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Original Title: Finite element analysis of a synchronous permanent magnet micromotor through axisymmetric and transverse planar simulations

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5, SEPTEMBER 1998

3604

ransverse Planar Simulations

C1MM:Centro de Investigacion de Materiales y Metrologia, AV.VClez Sarsfield 1561- C.C. Central 884, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina

Viviane Cristine Silva, JosC Roberto Cardoso, Silvio I. Nabeta

LMAG/PEA Escola Polittcnica da Universidade de SLo Paulo, AV.Prof. Lucian0 Gualberto, T. 3 , n0158,05508-900S b Paulo SP, Brazil

Abstract - The aim of this work is to present and discuss an

original way to analyze a synchronous permanent magnet

micro-motor (SPMM) for design purposes. The analysis of the

magnetic field distribution in the motor, whose geometry would

require a 3D modeling, is instead carried out with the aid of two

2D finite-element (FE) simulations: one axisymmetric and one

on the cross-section or transverse plane. To validate the

suitability of the proposed method for torque computation, a

3D-field solution is also presented. Computed results of

distribution of magnetic induction, as well as the torque

developed by the motor in both 2D and 3D simulations, have

shown good agreement with measurements in a prototype

machine.

rotor (refer to Appendix for the SPMM dimensions and data).

Figure 2 presents a schematic layout of the motor geometry

in two views: axisymmetric and cross section, displayed by

the geometric modeler of the FE package.

micro-motor, finite element analysis of synchronous machines.

I. INTRODUCTION

reference, which provides rotating movement with low

torque. Its main feature is its constant speed for a given

supply frequency, independent of the load until it is in an

overload state. In this condition, the motor loses

synchronization with consequential speed reduction and

oscillations. Typical applications include chart recorders,

programming devices, valve drives, etc. Figure 1 illustrates

the winding arrangement, stator claw poles and permanent

magnet multi-pole ring rotor, which are magnetized along the

radial direction [ 1-21.

Performance characteristics such as developed torque can

be obtained with the aid of 2D and 3D FE analyses by

assuming a magnetostatic behavior, since in both simulations

one is interested in the steady state operation of the

synchronous motor.

Although 2D representations of SPMMs provide less

accurate results when compared to 3D modeling, they allow

faster and lower-cost simulations [ 3 ] .

II.2D FE MODELS

The steady state operation of a SPMM has been simulated

as a 2D magnetostatic phenomenon using a 2D FE package

(FLUX2D) [4]. The domain studied consists of a 16-pole

Manuscript received November 3, 1997.

A. AgUero, fax. +54-51-699459; e-mail: aguero@com.uncor.edu;J. R.

Cardoso, fax: +55-11-814 2092; e-mail: c-irdoso@pea.usp.br.

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Tamyr S.A.

claw poles, 4 -short-circuiting ring (copper), 5 - permanent-magnet rotor

following constructive features:

- the claw poles are made from electrical steel with a 1 mm

thickness;

- the coil has 11000 turns and is made of copper wire with a

0.06 mm diameter;

- the magnet has a remanent induction of 0.2 T.

The first simulation assumes axial symmetry (Fig. 3a) and

enables the determination of the normal component of the

flux density distribution, Bn, on the portion of the claw

surface facing the permanent magnet.

After solving the axisymmetric problem, the calculation of

Bn was carried out along a path spanning from the top to the

bottom of the permanent magnet (see dashed line in Fig. 3a).

The plot of Bn along this path can be seen in Fig. 4. This

curve will be used in the next step of the methodology: the

2D planar simulation.

To calculate the torque, a second 2D simulation assuming

planar symmetry was carried out using the geometry shown

in Fig. 3b, which represents a cross section of the prototype

3605

external boundary (dashed line of Fig. 3a) a nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition was imposed, i.e.

a fixed magnetic vector potential (the state variable), which is

numerically equal to the magnetic flux per meter crossing the

cylindrical surface represented by the vertical dashed line of

Fig. 3a.

plane, which is normal to plane xOy (shown in Fig. Sa). This

is equivalent to the axisymfinetric 2D simulation.

,Path where B is

,firstly calculated

Shaft

curve of Fig. 4, plotted along the vertical dashed line in the

axisymmetric simulation. The magnetic flux was calculated

by taking the mean value of this curve, i.e. the value of Bn

which gives a rectangular area equal to the area delimited by

the curve in Fig. 4.

The second 2D simulation yielded the flux density

distribution, which can be seen in Fig. 5 through contours of

flux lines. The torque vs. load angle characteristic has also

been determined in one pole pitch with the aid of this

simulation. The result will be presented later on in this work.

111.3D FE MODEL

The complicated shape of the claw poles usually needs a

three-dimensional analysis. However, results from a 3D-FE

modeling of the same prototype motor have presented a very

close agreement with the proposed methodology, namely the

two 2D simulations.

The 3D simulation presented in the sequence was carried

out using a 3D finite element package, FLUX3D [5]. Fig. 6

shows the 3D FE mesh. Again, the phenomenon was

assumed as a magnetostatic one, since the interest is the

calculation of synchronous torque in steady state condition.

Therefore, only one pole pitch needs to be modeled.

Figure 8 illustrates the distribution of the flux density

vectors in a cut plane, parallel to the xOy plane of global coordinate system, which cuts the z-axis at z = 15 mm (shown

in Fig. 7). This case is equivalent to the second 2D FE model

(cross section).

previous axisymmetric simulatiop.

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

h(102mm)

(path parallel to magnet height)

Fig 4 Normal flux density plotted along the bold dashed line shown in Fig 2

3606

Fig 8 Distribution of the flux density vectors in the cut plane shown in Fig 7

a=7.50

Flg 6. Showing one pole pitch of the prototype machine with the 3D FE mesh

.. ... .. ... ... . ... ... .. . ..- ..> ..... .. ' * I,:.: :.: -: '' :-: " " " 1 . :

. . . . . . . . . . . .

-. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .

.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fig 9 (a) A radial cut plane (normal toxOy plane of global co-ordinate

system) in the 3D motor geometry; (b) distribution of the flux density

vectors in this cut plane

Fig. 7. A cut plane (parallel toxOy plane of global co-ordinate system) in the

3D motor geometry.

3607

111. RESULTS

IV. C~ONCLUSIONS

in the range 0.2 - 0.8 mm is plotted in Fig. 10, which exhibits

a comparison between the values issued from the second 2D

simulation and from experimental measurements.

The 3D simulation for an air-gap of 0.8 mm yielded a

torque of 0.01277 kg.cm. The error is less than 8 % in

comparison with 2D simulation and the tests in the prototype

machine.

Table I shows the mesh data and CPU times. The great

difference of total CPU time between the 2D and 3D

simulations for nearly the same number of nodes can be

noticed. This is because the 3D model leads to 3 times as

many unknowns as the 2D model for the same number of

nodes (3 components of magnetic vector potential in 3D

versus 1 component in 2D).

0.06

Simulation

a

001

of synchronous torque

was carried out with the $d of a 2D FE computer package

and validated by 3D FE pqckage. The accuracy of the results

issued from the 2D dpproach has been verified by

measurements in a protobpe and proved to be sufficient,

thereby avoiding the need bf the costly 3D FE analysis.

~PPENDIX

SPMM DI~ENSIONALDATA

Rated power

Rated voltage

Current

Frequency

Based speed

Number of phases

2.75 W

220 v

15 mA

S O HZ

375 rpm

1

STATOR

Outer diameter

Winding type

Number of coils

Phase resistance

Self inductance

43 mm

]multi-layer

1

7200 R

4.2 H

Test

ROTOR

Number of poles

Magnet outer diameter

Magnet inner diameter

Magnet height

Magnet material

Air-gap length

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.5

0.7

Sintered Bu ferrite

10.2-0.8 mm

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

0.2

116

2 1.5 mm

16.8 mm

8.6 mm

08

Air-gap [mm]

experimental results.

R. Ottolini for constructidn of the prototype utilized in this

investigation and R. Moyabo, who performed the test.

I

TABLE I

MESHDATAAND CPU TIMEFOR THE 2D AND 3D FE SIMULATIONS

MFERENCES

,

[l]

2D (planar)

3D

Number of nodes

10.097

10.498

Number of elements

53 089

55 198

10

15

140

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Berechnungsbeispielen, Dr. Alfred Huthig Verlag, Heidelberg, pp.

356-358, 1985.

I. A. Viorel, Csapo, E M inescu, L. Szabo, Claw pole brushless

D C. motor for a variable speed drive system, Intelligent Motion,

Nurnberg, DD, 127-131, 19 4,

S R H Hook, Compuier-Aided Analysis and Design of

Electromagnetic Devices, Isevier, New York, 1989

FLUX2D - CAD package $or 2D Electromagnetic Field Computation,

CEDRAT

FLUX3D - CAD package lfor 3D Electromagnetic Field Computation,

CEDRAT.

El

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