You are on page 1of 6

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research

ISSN: 2455-2070, Impact Factor: RJIF 5.22


www.socialresearchjournals.com
Volume 2; Issue 3; March 2016; Page No. 41-46

Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Students Academic Achievements


Ngu Leh Seng, Zahyah Hanafi, Muhajir Taslikhan, Arumugam Raman
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah Malaysia
Abstract
Emotional aspects are very important in influencing the excellence of a student. Many past studies have proven that emotional
intelligence affect academic achievement. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify students emotional intelligence level and to
what extent emotional intelligence influences students academic achievement. A total of 406 people form 5 students from nine
schools in Limbang District, Sarawak were involved in this study. Malaysia Intelligence Emotional Inventory Teens (IKEM-R)
was used to assess the level of students emotional intelligence. A total of 49 items from this instrument was used to measure
emotional intelligence of the respondents. Exploratory factor analysis and KMO value for pilot study is. 607. The result of the
study show that all the emotional intelligence dimensions are at high level. Further, the results revealed that there is no significant
influence of all the dimensions on academic achievement. Five research hypotheses were supported. All the emotional intelligence
dimensions namely emotional awareness, emotional regulation, self-motivation, empathy and social skills do not affect students'
academic achievement.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Academic Achievement, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Emotional Awareness, Emotional
Regulation.
1. Introduction
The Malaysian Education System is not only aims to produce
outstanding students but also spiritual growth and emotionally
healthy so that they are able to contribute to the well-being
and progress of the nation. Emotional aspects is prioritized in
the development of student. Many past studies found that
emotional factors are very important in influencing students'
excellence in academic achievement and success in life
According to Goleman (1995) [6], an individual's emotional
intelligence is more important factor in determining their
success compared to intellectual intelligence. He found that
only 20% of a person's success is attributed to intellectual
intelligence whereas emotional intelligence is comprised of
80%.
Students Emotional intelligence factors play an important role
in influencing their academic achievement. Students who have
high emotional intelligence found to obtain good academic
achievements (Nwadinigwe & Azuka-Obieke, 2012; Noriah et
al., 2008; Nelson, 2009; Downey, Mountstephen, Lloyd,
Hansen & Stough, 2008; Holt, 2007) [16, 14, 18, 13, 4, 10]. Students
with high emotional intelligence obtained good academic
achievement, help to think creative and critically and also able
to solve problems intelligently (Salovey & Mayer, 1990) [19].
Emotional Intelligence Mixed Model
An emotional intelligence model in this study is based on
Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman
(1995) [6]. Model featured by Goleman originated from
Emotional Intelligence Model pioneered by Mayer and
Salovey. More specifically, Goleman (1998) [5] in his book
"Working with Emotional Intelligence" has been divided
Emotional intelligence into five dimensions such as self-

awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy and


social skills.
Self-Awareness
Self-awareness is the ability to realize and know your own
feelings in a situation and be able to choose a priority while
taking actions or making decisions. This kind of person can
make an accurate assessment of capabilities and high
confidence (Goleman, 1998) [5]. Self-awareness has four sub
dimensions, i.e. emotional awareness, an accurate selfassessment, self-confidence and intent.
Self-regulation
Self-regulation refers to the ability to manage emotions in
carrying out work to make it easier and without interrupting
the job (Goleman, 1998) [5]. This ability gives strength to
pursue goals and quickly recover from emotional stress
(Goleman, 1998) [5]. There are five sub dimensions namely
self-control, trustworthiness, responsibility, adaptability and
innovation.
Self-motivation
Self-motivation refers to the ability of a person striving to
improve or meet a standard of excellence. Self-motivation also
helps someone obtain initiative and perseverance to improve
capabilities to address challenges and obstacles in life
(Goleman, 1998) [5]. This process also involves someone using
emotions to stimulate in order to achieve a goal or solve a
particular task or project. Self-motivation has five subdomains
i.e. encouragement of achievement, commitment, initiative,
optimism and enthusiasm.

41

Empathy
Empathy is the ability to recognize and identify a person's
feelings, understand a thing according to the perception of
others that can raise and nurture the warmth as well as adapt to
other individuals (Goleman, 1998) [5]. Empathy has seven
subdomains that are to understand others, help others, expand
others, service oriented, discover diversity, political awareness
and taking care of.
Social skills
According to Goleman (1998) [5], individuals with social skills
is able to interpret accurately the condition of social and its
network thus can manage multiple emotions effectively in a
given interaction (Goleman, 1998) [5]. This individual able to
persuade, lead, negotiate and resolve conflicts in order to
create understanding and team spirit. Social skills has eight
subdomains namely influence, communication, conflict
management, leadership, change catalyst, builder of
relationships, collaboration and cooperation as well as the
ability to involve in an Association.
2. Literature review
At first the researchers review the role of emotional
intelligence on academic achievement and emotional
adjustment of students in school (Humphrey, Curran, Morris,
Farrell and Woods, 2007) [9]. Lately there are also studies
reports emotional intelligence has a significant positive
relationship on students academic achievement (Nwadinigwe
& Azuka-Obieke, 2012; Noriah et al., 2008; Nelson, 2009;
Downey, Mountstephen, Lloyd, Hansen & Stough, 2008; Holt,
2007) [16, 14, 18, 13, 4, 10]. According to their study the emotional
intelligence positively correlated with students academic
achievement. Students with high emotional intelligence have
consciousness against the state of their emotions and the
emotions of others and also able to control emotions that
would help him to achieve the triumph of academic.
Study in Malaysia showed that students emotional
intelligence is an indicator to their academic achievement. For
example, Azizi Hj. Hashim Yahya Besar Shahrin and
Nordiana binti Mohd Nor (2009) [3, 15] has reported that there
is a significant positive relationship between emotional
intelligence with academic achievement among 399 form four
students in 10 secondary schools in the vicinity of three States
namely Johor, Kelantan and Terengganu. Researchers from
abroad also reported the same (Hogan, Parker, Wiener,
Watter, Woos and Oke, 2010; Qualter, Gardner, Pope,
Hutchinson & Whitely, 2012; Adeoyo & Emeko, 2010) [8, 17].
All the findings supported that emotional intelligence is
essential in influencing student academic achievement.
In addition to the above studies, there is also a study using
quasi-experimental design i.e. pretest and posttest and control
group. Nwadinigwe and Azuka-Obieke (2012) [16] strengthen
the statement that emotional intelligence has a significant
positive relationship of academic achievement. They proved
that students participated in emotional intelligence skills
workshop improve their academic achievement. Students who
followed the emotional learning system has a higher level of
emotional intelligence compared to peer mentoring while the
control group is the lowest level of emotional intelligence.
Therefore, the emotional learning system is a comprehensive

intervention program that could affect a person's emotional


intelligence skills of students and subsequent positive impact
on his academic achievements. According to Nwadignigwe et
al., (2012), this happened because when a person has become
more emotional, then the behavior shown is positive. Such a
situation could balance the feelings and thoughts of a person
to form motive behaviors which have high emotional
intelligence. Thus, his academic achievement rises.
Holt (2007) [10] showed that academic achievement has
positive significant relationships with dimensions of
managerial emotions, and emotional reasoning. Meanwhile,
Nelson (2009) [13] found that students from low socioeconomic status showed high significant relationship between
highest emotional understanding and academic achievement.
Students who have emotional understanding dimension were
reported able to assess understanding of emotional information
and identify how emotions combine and grow through the
communication transition (Holt, 2009). This significant
relationship indicates that students who appreciate the
emotional meaning acquired higher academic achievement.
According to Adeoyo and Emeke (2010) [1], emotional
intelligence courses bring the most significant effect on the
achievement of English language. Students who have exposed
to emotional intelligence courses obtain better achievements in
English tests than those do not following the course. This
finding is supported by Najib Ahmad Marzuki et al., (2006)
[12]
, which found that a student with high emotional
intelligence is more competent in English.
Najib Ahmad Marzuki et al., (2006) [12] has shown there is
relationship between emotional intelligence with English
speaking competence in terms of listening, speaking, reading,
and writing. In terms of listening, materials in the English
language have a significant relationship with frequency
hearing, interest in listening, and understand what is heard in
English. The higher the emotional intelligent the higher
frequency of listening, interest to listen and understand what is
heard in relation to materials in English. On the other hands,
low levels of emotional intelligent will cost the low level
frequency of students listening, interest to listen and
understand what is heard in relation to materials in English.
Correlation between emotional intelligence and Englishspeaking competency showed there was no significant
relationship between emotional intelligence with frequency of
speaking, reading, and writing; confidence in speaking and
fluency in speaking; reading and writing; understand what is
read and writing skills. These findings proved that the higher
the level of emotional intelligence, the higher the frequency of
speaking, reading, and writing; confidence in speaking and
fluency in speaking; reading and writing; understand what is
read and writing skills (Najib Ahmad Marzuki et al., 2006)
[12]
.
According to Downey at al., (2008) [4], students who had high
dimensions of management and high emotion control earn
high achievement in mathematics and science. This is due to a
student who has the advantage in the management and control
of emotions can solve mathematics and science problems
which requires high cognitive load. It means a student who has
a high emotional control can obtain high achievement in
mathematics and science.

42

Similarly, studies of Norila Binti Md Salleh (2009) [3, 15] found


that students who follow the lessons by integrating emotional
intelligence will show significantly higher increase in Math
scores. They have been integrated the ten aspects of emotional
intelligence in teaching Math namely emotional awareness,
self-esteem,
self-confidence,
self-control,
motivation,
communication, cooperation, empathy, problem solving and
joy. Integration of emotional intelligence significantly
increases the student's attitudes toward Mathematics as a
whole. Students who accept the integration of emotional
intelligence significantly increase confidence, enjoyment and
motivation towards math.
In conclusion, a students emotional intelligence factors prove
to have significantly positive relationship towards academic
achievement. The higher level of emotional intelligence with
higher academic achievement. This is clearly proved in the
past research that emotional intelligence dimensions such as
the management and control of emotions affecting the
achievement of Math and Science. For English language
achievement studies proved in general that the level of
students' emotional intelligence can affect the achievement of
the English language achivement in terms of listening,
reading, speaking and writing (Najid Ahmad Marzuki et al.,
2006) [12]. However, their study only carried out among
students at institutions of higher learning, there is no such
study carried out among secondary school students.
Research questions
1. What is the level of the student's emotional intelligence?
2. To what extent emotional intelligence influences
academic achievements?
Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to identify the level of emotional

intelligence and test the influence of emotional intelligent on


academic achievement.
3. Methodology
Sample
This study was conducted in nine National secondary schools
in Limbang, Sarawak. The sample consists of 406 form 5
students.
Instrument
Malaysia Emotional Intelligence Inventory Teens (IKEM-R)
adapted by Saemah Rahman, Noriah Mohd. Ishak, Zuria
Mahmud and Sq. Amir (2008) [18] were used to measure the
level of emotional intelligence. This instrument is structured
taking into account the views of Golemans (1995) [6] five
dimensions of emotional intelligence namely self-awareness,
self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. The
items of this instrument have been modified so that easily
understood by secondary school students in the Malaysian
context. This instrument distributed with 104 items is as
follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Self-awareness (20 Items)


Self-regulation (31 Items)
Self-Motivation (17 Items)
Empathy (36 Items)
Social skills (36 Items)

Based on previous research, researcher only select a total of 49


items from this instrument to be used which categorized
respondents into five sub dimensions of emotional intelligence
as in Table 1. These items are measured using the 5 points
Likert scale, 1 = very untrue, 2 = not true, 3 = less sure, 4 =
true and 5 = very true. Distributions of items are as follows:

Table 1: Distribution of items for each of the dimensions of emotional intelligence


Emotional Intelligence Dimensions

Sub dimensions
Emotional awareness
Self-assessment
Self confidence
Self-control
Achievement motivation
Initiative
Optimist
Understanding other
Cooperation
Communication

Self-awareness
Self-regulation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Social Skills
Table 2: Distribution of items for the variables of emotional
intelligence
Emotional Intelligence dimensions
Self- awareness
Self-regulation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Social Skills
Overall

Mean
3.44
3.20
3.63
3.59
3.62
3.49

SD
.45
.57
.58
.61
.50
.38

Items in this instrument to be tested in terms of reliability and


validity since the original instruments are based on Peninsular

Items
1-2
3-8
9-14
15-22
23-27
28-31
32-33
34-38
39-43
44-49

Total
2
5
6
8
5
4
2
6
5
6

Malaysia context and it may be vary in the context of students


of Sarawak due to background of the students such as race,
religion, culture and socio-economic status.
4. Data analysis
The data collected was analyzed by using SPSS version 20 to
measure reliability value per item, and emotional intelligence
dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis used to test reliability
(factor loadings) and validity (KMO).
Items Reliability
All Cronbach alpha values exceed .900 and this is sufficient
for reliability required (Smith & Glass, 1987).

43

Table 3: Cronbach Alpha values for emotional intelligence


items
Emotional Intelligence Items
EQ1
EQ2
EQ3
EQ4
EQ5
EQ6
EQ7
EQ8
EQ9
EQ10
EQ11
EQ12
EQ13
EQ14
EQ15
EQ16
EQ17
EQ18
EQ19
EQ20
EQ21
EQ22
EQ23
EQ24
EQ25
EQ26
EQ27
EQ28
EQ29
EQ30
EQ31
EQ32
EQ33
EQ34
EQ35
EQ36
EQ37
EQ38
EQ39
EQ40
EQ41
EQ42
EQ43
EQ44
EQ45
EQ46
EQ47
EQ48
EQ49

Cronbach's Alpha
.913
.916
.914
.914
.913
.914
.914
.914
.913
.914
.913
.913
.913
.918
.914
.914
.914
.914
.913
.915
.915
.913
.912
.913
.913
.913
.912
.913
.913
.913
.913
.913
.914
.913
.914
.913
.912
.915
.913
.913
.913
.914
.914
.913
.914
.913
.913
.915
.914

The overall Alpha Coefficient value for emotional intelligence


is. 802. However for each dimension such as self-awareness is
.813, self-regulation is .830, and self-motivation is. 890.,
empathy is .819 and social skills is .820 is in table 4 below.

Table 4: Alpha Cronbach values for emotional intelligence


dimensions
Emotional Intelligence
Dimensions
Self- awareness
Self-regulation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Social Skills

Mean SD Alpha Carobach Value


3.49
3.25
3.65
3.61
3.69

.39
.51
.51
.47
.45

.813
.830
.809
.819
.820

Further, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to test


reliability and validity of the constructs of emotional
intelligence.
Exploratory factor analysis
A total of 31 items retained in the 5 dimensions of emotional
intelligence after a total of 18 items of emotional intelligence
was dropped. Items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 20, 22, 23, 27, 31,
33, 34, 35, 43, and 46 were dropped. Items with factor
loadings more than .60 retained that is reliable for this study.
Table 5: Loadings value of exploratory factor analysis for emotional
intelligence
Item

Factor 1
.713
.756
.838
.585
.596
.731

Factor loading
Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4

Factor 5
EQ2
EQ5
EQ8
EQ10
EQ11
EQ12
EQ15
.750
EQ16
.841
EQ17
.838
EQ18
.608
EQ19
.664
EQ21
.879
EQ24
.664
EQ25
.840
EQ26
.755
EQ28
.508
EQ29
.694
EQ30
.659
EQ32
.572
EQ36
.832
EQ37
.732
EQ38
.778
EQ39
.745
EQ40
.642
EQ41
.759
EQ42
.709
EQ44
.722
EQ45
.647
EQ47
.681
EQ48
.742
EQ49
.756
Items were re-arranged after exploratory factor analysis and as shown
in the following table 5.

44

Table 6: Distribution of emotional intelligence items after exploratory factor analysis


Emotional Intelligence Dimensions
Self- awareness
Self-regulation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Social Skills

Items
2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12
15, 16, 17,18,19,21
24,25,26,28,29,30,32
36, 37, 38
39, 40, 41,42,44, 45, 47, 48, 49
Total

Item Validity Analysis


Validity is a measure that indicates the degree validity of the
instrument measuring what is needed (Hair et al. 2010) [7]. It
aims to ensure this aspect of the content of the test items used
is really valid. Validity was tested using with the Bartletts
test. All the Kaiser-Meyer-Okin (KMO) variables values
should be more than 0.50. KMO values for this research is
.607 therefore items met the criteria and valid to be used as
shown in table 7.
Table 7: KMO and Ujian Bartlett's for emotional intelligence
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.
.607
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
Approx. Chi-Square 2473.691
df
1176
Sig.
.000

5. Results
Research question 1: What is the level of students emotional

Total items
6
6
7
3
9
31

Re-arranged items
1-6
6-12
13-19
20 22
23 31
31

intelligence?
Table 7: Mean and Standard Deviation of each emotional
intelligence
Emotional Intelligence dimensions
Self- awareness
Self-regulation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Social Skills
Overall

Mean
3.44
3.20
3.63
3.59
3.62
3.49

SD
.45
.57
.58
.61
.50
.38

Based on table 7, the results of the findings showed that all


dimensions are at high level. The findings of this study are
consistent with the findings Azizi Hj Besar Shahrin Hashim
Yahya, and Nordiana binti Mohd Nor (2009) [3, 15].
Research question 2: To what extent the influence of
emotional intelligence on academic achievement

Table 8: Influence of emotional intelligence on academic achievement


Influence
There is no significant influence of self-awareness on academic achievement
There is no significant influence of self-regulation on academic achievement
There is no significant influence of self-motivation on academic achievement
There is no significant influence of empathy on academic achievement
There is no significant influence of social skills on academic achievement

t-value
1.803
0.695
0.828
0.006
1.092

Result
supported
supported
supported
supported
supported

Fig1: Structural model of emotional intelligence and academic achivement


Results of the study show that there is no significant influence
of all the dimensions of emotional intelligence on academic

achievement. All five research hypothesis was supported. All


the dimensions of emotional intelligence namely self-

45

awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy and


social skills not affect students' academic achievement.
6. Discussion and conclusion
Overall, the level of students' emotional intelligence is high.
The results show that students have a high level of selfmotivation and followed by dimensions such as selfawareness, empathy, and social skills. The lowest level
dimension is self-regulation at moderate level.
This finding is in contrast to the findings of Azizi et al.,
(2009) claimed that the level of emotional intelligence is only
at medium level. This difference is likely due to the place of
study and culture as well as religion or belief of the respondent
varies with other studies. Cultural factors of minorities greatly
influenced the level of emotional intelligence.
In addition, this study shows that there is no significant
influence between the emotional intelligence on academic
achievements. It means emotional intelligence does not affect
academic achievement.
The findings of this study support the findings of Adil Adnan
et al., (2012), which shows there is no significant relationship
between emotional intelligence with academic achievement.
However, this finding contradicts with the findings Najib
Ahmad Marzuki et al., (2006) [12], which found that a student
with high emotional intelligence is more competent in English.
The findings also contradict with Hogan et al., (2010), Qualter
et al., (2012), and Adeoyo et al., (2010). This finding is also in
conflict with the findings using quasi-experimental method of
Nwadinigwe et al., (2012) [16]. They found that when a person
becomes more emotional and think rationally, then the
positive behavior performed.
The findings also contrast with the findings of Downey et al.,
(2008) [4] suggest that students with high emotional
intelligence achieve high score in mathematics and science.
Similarly, in contrast to the findings Norila Binti Md Salleh
(2009) [3, 15] who found that teaching integrates the emotional
intelligence indicating an increase in mathematics score.
The above discussion is clearly proving that findings of this
study contradict many findings of the previous study.
Therefore, it can be concluded that emotional intelligence
factors is not the main factor influences students academic
achievements. A high level of emotional intelligence is not
necessarily needed fully in helping to increase the academic
achievement. The level of emotional intelligence is indeed
needed to live successfully.
7. References
1. Adeoye H, Emeke E-A. Emotional intelligence and selfefficacy as determinants of academic achievement in
English language among students in Oyo State senior
secondary schools. IFE Psychologia : An International
Journal. 2010; 18(1):232-251.
2. Adil A, Amjad AC, Muhammad IM. Emotional
Intelligence and Students Academic Performance: A
Study Conducted in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Science
Series Data Report 2012; 4(3):61-69.
3. Aziz Yahaya Hj, Shahrin Hashim, Nordiana binti Mohd
Nor. Hubungan kecerdasan emosi dengan prestasi
pencapaian akademik. Journal Pendidikan Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. 2009; 14:47-63.

4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Downey LA, Mountstephen J, Lloyd J, Hansen K, Stough


C. Emotional intelligence and scholastic achievement in
Australia adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology.
2008; 60(1):10-17.
Goleman D. Working with emotional intelligence. New
York: Bantam Books, 1998.
Goleman D. Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter
more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
Hair J, Black B, Babin B, Anderson R, Tatham R.
Multivariate data analysis. United State: Pearson Hall,
2006.
Hogan MJ, Parker JDA, Wiener J, Watters C, Wood LM,
Oke A. Academic success in adolescence: Relationships
among verbal IQ, social support and emotional
intelligence. Australian Journal of Psychology. 2010;
62(1):30-41.
Humphrey N, Curran A, Morris E, Farrell P, Woods K.
Emotional intelligence and education : An critical review.
Educational Psychology 2007; 27(2):235-254.
Holt S. Emotional intelligence and academic achievement
in higher education (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine
University). Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/enUS, 2007.
Mayer JD, Salovey P. What is emotional of emotional
intelligence. Intelligence 1997; 17(4):433-442.
Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Zurina Mat
Saad, Suhanim Abdullah, Suhaini Muda. dan Wan Be
Che Din (07-02-07-10027-EAR). Kecerdasan emosi dan
kompetensi pelajar-pelajar institusi pengajian tinggi
awam. Kertas Penyelidikan, UUM, 2006.
Nelson PD. Emotional intelligence and academic
achievement in 11th Grade at-risk students. PhD
Dissertation. ProQuest LLC, 2009.
Noriah Mohd Ishak, Shaharuddin Ahmad, Kadderi Mohd
Desa. Roslina Tan Abdullah, Kepintaran emosi sebagai
faktor peramal pencapaian akademik pelajar IPTA:
implikasi terhadap kebolehpasaran. Journal e-Personalia
Pelajar, 2008.
Norila Binti Md Salleh. Kesan pengintegrasian
kecerdasan emosi ke atas pencapaian dan sikap murid
terhadap Matematik. Tesis Ijazah Doktor Falsafah. USM,
2009.
Nwadinigwe IP, Azuka-Obieke U. The impact of
emotional intelligence on academic achievement of senior
secondary school students in Logos, Nigeria. Journal of
Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy
Studies (JETERAPS), 2012; 3(4):395-401.
Qualter P, Gardner KJ, Pope DJ, Hutchinson JM,
Whiteley HE. Ability emotional
intelligence,
trait
emotional intelligence and academic success in British
secondary schools: A 5 year longitudinal study. Learning
& Individual Differences, 2012; 22(1):83-91.
Saemah Rahman, Noriah Mohd Ishak, Zuria Mahmud,
Ruslin Amir. Indeks dan profil kecerdasan emosi pelajar
sekolah menengah. Journal Teknologi, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. 2008; 48(E):187-202
Salovey P, Mayer J. Emotional intelligence and the ability
to succeed. New York: Bantam, 1990.

46