You are on page 1of 5

PAPERS

Effects of extrusion variables


and starch modification on the
puffing characteristics of yam
(Dioscorea alata) flour
Kafui A. Kpodo* and Wisdom A. Plahar
The viability of extruding yam flour and the effects of extrusion temperature, feed
moisture content, particle size and added amylose or amylopectin on the puffing
characteristics of yam flour were investigated. Extrusion temperature <IOOC, feed
moisture content >lO% and any level of added amylose depressed product
expansion. Product firmness and density decreased with increasing extrusion
temperatures but increased with increasing feed moisture content above a critical
limit of 9%. In general, feed particle size and addition of amylopectin did not
affect the characteristics of yam flour extrudates. Yam flour can be successfully
extruded with maximum expansion at a feed moisture range of 8-1070 using
extrusion temperatures of 100-I 15C.
Keywords:

yam flour;
temperature

amylose/amylopectin

ratio;

extrudate

characteristics;

INTRODUCTION
Extrusion cooking is being used increasingly in the food
industry for the development of new products such
as snacks, baby foods, breakfast cereal foods and
modified starches from cereals and tubers. Over the
past twenty years, the use of food extruders has
increased considerably, mainly because of a greater
demand for convenience and snack-type foods. In
addition, the extrusion technique is versatile and can be
applied to a wide range of ingredients and formulations
to produce foods of varying structural and rheological
properties (Harper, 1981a).
Studies have been conducted by several workers,
aimed at developing specific food products by extrusion
(Anderson et al, 1969a, b; 1979; Conway and Anderson, 1973). Also, available literature on the subject
dealt with the effect of some extrusion variables on the
physicochemical changes in starch components of the
feed ingredients used (Lawton et al., 1980).
Food Research Institute, PO Box M20, Accra,
whom correspondence
should be addressed

200

Food Control- Vol3 No 4 1992

Ghana.

TO

feed

moisture;

extrusion

Major factors affecting extrusion include feed moisture, particle size, extrusion temperature and starch
variety. Feed ingredient moisture content was found to
affect product density, expansion cooking, product
rehydration, starch gelatinization, cellular structure as
well as the mechanical properties of the extruded
products (Mercier and Feillet, 1975; Harper, 1981b).
Particle size distribution of ingredients affects both
extruder performance and product quality (Harper,
1981~; Evans, 1979) while temperatures in all zones of
the extruder have a marked effect on texture, density,
viscosity, solubility, rehydration
characteristics
and
nutritive value of the extruded product (Smith, 1976;
Harper, 1981~).
The effects of amylose/amylopectin
ratio on the
quality of extruded products and under different
extrusion conditions have been studied. High amylose
starches were found to produce hard, dense and less
expanded extrudates (Murray ef al., 1968; Feldberg,
1969; Smith,l971; Faubion et al., 1982). Mercier and
Feillet (1975), however, reported an increase in expansion up to a limit after which a decrease occurred. De la
Gueriviere (1976) found that the effects of the amylose/
0956-71351921040200-05

1992 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd

Puffing characteristics

of yam flour: K.A. Kpodo and W.A. Plahar

amylopectin
ratio were dependent
on the extrusion
temperature
and the screw speed used.
Regarding
feed ingredients,
several cereal products
including
cornmeal,
corn flour, wheat, sorghum
and
rice flours
have been used in the production
of
extruded foods. With respect to root crops and tubers,
however, only cassava (Manihot utilissima) and potato
(Sofunum tuberosum) have been used as main extrusion
feed ingredients
(Sanderude,
1969; Wells, 1976). Other
available root and tuber crops have not been adequately explored. Specifically,
no work has been reported on
the use of yam for the development
of extruded
products.
Several
varieties
of yam (Dioscorea species)
are
produced
in many developing
countries
as subsistence
food crops that play a significant
role in the economy
and nutrition.
Over 90% of the estimated annual global
yam production
of 20 million
tonnes
is from West
Africa, where it serves as a starchy carbohydrate
staple
with a dietary
role similar
to cassava.
Yams are
consumed
mainly in the fresh state and large-scale
industrial
processing
into dehydrated
products
is uncommon,
in spite of a substantial
amount of research
conducted
in this area (Chan, 1983).
The application
of extrusion
technology
for the
development
of extruded
yam products
would be an
economic boost to the producing countries,
as well as a
means of introducing
variety into the utilization
of the
crop. There is the need, however,
to establish
the
effects
of extrusion
variables
and feed ingredient
components
on the characteristics
of the extruded yam
products.
The purpose
of this study was to investigate
the
effects of extrusion conditions
on the puffing characteristics of yam flour. This will facilitate the establishment
of feasible extrusion parameters
for the development
of
high quality extruded yam products.

Table

Extrusion

parameters

Parameters

Condition

Fixed parameters
I. Screw speed
2. Feed rate
3. Die diameter

538 rev. min


lgkgh
5.0 mm

Varied

AND

Yam flour preparation

METHODS
and tempering

Yam flour samples were prepared


by drying peeled
slices of tubers of the white Lisbon variety of Dioscoreu
data obtained from a local market. Drying was carried
out in an Elliot Food Dryer maintained
at 65C for
3.5 h. The dried chips were weighed and ground in a
Quaker City Mill (model 4-E) with the grinding plates
adjusted
to produce flour with 100% of the particles
passing through a laboratory
test sieve with 1.4 mm
aperture.
The flour was graded into four particle-size
fractions
ranging from fine (<300pm),
through medium (300500pm)
to coarse
(600-85Opm)
and very coarse
(850-14OOpm)
using a set of laboratory
test sieves
(Endecots
Ltd, UK). The moisture
content
of each
flour grade was determined
using the standard air oven
method
(AOAC,
1984) and samples
of each grade
tempered
to specific moisture
levels. To achieve this,
calculated
amounts
of water were sprayed onto the
flour in the form of a fine mist followed by thorough
mixing in sealed high density polyethylene
bags. The
bags were kept at ambient
temperature
for 24h to
facilitate moisture distribution
and equilibration.
Food Control - Vol3 No 4 1992

parameters

I. Barrel temperature
2. Feed particle

size

3. Feed moisture

content

4. Added amylose/
amylopectin
Temperature
was based
extruder barrels = 5)

Extruder

SO-85C. go--95C, 100-105c.


1 IO-1 15C and 120-125C
Fine (<3OOpm),
medium (300600pm),
coarse (600-X501*m)
and very coarse (X50-1400j~m)
6%, 8%. 9%. 10%. 12%, 14%
and 17%
0%. 5%. 10%. 15%, 20%, 25%
and 30%

on the second

barrel

temperature

(No. of

and texture test system

The Wenger X-5 laboratory


single screw extruder was
used in this study. It is a high temperature,
short time
(HTST)
extrusion
cooker furnished
with a variable
speed feeder and interchangeable
extruder shafts. The
extruder
was assembled
to consist of five extruder
barrels jacketed to permit either water cooling or steam
heating. Preliminary
experiments
by the authors helped
to establish certain fixed extrusion parameters
for yam
flour (Table I).
The texture test system used for determination
of
product firmness was obtained
from the Food Technology Corporation
(UK) and comprised
a Texturepress (model TF-I), Texturecorder
(Model TR-1) and a
single blade shear cell (Model CA-l).

Effects of extrusion
MATERIALS

used

temperature

and feed particle size

The effects of extrusion temperature


and feed particle
size on the puffing characteristics
of yam flour were
determined
using the four grades
of flour,
each
processed at five different extruder temperature
ranges
(Table I). The flour samples
were tempered
to a
constant moisture content of 9.0-+ 0.2% without added
amylose or amylopectin.
All other extrusion conditions
and variables were as shown in Table 1. The resulting
extrudates
were collected, allowed to cool for 15 min at
ambient
temperature
and analysed for moisture
content, bulk density,
expansion,
firmness,
colour and
product surface regularity.

Feed moisture

content and extrudate

quality

Seven batches
of fine grade yam flour (< 300 pm
particle
size) were tempered
to give samples
with
moisture content of 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 and 17%. Each
sample was extruded
under the processing
conditions
given in Table I (fixed parameters)
using a constant
temperature
range of llO-115C.
The resulting
products were analysed after cooling for 15 min to obtain
the effect of feed moisture
content
on the product
moisture
content,
expansion
index, bulk density and
firmness.
201

Puffing characteristics

Amylose

and amylopectin

in yam flour extrusion

Type II practical grade potato amylose and corn starch


amylopectin (Sigma Chemical Co. Ltd, UK) were used
to determine the effects of added amylose and amylopectin on the extrusion characteristics of yam flour.
Fine grade yam flour samples (<300pm particle size)
were fortified with the amylose or amylopectin at
concentrations of 0, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30% of mixture.
The moisture content of each mixture was determined
(AOAC, 1984) and adjusted to 9% where necessary.
The samples were extruded using the fixed parameter
conditions given in Table I, at a constant barrel
temperature range of llO-115C. The products were
analysed after cooling, for the effect of starch modification on the expansion of yam flour extrudates.
Determination

of extrudate

moisture

and bulk density

Moisture determinations
were carried out using the
standard air oven method (AOAC, 1984). The bulk
density of extruded products was determined using the
method of Harper (1981d).
Product expansion

The degree of expansion of the extrudates was characterized by the diametral expansion and the expansion
index. Diametral expansion was determined as the
mean of ten measurements
of the diameter of the
extruded product after cooling in ambient air. The ratio
of the mean diameter to the diameter of the extruder
die was calculated as the expansion index.
Product firmness

Firmness, an index of the extrudate texture, was


determined using a texture test system (Food Technology Corporation, UK). The firmness of each product
was obtained from the height of curves recorded with
time as the force was exerted on the sample for the
entire cycle of its deformation, compression and shearing.
Product colour and regularity

A subjective visual appraisal of the products facilitated


a comparative description of their colour and regularity
of shape to be made.

and feed particle

size

The results of the effect of extrusion temperature on


the moisture content, expansion index, bulk density
and firmness of extrudates from different yam flour
grades are given in Table 2. Fine, coarse and very
coarse grades of flour fed well through the extruder at
all the extrusion temperatures used. Medium grade
flour (300-600 pm) could not be successfully extruded
at temperatures
<95C. Products from the medium
grade flour were rapidly ejected as burnt pellets with no
202

expansion. At temperatures > 100C however, acceptable products were obtained with medium grade flour.
Product characteristics were affected differently by
extrusion temperature.
The inverse relationship between extrusion temperature and product moisture content has been adequately
explained in previous studies (Sanderude and Ziemba,
1968; Harper, 1981a; Matson, 1982; Clark, 1986). The
moisture present in the feed material is super-heated as
the feed moves through the barrels. This condition,
coupled with the high shearing action of the screw and
the restriction to flow at the die, creates a high pressure
build-up in the barrels. As the product emerges, the
sudden drop in pressure and temperature
causes
vaporization of the superheated moisture. The higher
the temperature, the greater the pressures developed
and hence more moisture loss occurs in the product.
The relatively lower moisture content of product from
finer grade flour samples observed in the results of this
study can be explained in terms of greater exposed
surface area due to the smaller particle size feed.
Results of the effect of temperature on expansion
index showed a similar trend for each grade of flour
(Table 2). Expansion increased with increasing extrusion temperature.
Similar observations were made
using corn grits (Mercier and Feillet, 1975) and maniac
starch (Mercier ef al. 1980). Harper (1981~) also
reported increasing expansion with temperature up to a
maximum temperature range which was dependent on
the feed moisture content. The temperature effect on
product expansion can be explained in terms of both
pressure gradient experienced by the emerging extrudate and its altered structural characteristics. According to Harper (1986), under the conditions of low
moisture extrusion, starch and protein molecules are
denatured and align themselves along the streamlines
in the laminar flow occuring in the extruder screw and
Table 2 Effects of extrusion
temperature
particle size on product characteristics
Temperature
Product characteristics
and feed grade
Product moisture
content (%)
Fine
Medium
Coarse
Very coarse
Expansion
index
Fine
Medium
Coarse
Very coarse

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Effects of extrusion temperature
on product charateristics

of yam flour: K.A. Kpodo and W.A. Plahar

Bulk density (kg m )


Fine
Medium
Coarse
Very coarse
Product firmness
Fine
Medium
Coarse
Very coarse

and

yam

flour

feed

(C)

80-85

90-95

100-105

110-115

120-125

8.22
-

7.44
-

7.99
7.72

7.79
7.64

6.64
7.21
7.09
7.13

5.75
6.31
6.65
6.06

4.19
5.13
6.31
6.08

1.87
-

2.45
-

2.13
1.71

2.61
2.53

2.99
2.44
2.91
2.92

3.78
3.04
3.34
3.76

4.68
4.49
3.92
4.44

170
-

150
-

160
200

150
180

130
150
140
150

100
120
130
130

100
110
130
110

17.1
43.5
43.9

14.9
45.0
43.7

12.5
29.5
39.8
44.9

10.1
13.4
14.9
16.4

8.4
10.5
11.1
15.8

(kg)

Feed flour grades: fine, (300 ym; medium,


600-850 firn; very coarse, 850-1400 pm

300-600

pm;

coarse,

Food Control - Vol3 No 4 1992

Puffing characteristics

of yam flour: K.A. Kpodo and W.A. Plahar

die. At elevated temperatures,


these molecules
crosslink to form altered structures
capable of expansion
when released from the extruder
die. Greater
expansion would
therefore
be expected
with increasing
temperature.
Results of the effect of temperature
on bulk density
showed decreasing
densities with increasing
temperatures for all grades of flour (Table 2). This trend is
expected as the bulk density is inversely related to the
expansion
and is therefore
expected to decrease with
higher expansion
at higher temperatures.
Sahagun and
Harper
(1980) reported
similar
trends
using corn/
soybean feed.
Products showed decreasing firmness with increasing
temperature
for all grades of flour. Also, for each
extrusion temperature,
product firmness increased with
increasing
particle size (decreasing
fineness).
At lower
extrusion
temperature
ranges,
larger
particle
size
products were relatively uncooked
and a greater force
was required to shear through the product.
At higher
temperatures
however,
most of the particles
were
cooked and therefore
less force was required to shear
through them. Stanley (1986) also reported
decreases
in breaking
strength
with increasing
temperature
for
corn starch extrudates.
A visual appraisal
of the products
established
a
gradual darkening
from cream to golden brown with
increasing
temperature.
This darkening
effect, which
was most probably
due to non-enzymatic
browning,
was found to be similar for extrudates from all grades of
flour used. A similar trend of colour changes was also
observed
in the extrusion
processing
of triticale
(Lorenz et al. , 1974).
The colour
change
could be effectively
used to
determine
the degree of cooking of the products. It was
realized from the present study that under the same
conditions
of extrusion,
particle
size of the feed
material affected the degree of cooking. Samples with
coarser particles (600pm or larger) still had uncooked
particles
even at the extrusion
temperature
range of
120-125C.
In their study of the extrusion
cooking of
rice, Mottern et al. (1969) found that although
larger
particle size grits gave high expansion,
products were
uncooked
and gritty. Flours with smaller particle sizes
give better
homogeneity
of the expanded
product
together
with a fine and regular
texture
(de la
Gueriviere,
1976).
Effect of feed moisture
characteristics

content

on product

Analyses of extruded products from flours with varying


levels of feed moisture showed a progressive increase in
product moisture content with increasing feed moisture
(Table 3). Under
the same extrusion
temperature
conditions,
it is to be expected
that higher moisture
feed samples should experience
relatively low flashing
off at the die, resulting in more moisture retention
in
the product.
Variations
observed
in the expansion
index, bulk
density and firmness of products (Table 3) indicate that
feed moisture content is critical for these characteristics
as far as yam flour extrusion
is concerned.The
results
showed a trend of increasing expansion
and decreasing
product
density
and firmness
with increasing
feed
moisture
content up to 9%. Further increases in feed
Food Control - Vol3 No 4 1992

Table

Effect

of feed moisture

content

on the characteristics

of

yam flour extrudate


Feed
moisture
content (%)

Product
moisture
content (%)

Expansion
Index

6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
17.0

5.65
5.71
5.75
5.82
5.83
6.10
6.81

2.26
2.Y7
3.78
3.41
2.41
2.27
1.55

Product

Bulk
density

firmness

(K gm )

(kg)

150
I IO
100
120
I80
200
2.50

35.0
12.8
10.1
11.3
23.2
44.1
45.4

moisture
above 9% caused a progressive
increase in
bulk density and firmness while the product expansion
decreased.
During extrusion,
moisture in the feed is superheated
and the vapour pressure created as a result provides
most of the force which causes expansion
once the
product is released to ambient pressure and temperature (Harper,
1981a; Matson,
1982; Clark,
1986;
Harper,
1986). Under the extrusion
conditions
used,
increasing
the feed moisture
between
6 and 9%
provided
more
vapour
for increased
expansion.
Above 9% feed moisture content however, the extrusion temperature
was not high enough
to cause
adequate
superheating
for the required
vapour pressure. This explanation
could also account for the trends
observed
in the product
bulk density.
Expansion
is
inversely related to product bulk density.
A gradual decrease in colour intensity
and greater
surface irregularity
were observed with increasing feed
moisture
content.
Colour was from a golden brown
with dark brown specks through
golden brown to
cream. Feed samples with 8-10%
moisture
gave the
attractive
golden brown products.
These were also
relatively regular in shape. High feed moisture content
of 17% gave products with rings.
Effects of added amylose and amylopectin
characteristics
of yam flour

on the puffing

Table 4 gives the variations


in the expansion
of yam
flour extrudates
at various levels of added amylose and
amylopectin.
The diametral
expansion
of the extrudates decreased with increasing levels of amylose in the
flour. As much as a 21% decrease in expansion
was
recorded
for a flour mixture
containing
30% added
amylose.
A visual appraisal
of the products
showed
improved regularity
of product surface with increasing
levels of added amylose.
By the nature
of their straight
chains,
amylose
molecules
tend to align themselves
creating
new
intermolecular
cross-linked
structures
with varying
textural properties
(Harper,
1986). According
to Feldberg (1969) increasing
amylose concentration
in feed
material
causes a decrease in the specific volume of
extruded
products.
This situation
was similar to the
effect
of
starch
modification
by
cross-linking.
Decreases
in diametral
expansion
of extrudate
as a
result of increasing
amylose
levels have also been
reported
in other studies (Murray et al., 1968; Smith,
1971; Harper,
1981~; Faubion et al., 1982).
Harper (1981~) reported that amylose levels > 50% in
extrusion
feed materials
gave very dense products.
It
was also observed
that a minimum
amylose level of
20% was required for the production
of puffed snacks.
203

Puffing characteristics
Table 4
expansion

Effect of addition
of amylose
index of yam flour extrudates

Level of
added starch
component

Diametral
expansion

(X)

(mm)

Amylose
0
IO

I5
20
25
30
Amylopectin
0
5
I0
I5
20
25
30

and

amylopectin

Expansion
index

on the

Decrease
expansion

in

(A)

18.9f
18.02
17.7t
16.1?
15.7+
15.5+
14.92

1.32
1.14
I.13
1.07
1.10
1.04
I.01

3.78
3.60
3.54
3.22
3.14
3.10
2.98

0.0
4.8
6.3
14.8
16.9
18.0
21.2

18.92
18.72
18.3+
18.3?
18.92
18.95
18.6f

1.32
1.28
1.31
1.22
1.43
1.38
1.32

3.78
3.74
3.66
3.66
3.78
3.78
3.72

0.0
1.1
3.2
3.2
0.0
0.0
1.5

Yam flour used in the present study has been reported


to contain 21-24% amylose (Coursey, 1967; Rasper
and Coursey, 1967a); implying that without any further
addition of amylose, the minimum amylose content
requirement has been satisfied.
Contrary to the findings of other workers, the
addition of increasing levels of amylopectin to feed
material did not have any significant effect on expansion. Several workers have earlier reported increasing
expansion with increasing levels of amylopectin in
different starch extrudates
(Murray et al., 1968;
Feldberg, 1969; Smith 1971; Davidson, et al., 1984).
According to Harper (1986), the branched structure of
the amylopectin molecule prevents it from being well
aligned in the flow fields of the extruder and, hence,
has the potential to create a highly expanded product.
It appears from the results of the present study, that the
expansion enhancing effect of added amylopectin may
depend on several other intrinsic factors of the feed
material.
CONCLUSION
Yam flour can be successfully extruded at a moisture
range of S-10% and temperatures between 110-l 15C
using the Wenger X-5 Extruder. Other conditions
required include a screw speed of 538 rev. min, feed
rate of 18 kg h- and a die diameter of 5.0 mm. Results
of the study showed that product characteristics were
related to feed moisture content, extrusion temperature and the amylose content of the feed material.
However, feed ingredient particle size and amylopectin
content did not contribute significantly to variations in
product characteristics.
REFERENCES
Anderson,
R.A., Conway, H.F., Pfeifer, V.F. and Griffin, EL.
(1969a) Gelatinization
of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. Cereal Sci. Today 14, 4
Anderson,
R.A., Conway, H.F., Pfeifer, V.F. and Grifftn, EL.
(1969b) Roll and extrusion cooking of grain sorghum grits. Cereal
Sci. Today 14, 372
Anderson, R.A., Conway, H.F. and Peplinski, A.J. (1970) Gelatinization of corn grits by roll cooking, extrusion cooking and steaming
Slaerke 22, 130
AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists)
Methods of Analysis 14th Edn. Washington,
DC

204

( I YX4) Official

of yam flour: K.A. Kpodo and W.A. Plahar

Chan, H.T. (1983) Handbook


New York and Base1

of Tropical Foods Marcel

Dekker,

Charbonniere,
R., Duprat, F. and Guilbot, A. (1973) Changes in
various starches
by cooking-extrusion
processing.
II. Physical
structure of extruded products.
Cereal Sci. Today 18, 9
Clark, J.P.
industry.

(1986) Texturization
processes
Food Technol. 40 (3), 91

in the

cereal

Conway, H.F. and Anderson, R.A. (1973) Protein-fortified


food products.
Cereal Sci. Today 18, 94
Coursey, D.G. (1967) Yams Tropical
Green and Co. Ltd. London

Agriculture

foods

extruded

Series.

Longmans

Davidson, V.J., Paton, D., Diosady, L.L. and Laroeque, G. (1984)


Degradation of wheat starch in a single-screw
extruder:
characteristics of extruded starch polymers. .I. Food Sci. 48, 453
de la Gueriviere,
J.F. (1976) Principes
du processus
de cuissonextrusion
applications
en alimentation
humaine
aux mat&es
premieres
amylacees.
Bull. Ant Eleves EC. Fr. Meum. 276, 305
Evans, J.M.
Industries
No. II5

(1979) Exfrusion Cooking British Food Manufacturing


Research Association
Scientific and Technical Survey,

Faubion, J.M., Hoseney, R.C. and Seib, P.A. (1982) Functionality


of
grain components
in extrusion.
Cereal Foods World 27 (5), 212
Feldberg, C. (1969) Extruded
14 (6), 211

starch-based

Harper, J.M. (1981a) Food extrusion.


Press. Boca Raton. pp. l-6

snacks. Cereal Sci. Today

In Extrusion of Foods CRC

Harper, J.M. (198lb) Extrusion of starches and starchy materials.


Extrusion of Foods CRC Press. Boca Raton. pp. 41-59
Harper, J.M. (1981~) Starch-based
Foods CRC Press, Boca Raton,

In:

In: Extrusion of

extruded foods.
pp. 66-88

Harper, J.M. (198ld) Extrusion measurements


and experimentation.
1n:Extrusion of Foods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. l07-12h
Harper, J.M. (1986) Extrusion
40 (3). 70

texturization

of foods.

Food Technol.

Lawton, B.T., Henderson, G.A. and Derlatka, E.J. (1972) The effect
of cxtruder variables on the gelatinization
of corn starch. Can. J.
Chem. Eng. 50, 168

Lorenz, K., Welsh,


(1974) Extrusion

J., Normann, R., Beetner, G. and Frey, A.


processing of Triticale. /. Food Sci. 39, 572

Matson, K. (1982) What goes on in the extruder


World 27 (5). 207

barrel.

Mercier, C and Feillet, P. (1975) Modification


components
by extrusion
cooking
of cereal
Chem. 52 (3), 283

Cereal Foods

of carbohydrate
Cereal
products.

Mercier, C., Charbonniere, R., Grebaut, J. and de la Gueriviere, J.F.


(1980) Formation
of amylose-lipid
complexes
by twin-screw
extrusion cooking of maniac starch. Cereal them. 57 (I), 4
Mottern, H.H., Spadaro,
J.J. and Gallo, A.S. (1969) Cookingextrusion expansion of rice. Food Technol. (Chicago) 23, 567
Murray, D.G., Marotta, N.G. and Boettger, R.M. (1968) Method of
making
cereal
product.
U.S.Patent
3407070
(Quoted
from
Harper. J.M. 1981~)
Rasper, V. and Coursey, D.G. (1967) Properties of starches of some
West African yams. J. Sri. Food Agric. 18, 240
Sahagun, J.F. and Harper, J.M. (1980) Effects of screw restrictions
on the performance
of an autogenous
extruder.
J. Food Proc.
Eng. 3 (4). 199
Sanderude, K.G. and Ziemba, J.V. (1968) New products
with extrusion cooking. J. Food Eng. 40 (8). 84

come easy

Sanderude, K.G. (1969) Continuous


cooking extrusion:
snack food industry. Cereal Sci. Today 14 (6). 209

benefits

to

Smith, P. (1971) The functions and utilization of starch in extruded


foods.
In: Symposium
on Extrusion:
Process and Product
Development Central State Section, Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem..
St. Paul, MN
Smith, O.B. (1976) Extrusion cooking. In: New Protein Foods Vol.
28 (Ed. A.M. Altschul). Academic Press, New York. pp. 86-121
Stanley, D.W. (1986)
texture of fabricated
Wells, G.H.
fabricated

Chemical
and structural
determinants
foods. Food Technol. 40 (3). 65

(1976) The role of dry milled cereal


foods. Cereal Foods World 21 (I), 14

products

of
in

Food Control - Vol3 No 4 1992