurge

Control system wiring and communication ways


network
command
feedback

PDH
HMI

UDH
EXT.
POWER

COMPRESSOR
PLC

F&G
SIS

Mark VI

MCC

BN

MP

AUXILIARY

TURBINE

GEAR BOX

COMPRESSOR

34
19/11/2013

Mark VI Hardware Panel introduction


Simplex

Main parts

2
1

1r

4
3

1s

1. VME rack
r. Rack R
s. Rack S
t. Rack T
2. Protection Module
3. Terminal Boards
4. PDM

5. DACA1 (AC/DC)
6. Input filters

1t
5

35
19/11/2013

Mark VI Hardware Panel introduction


Simplex-TMR connections

I/O board
I/O board

FIELD

I/O board
I/O board
I/O board
I/O board

36
19/11/2013

Mark VI Hardware Panel introduction


Simplex-TMR connections

I/O board
I/O board

FIELD

I/O board
I/O board
I/O board
IONet (ethernet)

I/O board

37
19/11/2013

HMI Introduction

toolbox

The toolbox is a software for configuration of various control equipment.


Therefore, each product package can consist of the toolbox, product files
for the controller or drive, Trend Recorder, Data Historian, and product files
for the System Database (SDB). To order the toolbox software and specific
product support files.

The Cimplicity is a software for the definition and visualization of the HMI
screens for real time control of power-plant, processes and equipment.
In addiction, throught the Cimplicity software the operator can issue
commands to the selected turbine or driven devices.

cimplicity
38
19/11/2013

HMI Introduction

TCI

alarm

Mark VI
feedbacks
commands

cimplicity

EGD

toolbox
39
19/11/2013

Graphic pages - load

40
19/11/2013

Graphic pages - load

41
19/11/2013

Antisurge signals
TEMPERATURE
TRANSMITTER

PT-723: Surge pressure transmitter

PT-721

PT-723

FT-721

TT-715

TT

MKVI
FV-722

PT-721: Discharge pressure transmitter

FT-721: Surge diff-pressure transmitter

TT-715: Surge temperature transmitter

42
19/11/2013

Antisurge signals
Mark VI

Position L

Command: a20as

Position H :

ON/OFF signal

43
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge master enabling signal

L3: READY TO LOAD


L94X: NO SHOUT DOWN
L33CDMN: MIN. COMPRESSOR
OPERATIVE SPEED

L4AS
Antisurge master enabling signal

L4: MASTER OPERATIVE SIGNAL


L14LS: MINIMUM OPERATIVE SPEED

44
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Start/Purge sequence

L1X = 1 (auxiliaries ON)


And:
No Water Wash
No AS manual control
No Compressor pressuruzed

stopped
Compressor
purge

AS purge
From L14LR = 1 (shaft
revolution)

to L3=1 (ready to load)

acceleration

Load

L4AS = 0
A20as = 0% (AS valve completely opened)
A20as = 100% (AS valve completely
closed) to purge the compressor

a20as = 0% (AS valve completely opened)


to purge the AS line

Protection mode (a20as = 0% (closed)


L4AS = 1 (AS enabledl)
a20as = 0-100% (AS valve in control)

45
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge control Loop

A20AS_MAR

a20as

A20AS_PARM

A PI controller regulates antisurge valve


position in order to maintain the
operative point on the control line (SCL).

46
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge control Loop

A20AS_MAR

a20as

A20AS_PARM

DEAD BAND: to PI error is added to avoid


that measurement noise acts directly on
PI output when operative point is near
control line.
The dead band is defined by 2 constant
K20AS_DB_L and K20AS_DB_H.
47
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge control Loop

A20AS_MAR

a20as

A20AS_PARM

RATE LIMITER: PI controller output rate is limited by the rate limiter


function. Two ramps are defined:
Opening rate is limited K20AS_ARATO (30%/s)
Closing rate is limited by K20AS_ARATC (1.5%/s)

48
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions

SLOW OPENING (L20AS_SO):


It is activated in case of engine
shoutdown.
The valve, starting from tha actual
position, is opened at a slow rate
(K20AS_ARASO = 0.5%/s). All other
comtrols remain active and, if
required, the valve can be opened
faster.
When the function is deactivated,
the valve is closed using the
automatic closing rate
(K20AS_ARRATC = 1.5%/s) until the
normal activation controller action
takes back the control.

49
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions

TRANSIENT ABSORPTION
(L20AS_TA):
It is activated in case of rapid
approaching to surge line.
Detection: threshold K20AS_TA
(5 10
) is reached and
override by derivative parameter
A20AS_PARAM.
Action: the setpoint A20AS_MAR is
increased by multiplying factor
K20AS_TA_G (1.15).
The original setpoint is than
restored when the derivative
parameter returns below the slow
rate threshold K20AS_TA_R
(5 10
).

50
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions

SAFETY CORRECTION (L20AS_COR):


It is activated if operating point
approches surge line more than
correction line (COR).
Detection: AS parameter <
K20AS_COR
Action: set point is increased at
fixed time (2.2s).
Integral time is divided for 4 to
uncrease integral action and, as
consequence, speeding the valve
opening.

51
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions
SAFETY PROTECTION (L20AS_SPR):
It is activated if operating point
approches surge line more than
protection line (SPR).
Detection: AS parameter <
K20AS_SPR
Action: recycling valve fast opening
ramp is initiated. Than safety
protaction terminate when
operating point parameter is above
safety protection SPR line with
hysteresis K20AS_SPRH.
If the situation is not OK in 10s an
alarm indicates a problem in the AS
valve opening.
Safety protection is also active
during START/STOP sequence.
52
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions
PROTECTIONS DISABLING
When unit is operative (L4AS = 1),
safety protection and correction
can be disabled (normally to allow
surge zone exploration) by the
override command L43AS_O_CMD.
In this case alarm L43AS_O_ALM is
generated.

DANGER !!!

53
19/11/2013

AS Sequence in MKVI
Antisurge specific funtions
MANUAL OPERATION (L43AS_CMD)
Manual operation can be selected if at least one of the following condition is verified:
Safety protection od safety correction not active
Antisurge master enabing signal disabled (L4AS = 0)
Protections disabled (L43AS_O_CMD)
If MANUAL OPERATION is selected, recycling valve positio n is
managed by five pushbuttons (with a ramp of 1%/s):
1.

L5AS_C_CPB: AS valve close PB (fine tuning)

2.

L5AS_O_CPB: AS valve ope PB (fine tuning)

3.

L5AS_FC_CPB: AS valve close PB (latched till


valve completely closed or L5AS_S_CPB is
received)

4.

L5AS_FO_CPB: AS valve open PB (latched till


valve completely closed or L5AS_S_CPB is
received)

5.

L5AS_S_CPB: stop AS valve stroking


54
19/11/2013

Graphic pages - load

55
19/11/2013

Graphic pages - load

56
19/11/2013

Graphic pages - load

57
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating point of a compressor

The operating point of a compressor can be changed (regulated)


by means mainly two ways:

Speed variation

The operating point can be


changed changing the shaft
speed.

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%

NPT = Pout and Qin


NPT = Pout and Qin

65%

58
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating point of a compressor

The operating point of a compressor can be changed (regulated)


by means mainly two ways:

Cooled bypass

The operating point can be changed


throught the managing of the
antisurge valve.

105%
100%
98%
90%
80%

AS Closing = Pout and Qin


AS Opening = Pout and Qin

65%

59
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating points of 2 compressors in PARALLEL

Pout

Qin1

DRIVER
1

Collector

Pout1

C1

Qin2
Pout2
DRIVER
2

The goal is to share the load in equal


parts on the two compressor trains,
50% on C1 and 50% on C2.

Pout = Pout1 = Pout2

C2
60
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating points of 2 compressors in PARALLEL

Train 1

Train 2

105%

105%

100%
98%

100%
98%

90%

90%

80%
65%

80%
65%

If Driver1 increases its rpm, Pout1 increases. Pout = Pout1 =Pout2, so also Pout2 increases changing the resistance
curve of the second compressor. For that reason the working point 2 goes closer the surge limit.
When a train in a parallel configuration changes its speed, also the speed of the other train must be changed in the
same way.
61
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating points of 2 compressors in SERIES

Pout

Qin2

Qin1
Pout1

C1

DRIVER
2

C2

Collector

DRIVER
1

Pout2

Pout = Pout1 + Pout2


The goal, in this configuration, is the managing of the requested Pout.
An increasing of te Pout is implemented increasing the revolution speed.

62
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating points of 2 compressors in SERIES

Pout

Qin2

Qin1
Pout1

C1

DRIVER
2

C2

Collector

DRIVER
1

Pout2

Pout = Pout1 + Pout2


If the Pout needs to be increased, Driver2 can increase the speed. But, if
only Driver2 increases the speed, this variation determines the lowering
of the resistance curve of the Compressor1 that generates a decresing
of Pou1; and finally the consequent new decreasing of Pout.
When a train of a series changes its speed, also the speed of the
other train must be changed in the same way.
63
19/11/2013

Load sharing theory


Regulation of the operating points of 2 compressors.

AS valve

Qin

Pout
DRIVER

Fine regulation through the


antisarge valve:

Because the 2 compressors cannot be perfectly equal (for costruction tolerances, dirty...) even if they are revolving a
the same speed, they will work a little bit differently one by the other.
In consideration of that: speed regulation is not enoght .

A fine regulation of the load sharing, both for series and parallel configurations, needs to be
implemented by means of Cooled bypass method.

64
19/11/2013

Centrifugal Compressor- Introduction

65
Antisurge

GE Oil & Gas

&HQWULIXJDO&RPSUHVVRU$QWLVXUJH
TRAINING MANUAL

SEZ . Drawings

Customized for: SONATRACH (ALGERIA)

GE
Oil & Gas

Drawings Index
BCL505/N assembly drawing

SOS9929211

Performancecurves

SOS9983763

Piping and instrument diagram

SOM5081477

Instrument list

SOM6609947

Control system functional description

SOM6670429

Antisurge Valve

SOS7248866

Antisurge valve data sheet

RV 28465

Antisurge write-up

SOS9983403

Performance curves

SOS9983763