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You are on page 1of 9

4, JULY/AUGUST 2004

941

X=R Ratio for Breaker Evaluation

Ketut Dartawan, Member, IEEE, and Conrad St. Pierre

that do a fairly good job in obtaining a single fault point

ratio

that will allow a conservative estimate of the dc component and,

therefore, the total fault current flowing in a breaker. However,

there are circuit configurations that result in overly conservative

or under conservative estimates of the fault

ratio. This paper

explores alternate methods using the information in a complex

impedance network reduction and presents an alternate method

that provides comparable

ratios and conservatism without

the need to preform dual network reductions.

Index TermsShort-circuit currents,

ratio.

I. INTRODUCTION

N the calculation of short-circuit currents for breaker evalratio can be a critical factor.

uation, the fault point

Both ANSI/IEEE C37.010-1999 [1] and IEC-61909-1988 [2]

ratio determined by the fundamental-freinfer that the bus

quency complex impedance network reduction may not result in

ratio to be used in determining the dc coma conservative

ponent of the short-circuit current. ANSI/IEEE C37.010-1999

network reduction to deterrecommends a separate and

ratio. While IEC-61909 allows several

mine the fault point

ratio. The

ratio is

methods to provide a conservative

important since it determines the amount of dc in the short-circuit current and its application to breaker withstand and interrupting time duties.

This paper proposes three methods to eliminate the second

network reduction required by ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards.

These methods are IEC Method A variation, characteristic curratio current method. By using

rent method, and weighted

the information available in the fundamental frequency complex impedance network solution, the proposed methods mainratio

tain conservatism in the calculation of the fault point

and therefore in the asymmetrical short-circuit current.

This paper will first briefly explain ANSI/IEEE as well as

IEC methods, and then the paper explains the three proposed

ratio is premethods. A comparison of the fault point

sented.

Paper PID-04-09, presented at the 2003 IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference, Houston, TX, September 1517, and approved

for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the

Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications

Society. Manuscript submitted for review September 18, 2003 and released for

publication May 7, 2004.

K. Dartawan is with Power Technologies, Inc, Schenectady, NY 12301-1058

USA (e-mail: ketut.dartawan@shawgrp.com).

C. St. Pierre is with Electric Power Consultants, LLC, Schenectady, NY

12306 USA (e-mail: conrad@capital.net).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2004.831268

ANSI/IEEE C37.010 Standard has the following words in

ratio. It states it should be noted that

reference to the

no completely accurate way exists of combining two parallel

into a single circuit with

circuits with different values of

one value of

. Paraphrasing the next few sentences in the

and

network reductions

ANSI/IEEE Standard, separate

gives a more accurate result than other reasonably simple

procedures and for practical cases errs on the conservative

side.

The method used to calculate the short-circuit current allows

a complex impedance reduction to determine the symmetrical

ratio is determined from a sepshort-circuit currents. The

arate resistance reduction with the reactance terms equal to zero

and a reactance reduction with the resistance terms equal to zero.

The dc component is a function of time and the fault point

ratio. The total fault current includes the ac and dc components

for first-cycle and interrupting time currents.

III. IEC METHOD

A similar statement is made in IEC-60 909-1988 about the

ratio from the complex network reduction. In Clause 5

it states In a mesh network there are several time constants.

That is why it is not possible to give an easy exact method of

calculating peak current and the dc current. Special methods

to calculate peak current with sufficient accuracy are given in

subclause 9.1.3.2. IEC-60909 then explains three methods to

adjust the current based on the fault point complex impedance

ratio or to calculate a modified

ratio.

The three IEC methods are as follows.

Method A: For the branches connected to the fault point,

arrange the symmetrical fault current contributions of each

branch in descending order by magnitude, then starting

with largest branch current begin adding next largest

branch current until at least 80% of the total fault current

is taken into account. From this 80% current grouping,

ratio and

find the branch impedance with the highest

ratio for all dc component calculations.

use that

ratio from the

Method B: Determine the fault point

complex impedance reduction. Increase the calculated

symmetrical ac current by 15%. Calculate the dc comratio and the

ponent from the complex network

increased symmetrical current.

Method C: Determine the ac symmetrical current magnitude from a complex network reduction. Perform a second

complex network reduction with all branch reactive components at 40% of their respective fundamental frequency

942

ratio at the fault point and mulratio to determine

tiply the ratio by 2.5 and use this

the dc component.

IEC-60909 states that Method C is most accurate. Methods

A and B are more conservative. The authors believe Method B

is the most conservative, since the 15% increased symmetrical

short-circuit current generally over compensates for the under

ratio.

estimating errors in the complex impedance

Fig. 1.

Two-branch equivalent.

Fig. 2.

Three-branch equivalent.

IEC Method A variation presented by the authors is shown in

ratio is determined

Table II. In this method the fault point

from the branch current phase angle using the equation

Fault point

ratio

branch current

Phase angle of branch current

carry more than

of the

total fault current

(1)

From the branches that are carrying at least 10% current of the

total short-circuit, the highest branch

is used for the bus

ratio. An absolute value is used in the equation to prevent

a negative

ratio. This

ratio method is noted in the

tables as IEC A Option.

TABLE I

IMPEDANCE RANGE USED IN MODEL

found in impedance networks, it is the ratio of impedances

that is important.

A method, which will be called the characteristic current

method (CCM) [3], is not mentioned in either IEEE/ANSI or

IEC Standards. The characteristic current method calculates

the dc component of each branch based on the phase angle of

the current flowing in it. Branch current flows having different

ratios) will have the current peak at slightly

phase angles (

different times before the first-half cycle [4][7]. To simplify

calculations, the dc component is taken at 0.5-cycle for all

branches using the expression in (2). The branch dc components

are summed and divided by the fault point symmetrical ac fault

current. These two quantities are used to determine the fault

ratio using (2)

point equivalent

ratio

Abs

(2)

After each dc component is determined and totaled, the equivalent fault point

ratio is found from (3)

Equiv Bus

(3)

ances is used for first-cycle and interrupting time calculations.

ratio is multiplied by the ratio branch

current flowing to the total fault using the following equation to

ratio:

obtain the bus

Fault point

Ratio

Sum ABS tan

branch current

(4)

The weighted

ratio current method presented by the authors has a means to reduce the high

ratio that can occur

ratio of IEC Method A variation

when the largest branch

The ANSI/IEEE method, IEC Method C, and other procedures provided in this paper may not have any vigorous proof

that they provide a conservative estimate for actual

ratios which affect the dc component. They provide an expedient

943

TABLE II

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX X=R RATIO

X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 5:0, X 2 = j 5:0, R 3 = 0:08, X 3 = j 0:8

Fig. 4. Plot of bus X=R ratios for various methods on a three-branch circuit.

Data are from Table II.

The actual dc component can be found by time dependent variables using an Electro-Magnetic Transient Program

(EMTP) rather than complex impedance reduction used in

short-circuit programs. However, for systems with more than 10

or 20 nodes, a time-dependent model becomes time consuming

for the engineer.

VII. FAULT POINT

impedance network reduction.

COMPARISONS

ratio affects the dc component

and, therefore, the total fault current. The higher the fault point

ratio, the higher the dc component.

The authors provided two simple networks shown in Figs. 1

and 2 that could represent a large system network reduction. A

ratios from ANSI/IEEE sepcomparison of the calculated

arate and

, IEC Method C, complex impedance reduction,

and the three proposed methods given in this paper were compared to an EMTP model. The results of the EMTP program

was taken to be the more accurate of the methods used since it

accounted for the dc time constants in each branch.

ratios were examined for the

A wide range of branch

systems shown in Figs. 1 and 2. While it is not practical to exratios along with

amine an infinite combination of branch

various branch impedances, enough information can be gained

from the samples in this paper to make some observations. For

each one-line configuration examined, four different values of

impedances were used while the

ratio was

varied from 0.1 to 200. The impedances used in the models are

given in Table I.

A typical output plot of the EMTP program showing current

asymmetry is shown in Fig. 3. From the peak current, the time to

ratio for

peak, and the symmetrical current, the composite

the system can be found (shown in the Appendix). The effective

ratio determined from the EMTP model was compared

ratio from the above calculation methods. Table II

to the

gives the comparison of the proposed methods for the threeand

equal

branch system shown in Fig. 2 with a variable

to 5.0. The results of the other circuit impedance variations are

given in the Appendix.

944

TABLE III

rms MULTIPLIERS

RATIO FROM EMTP MODEL

X=R

Fig. 6. DC decay from EMTP model for the three-branch circuit shown in

Fig. 5.

ratios are equal to or

greater than those from the complex impedance reduction

method as noted by the EMTP ratios being greater than 1.0.

The shaded values show where the proposed calculation shaded

ratios less than the EMTP model. These shaded

have

ratios that could

values indicate possible nonconservative

underestimate the dc short-circuit current and, therefore, the

dc

. For some of the methods, the

total rms current ac

difference is small and would have little effect on the total rms

breaker current. For the simple networks of Figs. 1 and 2, the

ratio from the ANSI/IEEE method can be significantly

lower than the

ratio of the complex impedance reduction

ratio is less than 0.6. The graphical comparison

when

is shown in Fig. 4. Calculation methods ANSI/IEEE, IEC

can have

Method A Variation, and Weighted

ratios that are much higher than the EMTP program results.

ratios as determined from IEC Method C and the

The

characteristic current method tend to track together. The IEC

Method C appears to be closer to EMTP results, but less likely to

ratios. In Fig. 4, the CCM method

be conservative for low

TABLE IV

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX

RATIO X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 5:0, X 2 = j 5:0

X=R

TABLE V

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX

RATIO X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 0:5, X 2 = j 5:0

945

X=R

has a unique bend when the phase angle of the current in one

branch becomes greater than 90 . Therefore, it makes the

ratio nonconservative for this condition.

VIII. AC AND DC CURRENT FLOWS

The purpose of this section is to show that the dc component

for the branch currents cannot be easily calculated using the

complex impedance fault point

ratio.

the three-branch equivalent system. The ac current flow follows

Kirchhoffs current law. Calculating the dc components using

(2) above for each branch in this case does not result in the

common branch current equaling the parallel path current. This

946

TABLE VI

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX

RATIO X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 0:2, X 2 = j 1:0

X=R

ratio

cannot be accurately determined. In most cases calculating the

ratio will result in

dc component based on the ac branch

the two parallel branch dc flows being greater than the common

ratio to determine the

branch flow. Therefore, using the ac

TABLE VII

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX

RATIO X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 0:1, X 2 = j 1:0

X=R

branch dc flows are added.

In this simplified system with the right combination of impedances, the real component of the ac current can flow away

TABLE VIII

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX X=R RATIO

X 1 = j 5:0, R 2 = 0:5, X 2 = j 5:0, R3 = 0:08, X 3 = j 0:8

from the faulted bus. For this situation, the sum of the branch dc

components may be less than the common branch current.

Shown in Fig. 5, top diagram, is the dc current component

calculated from the branch current using its phase angle and

947

TABLE IX

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX X=R RATIO

X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 0:2, X 2 = 1:0, R3 = 0:08, X 3 = j 0:8

from the EMTP model, lower diagram, shown in parentheses.

The calculated dc currents do not total correctly. Fig. 6 shows

the decaying dc current in each branch as determined from the

948

TABLE X

COMPARISON OF OTHER METHOD X=R RATIOS TO COMPLEX X=R RATIO

X 1 = j 5:0, R2 = 0:1, X 2 = 1:0, R3 = 0:08, X 3 = j 0:8

system, the different dc decay rates in each branch influences

the dc decay in the other branches. Therefore, it is difficult

to calculate the branch dc flows without a time-dependent

model.

IX. CONCLUSION

While the eight circuit configurations do not represent an exratios, they do

haustive examination of different system

method would be a

show that the CCM or the weighted

good compromise between the separate and

network reductions recommended in ANSI/IEEE Standard and IEC-60909

Method C.

Both the ANSI/IEEE and the IEC methods require the complete network to be reduced at least twice. It is the contention

of the authors that a complex network reduction has enough inratio to similar

formation to approximate the fault point

accuracy as the present ANSI/IEEE and IEC dual network reductions.

The calculation of the dc component by the CCM or

approach should not require as much comweighted

puter time as the second matrix building and reduction used in

the present standards. In the authors opinion, the CCM method

method appears to be a more reasonable

or the weighted

approach than the present ANSI/IEEE or IEC methods.

From this paper the following points are made.

ratio

1) The complex impedance network reduction

ratio and, therefore, may

is lower than the EMTP

under estimate the dc component.

2) The IEC Method C does a good job in matching the

ratio, but the IEC Method C can be

EMTP network

ratios.

nonconservative for some

3) ANSI/IEEE method and IEC Method A Variation

ratios below those of the EMTP model.

do yield

methods also yield

The CCM and Weighted

ratios below those of the EMTP model but in fewer

instances and with smaller deviation. The procedure of

IEC Method A Variation consistently provides the most

ratio.

conservative

4) ANSI/IEEE method, IEC Method A Variation, and

do occasionally overestimate the

Weighted

ratio significantly.

ratio appears to do the best

5) The CCM method for

overall job without being overly conservative.

calculated by complex

6) The largest ratio between the

network reduction to that by EMTP is approximately 2.5.

Therefore, if any of the above methods yields an

ratio that is greater than 2.5 times that calculated from the

ratio, it is satisfactory

complex impedance network

to use an

ratio 2.5 times the complex impedance

ratio.

network

ratio for the proposed

7) If the calculated fault point

ratio,

methods is less than the complex impedance

then use the complex impedance

ratio.

APPENDIX

Tables IIIX are supplementary tables for the configurations

not given in the main body of the paper. Table III gives the

peak and time to peak for a short-circuit current. From these

two values the actual fault point can be obtained by differential

equations or by an iteration technique. A direct equation to obratio knowing the peak and time to peak is

tain the circuit

not a simple procedure. Therefore, an approximation to the acratio from the equations listed at the bottom

tual fault point

of Table III was used. The time to peak and ratio of peak to

rms current was taken from the EMTP results. The Corrected

ratio using these equations is a close approximation to

ratio as noted by the first and last

the actual fault point

columns.

Tables IVVII provide a summary for the Fig. 1 configuration, while Tables VIIIX provide a summary for the Fig. 2

configuration. The shaded areas indicate where the method is

nonconservative compared to the EMTP model.

REFERENCES

[1] Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a

Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.010-1999.

[2] Short-Circuit Current Calculation in Three-Phase a.c Systems, IEC

60909-1988, International Standard.

[3] G. Parise, A new approach to calculate the decaying AC contributions

to short-circuit: The characteristic currents method, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Applicat., vol. 31, pp. 214221, Jan./Feb. 1995.

to

[4] H. Reichenstein and J. Gomez, Relationship of X=R, I and I

asymmetry in resistance/reactance circuits, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat.,

vol. IA-21, Mar./Apr. 1985.

[5] IIIE. Gross and R. Kuntzendorf, Current asymmetry in resistance-reactance circuits, Trans. AIEE, vol. 79, pp. 897900, Dec. 1960.

[6] IIIE. Gross and B. Thapar, Current asymmetry in resistance-reactance

circuits-II, Trans. AIEE, vol. 80, pp. 800803, Dec. 1961.

[7] C. St. Pierre, A Practical Guide to Short-Circuit Calculations. Dexter,

MI: Thomson-Shore, Aug. 2001.

949

electrical power systems from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya, Indonesia, in 1994.

In Indonesia, he was a System and Production

Engineer with Freeport-McMoRan, a copper and

gold mining company. In 1999, he joined Power

Technologies, Inc. (PTI), Schenectady, NY, as a

Consultant. His industrial power system experience

includes short-circuit analysis, power flow, motor

starting, protective relaying coordination, harmonics,

power quality measurements, and harmonic filter

design. He has performed large-scale dynamic studies for interconnection

systems in the U.S., as well as several other countries. He is also an Instructor

for several power system courses offered by PTI.

the University of Maine, Orono, and the M.S. degree

from Union College, Schenectady NY.

From 1965 to 1991, he was with General Electric

Company, as an Electrical Engineer and Engineering

Manager. His work included application, system,

and analytical engineering on electric power

systems. From 1991 to 1997, he was with Power

Technologies, Inc. (PTI), Schenectady, NY, as

Manager of Industrial Power Systems, performing

analytical studies. In 1997, he formed Electric Power

Consultants, LLC, Schenectady, NY, which provides analytical engineering

services to clients. He has written numerous IEEE papers and magazine

articles. In 2001, he published a book on short-circuit calculations.

Mr. St. Pierre has been a Member of several IEEE subcommittees, and he was

the Chairman of the Violet Book Working Group which deals with short-circuit

calculations. He was a Member of the U.S. National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Advisory Group for TC73/WG1

and WG2 concerning short-circuit currents and calculation methods.

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