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CERTIFICATE

This is certify that master kunal


solankey a student of class XII
of the First Step Senior
Secondary School Chhindwara,
ROLL No.
Session
2016-17, has satisfactorily
completed the required physics
project work as per the syllabus
of standard XII in the laboratory
of the school.
Date:
External signature

Principal signature
signature

Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank my physics
teachers Mr. Animesh Dubey
& Miss. Uzma Khan for her
constant guidance, motivation,
moral encouragement and
sympathetic attitude towards
the success of this project.
I would also like to extend my
gratitude towards the lab
attendant, my parents and
everyone who has helped me in

completing the project


successfully.

Kunal solankey
Class- XII-B (science)

Declaration
I hereby declare that this project titled

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT ON
LDR entitled submitted to the Department
of PHYSICS; First Step Senior Secondary
School is record of Mr. Animesh Dubey and
Mrs. Uzma khan. The information and data
given in project is authentic to the best of my
knowledge.

Kunal solankey
Class- XII-B (science)

Index

Introduction
About LDR
Type of photo resistors
LDR Symbol
Application of LDR
Experiment

Aim of experiment
Apparatus
Theory
Procedure
Observation
Result / source of error
Introduction

The
general
purpose
photoconductive cell is also
known as LDR light dependent
resistor.
It
is
a
type
of
semiconductor
and
its
conductivity
changes
with
proportional
change
in
the
intensity of light.

There are two common types of


materials used to manufacture
the photoconductive cells. They
are Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) and
Cadmium Selenide (CdSe).
Extrinsic devices have impurities
added, which have a ground
state energy closer to the
conduction
band
since
the
electrons don't have as far to
jump, lower energy photons (i.e.
longer wavelengths and lower
frequencies) are sufficient to
trigger the device. Two of its
earliest applications were as part
of smoke and fire detection
systems
and
camera
light
meters. The structure is covered

with glass sheet to protect it


from moisture and dust and
allows only light to fall on it.

A photo resistor or light dependent


resistor is a component that is

sensitive to light. When light falls


upon it then the resistance changes.
Values of the resistance of the LDR
may change over many orders of
magnitude the value of the resistance
falling as the level of light increases.
It is not uncommon for the values of
resistance of an LDR or photo resistor
to be several me ohms in darkness
and then to fall to a few hundred
ohms in bright light. With such a wide
variation in resistance, LDRs are easy
to use and there are many LDR
circuits available. The sensitivity of
light dependent resistors or photo
resistors
also
varies
with
the
wavelength of the incident light.
LDRs are made from semiconductor
materials to enable them to have their
light sensitive properties. Many
materials can be used, but one

popular material for these photo


resistors is cadmium sulphide, CdS.

Type of photo
resistors
Light dependent resistors, LDRs
or photo resistors fall into one of
two types or categories:
Intrinsic photo resistors:
Intrinsic photo resistors use undoped semiconductor materials
including silicon or germanium.
Photons fall on the LDR excite

electrons moving them from the


valence band to the conduction
band. As a result, these
electrons are free to conduct
electricity. The more light that
falls on the device, the more
electrons are liberated and the
greater the level of conductivity
and this results in a lower level
of resistance.
Extrinsic photo resistors:
Extrinsic photo resistors are
manufactured from
semiconductor of materials
doped with impurities. These
impurities or do pants create a
new energy band above the
existing valence band. As a
result, electrons need less
energy to transfer to the

conduction band because of the


smaller energy gap.
Regardless of the type of light
dependent resistor or photo
resistor, both types exhibit an
increase in conductivity or fall in
resistance with increasing levels of
incident light.

LDR symbol
The LDR symbol used in circuits is
based around the resistor circuit
symbol, but shows the light, in the
form of arrows shining on it. In this
way it follows the same convention
used for photodiode and
phototransistor circuit symbols
where arrows are used to show the
light falling on these components.

Circuit symbols used for the light


dependent resistor / photo resistor
The light dependent resistor /
photo resistor circuit symbols are
shown for both the newer style
resistor symbol, i.e. a rectangular
box and the older zigzag line
resistor circuit symbols.

Application

Lead sulfide (PbS) and indium


antimonide (InSb) LDRs are used
for the mid infrared spectral
region. GeCu photoconductors are
among the best far-infrared
detectors available, and are used

for infrared astronomy and


infrared spectroscopy.

Analog Applications
Camera Exposure Control
Auto Slide Focus - dual cell
Photocopy Machines - density of
toner
Colorimetric Test Equipment
Densitometer
Electronic Scales - dual cell
Automatic Gain Control
modulated light source
Automated Rear View Mirror

Digital Applications
Automatic Headlight Dimmer

Night Light Control


Oil Burner Flame Out
Street Light Control
Position Sensor

*LDR has a disadvantage


that when its
temperature changes, its
resistance changes
drastically for a particular
light intensity.

Experiment
Aim of experiment
To study the variations, in current flowing
in a circuit containing a LDR, because of a
variation:(a) In the power of the incandescent
lamp, used to illuminate the LDR.
( Keeping all the lamps at a fixed
distance).
(b) In the distance of a incandescent
lamp, (of fixed power), used to
illuminate the LDR.

Apparatus

Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)


Connecting Wires

Source of different power rating


(bulbs)
Bulb Holder
Meter scale
Multi Meter
Battery

Theory
Light dependent resistor is a
resistor
whose
resistance
change with intensity of light
incident on it.
It is made of cadmium
sulphide. The resistance of
LDR is 10 M (in full dark) and
to about 10 M (in day light).
The resistance of LDR
decreases with increases in the
intensity of light.
4

Procedure
1. Arrange
the
apparatus
according to the electric
diagram as shown in figure.
2. Now set the knob of
multimeter on the point
marked current.

3. Place the black paper on


LDR, so that no light fall on
LDR. Record the current in
multimeter.
4. Remove the black paper
from LDR. Record the
current in multimeter in
presence of normal light in
the
laboratory
and
determine the resistance of
V
LDR by using R= I .
5. Now
measure
the
resistance LDR by placing a
lamp of 25W over it.
6. Now
measure
the
resistances for all lamp say
40 W, 60 W, 100 W & 200
W by replacing 25 W lamp,
one by one.
7. Now, select any one lamp
(say 60 W) and move it

toward the LDR for a


distance10cm & note the
electric
current
in
multimeter.
8. Move
the
same
lamp
towards the LDR to a
distance of 8cm and again
record the current.
9. Similarly, record the current
in
multimeter
for
the
distance 6cm, 4cm, & 2cm.

Observation
1. The emf at battery =.
Volt.
2. Range of multimeter =..
mA.
3. L-C of multimeter = mA.

4. Zero error
. mA.

multimeter

Table 1for different power


lamps
5. The distance of all lamps from
LDR = 6 cm.
S.No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mode of
incident
light
With black
paper
Lamp of 25
W
Lamp of 40W
Lamp of 60W
Lamp of 100
W
Lamp of 200

Electric
current (I)
mA

Resista
nce R=
V
I

Table 2 for a lamb placed at


different distance
6. Power of lamp =.W
S.No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Distance
between
source and
LDR
(cm)
10
8
6
4
2

Electric
current (I)
mA

Resista
nce R=
V
I

Result
1. From table 1, it is concluded
that electric current flowing
through a circuit containing
LDR increasing with the

increase in the power


(intensity) of the lamps.
Hence resistance of LDR
decreases and vice- versa.
2. From table 2, it is concluded
that electric current flowing
through a circuit containing
LDR increases with decrease
in the distance between
source of fixed power and
LDR. Hence, with the distance
between light source and LDR
increases the resistance of
the LDR decreases and viceversa.

Source of error

The
LDR
may
not
be
perpendicular to the source.
Connections may be faulty.
The experiment should be
conducted in a dark room.
Measurements should be
taken accurately.