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Experiment-1

Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.


Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour -Ammonical odour
3) State- Amorphous
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve, white
sublimate on the cooler walls of the
test tube.

Inference
May be NH4+

Brisk effervescence obtained, when


pass through lime water, it turn
milky but not turn potassium
dichromate green.
White precipitate.

May be CO32-

White fumes with ammonical odour


comes out which turns dense on
bringing a glass rod dipped in dilute
HCl solution.
Reddish brown precipitate obtained.

May be NH4+

Analysis of Acidic radical


1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test
tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.
Confirmatory test
Salt is taken in a test tube and
MgSO4 is added to it.

CO32- confirmed.

Analysis of Basic radical


1) Salt solution is taken in attest tube
and NaOH is added to it.
Warm the test tube.
2) To the salt solution, Nesslers
reagent is added.
Result- Salt is Ammonium carbonate
Acidic radical- CO32Basic radical- NH4+

NH4+ confirmed.

Experiment-2
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour -Ammonical odour
3) State- Amorphous
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.
Analysis of Acidic radical

Observation
White fumes evolve,white sublimate
on the cooler walls of the test tube

Inference
May be NH4+

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.
2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
3) Ammonium molybdate testTo the aqueous solution of salt few
drops of conc HNO3 is added and
solution is boiled. Add ammonium
molybdate solution to it.
4) Magnesia mixture testTo the salt solution, magnesia
mixture is added and the solution is
boiled and allowed to stand. (Solid
NH4Cl is added to MgCl2 solution,
boiled, cooled and NH4OH is added
to it).
Analysis of Basic radical

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

No change.

Cl- , Br-, I-, NO3-, CH3COO- absent

Deep yellow precipitate obtained.

PO43- obtained.

White precipitate obtained.

PO43- obtained.

1) Salt solution is taken in attest tube


and NaOH is added to it.
Warm the test tube.

White fumes with ammonical odour


comes out which turn dense on
bringing a glass rod dipped in dilute
HCl solution.
Reddish brown precipitate obtained.

May be NH4+

2) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
Result- Salt is Ammonium phosphate
Acidic radical- PO43-

Basic radical- NH4+

NH4+ confirmed.

Experiment-3
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Vinegar like odour
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve with vinegar
like smell.

Inference
May be CH3COO-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
Confirmatory test
1) Salt is taken in a watch glass and
mixed with solid oxalic acid and
pate is prepared.
2) Salt solution is taken and FeCl3
solution is added to it.
Divide filtrate into two parts:
a) To the first part, HCl is added
followed by water.
b) To the second part distilled water
is added and boiled.
Analysis of Basic radical

White fumes evolved with vinegar


like smell.

May be CH3COO-

Vinegar like smell

CH3COO- confirmed.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Red coloured filtrate obtained.


Red colour disappears.

CH3COO- confirmed.

Reddish brown precipitate obtained.

CH3COO- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.
3) Precipiate obtained is centrifuged
and dissolved in distilled water and
boiled.
a) Contents were allowed to cool
and kept undisturbed.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
White precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

White precipitate reappears.

Pb2+ confirmed.

b) To the second part potassium


chromate solution is added.

Yellow precipitate obtained which


dissolves in NaoH solution.

Pb2+ confirmed.

c) To the third part, Potassium iodide


solution is added.
Result- Salt is lead acetate

Yellow precipitate obtained.

Pb2+ confirmed.

Acidic radical- CH3COO-

Basic radical- Pb2+

Pb2+ confirmed.

Experiment-4
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-Blue
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve, water droplets
are seen on the inner cooler walls of
the test tube.

Inference
May be Cl-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

White fumes evolved which become


dense on bringing a glass rod dipped
in NH4OH solution.

May be Cl-

Analysis of Acidic radical

Confirmatory test
1) Take salt in a test tube and solid
K2Cr2O7 is added followed by conc.
H2SO4 and the mixture is heated.
To the yellow solution, acetic acid
along with lead acetate solution is
added.
2) To the salt solution few drops of
HNO3 is added followed by silver
nitrate solution.

Cl- confirmed.
Red fumes of chromyl chloride
comes out. On passing through
NaOH solution, it turns yellow.
Yellow precipitate obtained.

Cl- confirmed.

White precipitate obtained which is


completely soluble in NH4OH
solution.

Cl- confirmed.

Analysis of Basic radical


1) To the salt solution, Nesslers
reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.
3) Pass H2S gas through the above
solution.
4) Dissolve precipitate in dilute
HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas.
Small quantity of solution is taken
and dilute H2SO4 and C2H5OH is
added.
5) To the other part of solution,
NH4OH is added in excess and

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

Black precipitate obtained.

Group 2 present.

No white precipitate obtained.

Pb2+ absent.

Group 1 absent

solution is divided into two parts.


a) To part 1, acetic acid and
potassium ferrocyanide solution is
added.
b) To part2, few drops of acetic acid
and potassium iodide solution is
added.
Result- Salt is copper(II) chloride
Acidic radical- ClBasic radical- Cu2+

Chocolate brown precipitate


obtained.
White precipitate in brown colour
solution obtained.

Cu2+ confirmed.
Cu2+ confirmed.

Experiment-5
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
Brown fumes evolve and colour of
residue is brown.

Inference
May be Br- or NO3-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
Add copper turnings to the test tube.
Confirmatory test
3) Add freshly prepared FeSO4
solution to the salt solution and then
conc. H2SO4 is added along the walls
of the test tube.
4) Diphenylamine test
Add few drops of diphenylamine to
the salt solution.

Reddish brown fumes with pungent


smell are obtained.

May be Br- or NO3-

Brown fumes become dense.

NO3- confirmed.

Brown ring is obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

Deep blue colour obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

Yellow precipitate obtained.

Group 2 present.

Yellow precipitate obtained.

As3+ confirmed.

White precipitate obtained.

As3+ confirmed.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Analysis of Basic radical

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas
and divide into two parts:
a) To part 1, ammonium molybdate
solution is added.
b) To part 2, few drops of NH4OH is
added followed by magnesia
mixture.

Group 1 absent

Result- Salt is Arsenic nitrate

Acidic radical- NO3-

Basic radical- As3+

Experiment-6
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Amorphous
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve with water
droplets on inner cooler walls of the
test tube.

Inference
May be Cl-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

White fumes evolved which become


dense on bringing a glass rod dipped
in NH4OH solution.

May be Cl-

Confirmatory test
3) Take salt in a test tube and solid
K2Cr2O7 is added followed by conc.
H2SO4 and the mixture is heated.
To the yellow solution, acetic acid
along with lead acetate solution is
added.
4) To the salt solution few drops of
HNO3 is added followed by silver
nitrate solution.

Red fumes of chromyl chloride


come out. On passing through
NaOH solution, it turns yellow.

Cl- confirmed.

Yellow precipitate obtained.

Cl- confirmed.

White precipitate obtained which is


completely soluble in NH4OH
solution

Cl- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S

Gelatinous white precipitate


obtained.

Group 3 present.
May be Al3+

Analysis of Acidic radical

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

gas.Then solid ammonium chloride


is added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Lake test
Dissolve white precipitate in dilute
HCl. To it one drop blue litmus
solution is added. Then NH4OH is
added dropwise till blue colour
disappears.
Result- Salt is Aluminium chloride
Acidic radical- ClBasic radical- Al3+

Blue precipitate floating in


colourless solution obtained which
gives appearance of a blue lake.

Al3+ confirmed.

Experiment-7
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Amorphous
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve with water
droplets on inner cooler walls of the
test tube.

Inference
May be Zn2+

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

No change.

Cl- , Br-, I-, NO3-, CH3COO- absent

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in conc HCl

SO42- confirmed.

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in hot ammonium acetate
solution.

SO42- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Confirmatory test for SO423) To the salt solution add dilute


HCl followed by few drops of BaCl2
solution.
4) To the salt solution add few drops
of acetic acid and then lead acetate is
added.

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

gas.Then solid ammonium chloride


is added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.
6) Dissolve the precipitate in dilute
HCl and boil the solution to expel
out H2S gas.
7) Divide the solution in two parts:
a) Add NaOH to the first part.
b) Add potassium ferrocyanide to the
second part.
Result- Salt is Zinc sulphate
Acidic radical- SO42Basic radical- Zn2+

Dirty white precipitate obtained.

Group 4 present. May be Zn2+

White precipitate obtained which


dissolves in excess of NaOH.

Zn2+ obtained.

Bluish white precipitate obtained.

Zn2+ obtained.

Experiment-8
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-Green
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve with water
droplets on inner cooler walls of the
test tube.

Inference
May be SO42-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

No change.

Cl- , Br-, I-, NO3-, CH3COO- absent

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in conc HCl

SO42- confirmed.

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in hot ammonium acetate
solution.

SO42- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Confirmatory test for SO423) To the salt solution add dilute


HCl followed by few drops of BaCl2
solution.
4) To the salt solution add few drops
of acetic acid and then lead acetate is
added.

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

gas.Then solid ammonium chloride


is added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.
Observed the colour of the original
salt. Since it is greenish, perform
confirmatory test for Ni2+ with the
original solution.
6) To one part of the original
solution, NH4OH solution and few
drops of dimethyl glyoxime is added.
7) To another part NaOH( in excess)
and bromine water is added and
boiled.
Result- Salt is Nickel sulphate
Acidic radical- SO42Basic radical- Ni2+

Black precipitate obtained.

Group 4 present.
May be Ni2+ orCo2+

Bright rose red precipitate obtained.

Ni2+ confirmed.

Black precipitate of Ni(OH)3 is


obtained

Ni2+ obtained.

Experiment-9
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-Pink
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolve with water
droplets on inner cooler walls of the
test tube.

Inference
May be SO42-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
Add copper turnings to the test tube.
Confirmatory test
3) Add freshly prepared FeSO4
solution to the salt solution and then
conc. H2SO4 is added along the walls
of the test tube.
4) Diphenylamine test
Add few drops of diphenylamine to
the salt solution.

Reddish brown fumes with pungent


smell are obtained.

May be Br- or NO3-

Brown fumes become dense.

NO3- confirmed.

Brown ring is obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

Deep blue colour obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Analysis of Basic radical


1) To the salt solution, Nesslers
reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

Group 1 absent

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S
gas.Then solid ammonium chloride
is added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.
Observed the colour of the original
salt. Since it is pink, perform
confirmatory test for Co2+ with the
original solution.
6) To one part of the original
solution, NH4OH is added to
neutralize the solution. Add acetic
acid and a crytal of potassium nitrite
and warm the contents.
7) To another part of original
solution, add 1 ml of ether and a
crytal of ammonium thiocyanate.
Shake and allowed to settle.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Black precipitate obtained.

Group 4 present.
May be Ni2+ orCo2+

Yellow precipitate obtained.

Co2+ confirmed.

Blue colour in ethereal layer

Co2+ obtained.

Result- Salt is Cobalt nitrate


Acidic radical- NO3Basic radical- Co2+

Experiment-10
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-Pale pink
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
Colour of fumes is white and yellow
residue obtained.

Inference
May be SO42-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

No reaction.

Cl- , Br-, I-, NO3-, CH3COO- absent

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in conc HCl

SO42- confirmed.

White precipitate obtained which are


insoluble in hot ammonium acetate
solution.

SO42- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Confirmatory test for SO423) To the salt solution add dilute


HCl followed by few drops of BaCl2
solution.
4) To the salt solution add few drops
of acetic acid and then lead acetate is
added.

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S
gas.Then solid ammonium chloride
is added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.
6) Dissolve the precipitate in dilute
HCl and boil the solution to expel
out H2S gas. Divide the solution in
two parts:
a) To the above solution NaOH is
added and shaken.
b) The above black/brown
precipitate is collected. Conc HNO3
and lead peroxide is added to it.is
then boiled, cooled and allowed to
cool.
Result- Salt is Manganese sulphate
Acidic radical- SO42Basic radical- Mn2+

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Buff coloured precipitate obtained.

Group 4 present.
May be Mn2+

White precipitate is obtained which


turns black/brown on addition of
bromine water.

Mn2+ confirmed.

Pink coloured solution is obtained.

Mn2+ confirmed.

Experiment-11
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolved.
Colour of residue
Hot-white
Cold-White

Inference
May be Cl-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

White fumes evolved which become


dense on bringing a glass rod dipped
in NH4OH solution.

May be Cl-

Confirmatory test
1) Take salt in a test tube and solid
K2Cr2O7 is added followed by conc.
H2SO4 and the mixture is heated.
To the yellow solution , acetic acid
along with lead acetate solution is
added.
2) To the salt solution few drops of
HNO3 is added followed by silver
nitrate solution.

Red fumes of chromyl chloride


come out. On passing through
NaOH solution, it turns yellow.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Cl- confirmed.

Yellow precipitate obtained.


Cl- confirmed.
White precipitate obtained which is
completely soluble in NH4OH
solution.

Cl- confirmed.

Analysis of Basic radical


1) To the salt solution, Nesslers
reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.
Group 1 absent

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas.
Then solid ammonium chloride is
added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 4 absent.

6) Solid NH4Cl is then added and


dissolved and the solution is boiled
and cooled followed by the addition
of NH4OH in excess. (NH4)2CO3
solution is then added.
7) Dissolve the white precipitate in
hot dilute acetic acid and divide the
solution into two parts:
a) To one part of the above solution
ammonium oxalate solution is then
added followed by NH4OH solution.
b) Flame testDip platinum wire in a paste of the
salt and conc. HCl and introduced
into the flame.

White precipitate obtained.

Group 5 present.

White precipitate confirmed.

Ca2+ confirmed.

Brick red colour is imparted to the


flame.

Ca2+ confirmed.

Result- Salt is calcium chloride


Acidic radical- ClBasic radical- Ca2+

Experiment-12
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
White fumes evolved.
Colour of residue
Hot-white
Cold-White

Inference
May be Cl-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.

White fumes evolved which become


dense on bringing a glass rod dipped
in NH4OH solution.

May be Cl-

Confirmatory test
1) Take salt in a test tube and solid
K2Cr2O7 is added followed by conc.
H2SO4 and the mixture is heated.
To the yellow solution , acetic acid
along with lead acetate solution is
added.
2) To the salt solution few drops of
HNO3 is added followed by silver
nitrate solution.

Red fumes of chromyl chloride


come out. On passing through
NaOH solution, it turns yellow.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Cl- confirmed.

Yellow precipitate obtained.


Cl- confirmed.
White precipitate obtained which is
completely soluble in NH4OH
solution.

Cl- confirmed.

Analysis of Basic radical


1) To the salt solution, Nesslers
reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

Group 1 absent

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas.
Then solid ammonium chloride is
added followed by NH4OH in
excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 4 absent.

6) Solid NH4Cl is then added and


dissolved and the solution is boiled
and cooled followed by the addition
of NH4OH in excess. (NH4)2CO3
solution is then added.
7) Dissolve the white precipitate in
hot dilute acetic acid and divide the
solution into two parts:
a) To one part of the above solution,
few drops of potassium chromate
solution is added.
b) Flame testDip platinum wire in a paste of the
salt and conc. HCl and introduced
into the flame.

White precipitate obtained.

Group 5 present.

Yellow precipitate confirmed.

Ba2+ confirmed.

Grassy green colour is imparted to


the flame.

Ba2+ confirmed.

Result- Salt is Barium chloride


Acidic radical- ClBasic radical- Ba2+

Experiment-13
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
Reddish brown gas evolves.
Colour of residue
Hot-white
Cold-Yellowish

Inference
May be Br- or NO3-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
Add copper turnings to the test tube.
Confirmatory test
3) Add freshly prepared FeSO4
solution to the salt solution and then
conc. H2SO4 is added along the walls
of the test tube.
4) Diphenylamine test
Add few drops of diphenylamine to
the salt solution.

Reddish brown fumes with pungent


smell are obtained.

May be Br- or NO3-

Brown fumes become dense.

NO3- confirmed.

Brown ring is obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

Deep blue colour obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas.
Then solid ammonium chloride is
added followed by NH4OH in

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 4 absent.

6) Solid NH4Cl is then added and


dissolved and the solution is boiled
and cooled followed by the addition
of NH4OH in excess. (NH4)2CO3
solution is then added.
7) Dissolve the white precipitate in
hot dilute acetic acid and divide the
solution into two parts:
a) To one part of the above solution,
few drops of ammonium sulphate
solution is added.
b) Flame testDip platinum wire in a paste of the
salt and conc. HCl and introduced
into the flame.

White precipitate obtained.

Group 5 present.

White precipitate confirmed.

Sr2+ confirmed.

Crimson red colour is imparted to


the flame.

Sr2+ confirmed.

Result- Salt is Strontium nitrate


Acidic radical- NO3Basic radical- Sr2+

Experiment-14
Aim-To analyse the given salt qualitatively and systematically.
Physical characteristics
1) Colour-White
2) Odour Odourless
3) State- Crystalline
4) Solubility- Soluble in cold distilled water
Preliminary dry heating test
Experiment
Salt is taken in a dry test tube and
heated.

Observation
Reddish brown gas evolves.
Colour of residue
Hot-white
Cold-Yellowish

Inference
May be Br- or NO3-

1) Salt is taken in perfectly dry test


tube and dilute H2SO4 is added to it.

No reaction.

CO32- , S2-, SO32-, NO2 absent

2) Salt is taken in a dry test tube and


conc. H2SO4 is added to it and
heated.
Add copper turnings to the test tube.
Confirmatory test
3) Add freshly prepared FeSO4
solution to the salt solution and then
conc. H2SO4 is added along the walls
of the test tube.
4) Diphenylamine test
Add few drops of diphenylamine to
the salt solution.

Reddish brown fumes with pungent


smell are obtained.

May be Br- or NO3-

Brown fumes become dense.

NO3- confirmed.

Brown ring is obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

Deep blue colour obtained.

NO3- confirmed.

1) To the salt solution, Nesslers


reagent is added.
2) To the salt solution, dilute HCl is
added.

No Reddish brown precipitate


obtained.
No white precipitate obtained.

NH4+ absent.

3) Pass H2S gas through the above


solution.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 2 absent.

4) Dissolve precipitate in conc.


HNO3 and boil to expel out H2S gas.
Then solid ammonium chloride is
added followed by NH4OH in

No precipitate obtained.

Group 3 absent.

Analysis of Acidic radical

Analysis of Basic radical

Group 1 absent

excess.
5) Through the above solution H2S
gas is passed.

No precipitate obtained.

Group 4 absent.

6) Solid NH4Cl is then added and


dissolved and the solution is boiled
and cooled followed by the addition
of NH4OH in excess. (NH4)2CO3
solution is then added.
7) To the original solution, add a
pinch of NH4Cl, a few drops of
NH4OH and excess of aammonium
phosphate solution and scratch the
sides of the test tube with a glass
rod.

No white precipitate obtained.

Group 5 absent.

White precipitate obtained.

Group 6 present.
Mg2+ confirmed.

Result- Salt is Magnesium nitrate


Acidic radical- NO3Basic radical- Mg2+

Experiment-15
Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Alcohol)

1) Sodium metal testTo 1ml of organic compound, a


small piece of sodium metal is
added.
2)Ester testAdd 1 ml of acetic acid to organic
compound taken in a test tube
followed by 4-5 drops of conc.
H2SO4. Contents are heated on a
water bath for 10 minutes and
emptied in a beaker containing one
test tube water
3) Ceric ammonium nitrate testTo 1ml of organic compound taken
in a test tube, few drops of Ceric
ammonium nitrate btained.is added.
4) Iodoform testTo 1ml of compound , 1% solid
iodine is dissolved and NaOH
solution is added dropwise until
brown colour of iodine is discharged
and contents are warmed on a water
bath and cooled.
5) Acetyl chloride testTo 2ml of compound taken in a test
tube, 2-3 drops of acetyl chloride is
added and a glass rod dipped in
NH4OH solution is brought near the
mouth of the test tube.

Brisk effervescence comes out due


to evolution of Hydrogen gas.

Alcoholic group present.

Formation of fruity smelling


substance called ester.

Alcoholic group present.

Pink or red colour obtained.

Alcoholic group present.

Formation of yellow precipitate


obtained.

Alcoholic group present.

Evolution of white fumes.

Alcoholic group present.

Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Phenol)
EXPERIMENT
1) Litmus testTo a drop of compound blue litmus
is added.
2) Neutral Ferric chloride testTo the organic compound neutral
FeCl3 solution is added.
3) Libermanns test2-3 crystals of NaNO2 are taken in a
test tube and organic compound is
added to it. Contents are heated
gently on a water bath for 1minute
and allowed to cool. 1ml of conc.
H2SO4 is then added and shaken.

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Blue litmus turns red.

Acidic group. May be phenol.

Violet colourtion obtained.

Phenolic group present.

Deep blue colouration obtained.


Colour changes to red when water is
added. It changes back to blue/green
on addition of NaOH solution.

Phenolic group present.

Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Aldehyde)
EXPERIMENT
1) 2,4 Dinitrophenyl hydrazine test
To the organic compound dissolved in
thanol, 2 ml of 2,4-DNp solution is
added.Corked the test tube and shake it
and allowed to stand for 5 minutes.
2) Sodium bisulphite testTo the organic compound, NaHSO3
solution is added. Test tube is corked,
shaken and left to stand for 20 minutes.
3) Schiffs testTo the organic compound, 1 ml of
Schiffs reagent is added.
4) Tollens testTo silver nitrate solution, 2-3 ml of
dilute NaOH is added which results in
the formation of a brown precipitate.
NH4OH is then added till brown
precipitate disappears. To the above

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Formation of yellow-orange
precipitate.

Indicates the presence of carbonyl


group.

Formation of crystalline white


precipitate takes place..

Indicates the presence of carbonyl


group.

Pink/ Red/ Magenta colour


obtained.

Aldehydic group present.

Shining silver mirror obtained.

Aldehydic group present.

liquid, organic compound is added and


mixture is heated on a water bath for 810 minutes.
5) Fehlings testIn two test tubes, Fehling A and B are
taken respectively and then mixed. To
this solution , organic compound is
added and contents are heated on a
water bath.

Red precipitate of Cu2O obtained.

Aldehydic group present.

Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Ketone)
EXPERIMENT
1) 2,4 Dinitrophenyl hydrazine
test
To the organic compound dissolved
in thanol, 2 ml of 2,4-DNp solution
is added.Corked the test tube and
shake it and allowed to stand for 5
minutes.
2) Sodium bisulphite testTo the organic compound, NaHSO3
solution is added. Test tube is
corked, shaken and left to stand for
20 minutes.
3) m- Dinitrobenzene testTo the organic compound, finely
powdered m- Dinitrobenzene is
added followed by dilute NaOH and
the test tube is shaken.
4) Sodium nitroprusside testDissolve a crystal of sodium
nitroprusside in water.
Add the organic compound to the
above solution followed by addition
of NaOH dropwise.

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Formation of yellow-orange
precipitate.

Indicates the presence of carbonyl


group.

Formation of crystalline white


precipitate takes place..

Indicates the presence of carbonyl


group.

Appearance of violet colour takes


place which fades slowly.

Ketonic group present.

Red coloured solution obtained.

Ketonic group present.

Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Carboxylic acid)
EXPERIMENT
1) Litmus testTo a drop of compound blue litmus
is added.
2) Sodium bicarbonate testTo the organic compound, saturated
solution of NaHCO3 is added.
2)Ester test-

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Blue litmus turns red.

Acidic group. May be carboxylic


acid group.

Brisk effervescence of CO2 gas


evolved.

Carboxylic acid group present.

Add 1 ml of ethanol to organic


compound taken in a test tube
followed by 4-5 drops of conc.
H2SO4. Contents are heated on a
water bath for 10 minutes and
emptied in a beaker containing one
test tube water.

Formation of fruity smelling


substance called ester.

Carboxylic acid group present.

Aim- To analyse the functional group present in the given organic compound. (Amine)
EXPERIMENT
1) Solubility testTo the organic compound, dilute
HCl is added and shaken.
1) Litmus testTo a drop of compound red litmus
solution is added.
3) Carbylamine testTo the solid KOH pellets taken in a
test tube about 1ml of of ethanol is
added and the contents are warmed,
followed by addition of chloroform
and given organic compound.
4) Nitrous acid testDissolve the organic compound in 1
ml of conc. HCl and cooled the
contents in a ice bath. In another test
tube, a solution of sodium nitrite is
made and kept in ice for cooling.
Mixed the contents of both the test
tubes.
5) Azo dye testDissolve organic compound in 1 ml
of conc. HCl and kept for cooling in
ice bath. In 2nd test tube, an aqueous
solution of NaNO2 is prepared and
cooled. In the 3rd test tube naphthol is taken and cooled in ice
bath. Mix all the contents of the
respective solutions.

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Compound is soluble in dilute HCl.

May be amine.

Red litmus turns blue.

Basic group. May be amine.

Unpleasant odour of carbuylamine


obtained.

Primary amine present.

Bubbles of nitrogen gas obtained.

Primary amine present.

Orange red precipitate obtained.

Primary aromatic amine present.

Experiment-16
Aim- To analyse the food stuff (carbohydrate) present in the given sample.

To analyse the food stuff (oils/fats) present in the given sample.

EXPERIMENT
1) Solubility testFood sample solution is taken in 3
test tubes. To the first test tube water
is added. To the second ethanol is
added and to the third chloroform is
added. Each test tube is shaken
vigorously aand observed carefully.
2) Translucent spot testA drop of given food sample is taken
on the filter paper which is folded
and pressed a little.
3)Acrolein testFood sample is heated with crystals
of KHSO4 in atest tube.

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

a) Immiscible in water
b) In alcohol it forms lower layer
which dissolves on heating.
c) Miscible in choloroform.

Oil/Fat is confirmed.

On unfolding a translucent or greasy


spot is obtained.

Oil/Fat is confirmed.

Pungent irritating odour of acrolein


is obtained.

Oil/Fat is confirmed.

Aim- To analyse the food stuff (proteins) present in the given sample.
EXPERIMENT
1) Biuret testTo the dispersion of food sample, 2
ml of NaOH solution is added
followed by 4-5 drops of 1 % CuSO4
solution.
2) Xanthoproteic testTo 2 ml of dispersion of HNO3 is
added and contents are heated on a
water bath.
3)Millions testTo the dispersion of the given food
sample, Millions reagent is added.
4) Ninhydrin testTo the dispersion of the given
protein, Ninhydrin solution is added
and the contents are boiled.

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

Bluish violet colouration obtained

Protein confirmed.

Yellow coagulum obtained.

Protein confirmed.

White precipitate of obtained which


changes to brick red on boiling.

Protein confirmed.

Intense blue colouration obtained.

Protein confirmed.

Experiment-17
Aim- To prepare crystals of Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohrs salt)
Theory- Mohrs salt is prepared by dissolving an equimolar mixture of hydrated ferrous sulphate and ammonium
sulphate in water containing a little sulphuric acid and then subjecting the resulting solution to crytallisation when
pale green coloured crystals of ferrous ammonium sulphate having monoclinic shape separates out.
FeSO4.7 H2O + (NH4)2SO4

FeSO4. (NH4)2SO4.6 H2O + H2O

Materials required- Two beakers (250ml) , China dish, funnel, funnel stand, glass rod, wash bottle , tripod stand,
filter paper, ferrous sulphate crystals, ammonium sulphate crystals, dilute sulphuric acid, distilled water.
Procedure
1) Take a 250 ml beaker and wash it with water. Transfer 7 g of ferrous sulphate and 3.5 g of ammonium sulphate
crystals to it. Add about 2-3 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to prevent the hydrolysis of ferrous sulphate.
2) In another beaker boil about 20 ml of water for about 5 minutes to expel dissolved air.
3) Add the boiling hot water to the contents in the first beaker in small installments at a time. Stir with a glass rod
until the salts have completely dissolved.
4) Filter the solution to remove undissolved impurities and transfer the filtrate to a china dish.
5) Heat the solution in the china dish for some time to concentrate it to the crytallisation point.
6) Place the china dish containing saturated solution over a beaker full of cold water. On cooling crystals of Mohrs
salt separate out.
7) decant off the mother liquor quickly. Wash the crystals in the china dish with a small quantity of alcohol to
remove nay sulphuric acid sticking to the crystals.
8) Dry the crystals by placing them between filter paper pads.
ObservationsWeight of crystal obtainedExpected yield of crystalsColour of the crystals- Light green
Shape of the crystals- Monoclinic
Precautions1) To avoid oxidation of ferrous sulphate boiled water is to be added.
2) Dilute sulphuric acid is added immediately to prevent hydrolyis of FeSO 4
3) Do not heat the solution for a long time as it may oxidize ferrous ions to ferric ions.

Experiment-18
Aim- To prepare a sample of Dibenzal acetone.
Theory- The preparation of dibenzal acetone is an example of Claisen- Schmidt reaction. This reaction takes place
between aromatic aldehyde and aliphatic ketones in presence of sodiumhydroxide. Two moles of benzaldehyde
condense with one mole of acetone to give dibenzal acetone.
2 CHO + CH3COCH3

NaOH

CH=CHCOCH=CH

Apparatus and chemicals required


2.5 ml benzldehyde,1 ml acetone,5ml NaOH ( 10%), 25 ml rectified spirit,100 ml conical flask, 250 ml beaker, test
tube, funnel
Procedure
1) Take a conical flask (100ml) and add. 2.5 ml benzaldehyde, 1 ml of acetone and 25 ml of methylated spirit. Cork
the flask and shake to obtain a clear solution.
2) Take 5ml of 10 % NaOH solution in a test tube and add this to conical flask drop by drop with shaking of the
flask. Maintain the temperature of th reaction mixture between 20-25oC during addition of sodium hydroxide
solution.
3) Cork the flask again and shake vigorously for about 10 minutes, releasing pressure from time to time.
4) Allow it to stand for about 20 minutes at room temperature and then cool in ice water for a few minutes.
5) Filter the yellow coloured solid and wash it with water to remove traces of alkali.
6) Recrystallisation of dibenzal acetone.
Dissolve the above yellow coloured crude solid in minimum amount of hot rectified spirit and then allowing it to
cool slowly. Pale yellow crystals of dibenzal acetone separate out. Filter the crystals and dry. Weigh aand record its
yield.
Result
Yield of dibenzal acetone=

Expected yield of dibenzal acetone= 1.5 g


Precautions
1) Add NaOH dropwise to the reaction mixture with constant shaking of the flask.
2) Wash the precipitate with water to remove traces of NaOH sticking to them.
3) Use minimum amount of rectified spirit to dissolve crude sample for crystallization.