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Investigatory Project of physics class 12th

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Submitted

Submitted by

Mr.

Sumit Somani

to

Pradeep

Patel

AIM:To study the factor on which the self inductance of a coil depends by

observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor (bulb) in a

circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.

APPARATUS:A coil of large turns, a.c. source of adjustable frequency, an electrical bulb,

(6V) a.c. ammeter of suitable range rheostat, a soft iron rod, one way key,

connecting wires etc.

THEORY:Self inductance is the property of a coil which opposes the change in current

through it. The self inductance of a coil (long solenoid) is

0 r N 2 A

L=

l

N =Total number of turns in solenoid

A = Area of cross-section of solenoid

l = Length of solenoid

Hence, the self inductance depends upon

1. No. of turns in solenoid

2. Geometry of coil, L

A,L

3. Nature of core material, L

1/l

variable source of frequency , then current flowing in the bulb is

Irms =

E rms

Z

where Z =

R 2+ 2 L2

L = Self inductance of coil

H=

I 2rme

P=

H

t

P=

I 2rms

Zt

I 2rms

R2

2 L2

OBSERSATION:1.

2.

3.

Zero error of ammeter=

Range of ammeter=

A

S. No.

Frequency

applied voltage

A

A

without iron rod in with iron rod in coil

coil (A)

(A)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

RESULT:1. The current in the circuit decrease on inserting the iron rod in the core

of coil at constant frequent of applied voltage and brightness of bulb

decrease and vice-versa.

2. The current in the circuit increase on decreasing the frequency of

applied voltage and vice-versa. Therefore, the brightness of bulb

increase.

2. Current should be passed for a small time to avoid the heating

effect.

3. There should not be parallax in taking the reading of ammeter.

SOURCE OF ERROR:1. The resistance of circuit mat increase slightly due to heating effect

of current.

2. There may be eddy current in soft iron coil.

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an

electrical conductor by which a change in current through it induces an

electromotive force in both the conductor itself and in any nearby conductors

by mutual inductance.

These effects are derived from two fundamental observations of physics: a

steady current creates a steady magnetic field described by Oersteds

law, and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF)

in nearby conductors, which is described by Faradays law of induction.

According to Lenzs law a changing electric current through a circuit that

contains inductance induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the

change in current (self-inductance). The varying field in this circuit may also

induce an EMF in neighboring circuits (mutual inductance).

The term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1886. It is customary

to use the symbol L for inductance, in honors of the physicist Heinrich Lenz in

the SI system, the measurement unit for inductance is the Henry, with the

unit symbol H, named in honor of Joseph Henry who discovered inductance

independently of, but not before, Faraday.

Lenz's law named after the physicist Heinrich Lenz who formulated it in 1834,

says:

The direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field

due to Faradays law of induction will be such that it will create a field that

opposes the change that produced it.

Lenz's law is shown by the negative sign in Faradays law of induction:which indicates that the induced voltage and the change in magnetic flux

have opposite signs. It is a qualitative law that specifies the direction of

induced current but says nothing about its magnitude. Lenz's Law explains

the direction of many effects in electromagnetism, such as the direction of

voltage induced in an inductor or wire loop by a changing current, or why

eddy currents exert a drag force on moving objects in a magnetic field.

Lenz's law can be seen as analogous to Newtons third law in classic

mechanics.

For a rigorous mathematical treatment, see electromagnetic induction

and Maxwells equations.

their changing magnetic field. In an electrical circuit, when the emf is

induced in the same circuit in which the current is changing this effect is

called Self-induction, ( L ) but it is sometimes commonly called back-emf as

its polarity is in the opposite direction to the applied voltage.

When the emf is induced into an adjacent component situated within the

same magnetic field, the emf is said to be induced by -induction, (M) and

mutual induction is the basic operating principal of transformers, motors,

relays etc. Self inductance is a special case of mutual inductance, and

because it is produced within a single isolated circuit we generally call selfinductance simply, Inductance.

The basic unit of measurement for inductance is called the Henry, (H) after

Joseph Henry, but it also has the units of Webers per Ampere ( 1 H = 1

Wb/A ).

Lenzs Law tells us that an induced emf generates a current in a direction

which opposes the change in flux which caused the emf in the first place, the

principal of action and reaction. Then we can accurately define Inductance as

being: a coil will have an inductance value of one Henry when an emf of one

volt is induced in the coil were the current flowing through the said coil

changes at a rate of one ampere/second.

In other words, a coil has an inductance, ( L ) of one Henry, ( 1H ) when the

current flowing through it changes at a rate of one ampere/second, ( A/s )

inducing a voltage of one volt, ( VL ) in it. This mathematical representation

of the rate of change in current through a coil per unit time is given as:

di

dt

(A/s)

Where: di is the change in the current in Amperes and dt is the time taken for

this current change in seconds. Then the voltage induced in a coil, ( VL ) with

an inductance of L Henries as a result of this change in current is expressed

as:

VL = -L

di

dt

(V)

Note that the negative sign indicates that voltage induced opposes the

change in current through the coil per unit time (di/dt).

From the above equation, the inductance of a coil can therefore be presented

as:

Inductance of a Coil

L=

VL

di/dt

1 volt

1 A/ s

= 1Henry

and di/dt is the rate of change of current in Amperes per second, A/s.

change of the current flowing through the circuit and the larger is its value in

Henries, the lower will be the rate of current change.

We know from the previous tutorial about the inductor, that inductors are

devices that can store their energy in the form of a magnetic field. Inductors

are made from individual loops of wire combined to produce a coil and if the

number of loops within the coil are increased, then for the same amount of

current flowing through the coil, the magnetic flux will also increase.

So by increasing the number of loops or turns within a coil, increases the

coils inductance. Then the relationship between self-inductance, ( L ) and the

number of turns, ( N ) and for a simple single layered coil can be given as:

Self Inductance of a Coil

L=N

Where:

L is in Henries

is in Amperes

This expression can also be defined as the flux linkage divided by the current

flowing through each turn. This equation only applies to linear magnetic

materials.

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