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Contents

1- Navier-Stokes equations.

2- Steady laminar flow between parallel flat plates.

3- Hydrodynamic lubrication.

4- Laminar flow between concentric rotating cylinders.

5- Example.

6- Problems; sheet No. 3

1- Navier-Stokes equations:

The general equations of motion for viscous incompressible, Newtonian fluids may

be written in the following form:

x- direction:

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2 - - - - - -(1)

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

y- direction:

2v 2v 2v

v

v

v

v

p

+ u + v + w = g y

+ 2 + 2 + 2 - - - - - -(2)

x

y

z

y

y

z

t

x

v= 0 , w= 0 ,

=0

t

dp

d 2u

= 2 - - - - - - - - - (3)

dx

dy

dh

g x = g. sin = g

dx

g x +

eq. 3 will be

d 2 u 1 d ( p + h )

=

- - - - - - - - - -(4)

dx

dy 2

Integration of eq. 4:

du 1 d ( p + h )

=

y+A

dy

dx

1 d ( p + h ) 2

u=

y + Ay + B - - - - - - - - - - - (5)

2

dx

y=0

u=0 B=0

y=a

u=0

A=

a d ( p + h )

2

dx

eq. 5 will be

u=

1 d ( p + h ) 2

y ay - - - - - - - - - - - -(6)

2

dx

B.C (One plate is fixed and the other plate moves with a constant

velocity U) (Couette flow)

y=0

u=0

B=0

y=a

u =U

A=

U

a d ( p + h )

a 2

dx

eq. 5 will be

u=

1 d ( p + h ) 2

Uy

(

y ay ) +

- - - - - - - - - - - (7)

2

dx

a

dh

=0

dx

eq. 7 will be

u=

1 dp 2

Uy

(

y ay ) +

- - - - - - - - - - - (8)

2 dx

a

du

and setting it to

dy

zero.

The volume flow rate is

a

Q = w u.dy - - - - - - - - - - - -(9)

0

3- Hydrodynamic lubrication:

Sliding bearing

Large forces are developed in small clearance when the surfaces are slightly inclined

and one is in motion so that fluid is wedged into the decreasing space. Usually the oils

employed for lubrication are highly viscous and the flow is of laminar nature.

Assumptions:

The acceleration is zero.

The body force is small and can be neglected.

Also

2u 2u

2u 2u

and

y 2 x 2

y 2 z 2

d 2 u 1 dp

=

dy 2 dx

Integration:

u=

1 dp 2

y + Ay + B

2 dx

B.C

y=0

y = hx

u =U

B =U

u=0

A=

h x dp U

2 dx hx

u=

1 dp 2

y

(

y hx y ) + U 1

2 dx

hx

hx

Q = w u.dy

assume w = 1

Uhx

hx3 dp

Q=

--------(*)

2

12 dx

h1 h2

l

hx = (h1 x )

dp

6U

12 Q

=

2

dx (h1 x )

(h1 x )3

dp

produces:

dx

Integration gives:

p( x ) =

6U

6Q

+ C ---------(**)

(h1 x ) (h1 x )2

B.C

x=0

p = po = 0

x=l

p = po = 0

Q=

Uh1h2

h1 + h2

and

C=

6 U

(h1 + h2 )

With these values inserted in eq.(**) we obtain the pressure distribution inside the bearing.

p( x ) =

6 Ux (h x h2 )

h x2 (h1 + h2 )

The load that the bearing will support per unit width is:

l

F = p( x ).dx

0

6 Ul 2

F=

(h1 h2 )2

where

k=

h1

h2

2( k 1)

ln k k + 1

Consider the purely circulatory flow of a fluid contained between two long

concentric rotating cylinders of radius R1 and R2 at angular velocities 1 and 2.

r- direction:

ur

ur u ur u2

ur 1 p 1 ur ur 1 2ur 2 u 2ur

+ ur

+

+w

=

+

+g

+

r

+

t

r

z

r

r

r r r r r 2 r 2 2 r 2 z 2 r

- direction:

u

u u u u u

u

1 p 1 u u 1 2u 2 ur 2 u

+ ur + + r + w =

+

+

+

+ g

r

+

t

r

r

r

z r r r r r 2 r 2 2 r 2 z 2

ur = 0

w=0

u

=0 ,

=0 ,

t

p

=0

body force = 0

The equation in - direction reduces to:

d 2 u d u

+ =0

dr 2

dr r

Integration:

1 d

(ru ) = A

r dr

B

---------(i)

u = Ar +

r

B.C

r = R1

u = R11

r = R2

u = R22

A = 1 +

B=

R22

(2 1 )

R22 R12

R12 R22

(2 1 )

R22 R12

u =

1

2

R2 R12

2 2

d u

= r

dr r

By using eq.(ii):

2 R12 R22

(2 1 )

= 2

R2 R12 r 2

5- Example:

1- Using the Navier-Stokes equation in the flow direction, calculate the power required to

pull (1m 1m) flat plate at speed (1 m/s) over an inclined surface. The oil between the

surfaces has ( = 900 kg/m3 , = 0.06 Pa.s).The pressure difference between points 1 and

2 is (100 kN/m2) .

Solution:

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + v + w = g x + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

2u

2u

=

0

,

We have: Acceleration =0 , v=0 , w=0 ,

x 2

z 2

d 2 u 1 dp

=

gx

dy 2 dx

Integration

du 1 dp

=

y gx y + A

dy dx

1 dp 2

u=

y

g x y 2 + Ay + B

2 dx

2

(b=10 mm)

B.C

y=0

u=0

y=b

u = U

B=0

A=

b dp b

U

gx

+

b

2 dx 2

du 1 dp

U

b dp b

=

+

y gx y

gx

dy dx

b 2 dx 2

F = o area

F =

du

dy

area

y =b

area=1 m2

F =

U

b

b dp b

g x

2 dx 2

We have g x = g sin ,

F=

dp p

=

dx

l

0.01

2

1

2

F = 528 N

Power = F U

Power = 528 1 = 528 W

(Ans)

University of Technology

Mechanical Engineering Dep.

Fluid Mechanics II (3 rd year)

Sheet No. 3

Navier-Stokes Equations

2008/2009

1- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, determine the pressure gradient along flow, the

average velocity, and the discharge for an oil of viscosity 0.02 N.s/m2 flowing between

two stationary parallel plates 1 m wide maintained 10 mm apart. The velocity midway

between the plates is 2 m/s.

[-3200 N/m2 per m ; 1.33 m/s ; 0.0133 m3/s]

2- An incompressible, viscous fluid is placed between horizontal, infinite, parallel plates

as shown in figure. The two plates move in opposite directions with constant velocities U1

and U2. The pressure gradient in the x-direction is zero. Use the Navier-Stokes equations

to derive expression for the velocity distribution between the plates. Assume laminar flow.

[ u = (U 1 + U 2 ) U 2 ]

y

b

3- Two parallel plates are spaced 2 mm apart, and oil ( = 0.1 N.s/m2 , S = 0.8) flows at a

rate of 2410-4 m3/s per m of width between the plates. What is the pressure gradient in the

direction of flow if the plates are inclined at 60o with the horizontal and if the flow is

downward between the plates?

[-353.2 kPa/m]

4- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, find the velocity profile for fully developed flow of

water ( = 1.1410-3 Pa.s) between parallel plates with the upper plate moving as shown in

figure. Assume the volume flow rate per unit depth for zero pressure gradient between the

plates is 3.7510-3 m3/s. Determine:

a- the velocity of the moving plate.

b- the shear stress on the lower plate.

c- the pressure gradient that will give zero shear stress at y = 0.25b. (b = 2.5 mm)

d- the adverse pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate between the plates.

[3 m/s ; 1.37 N/m2 ; 2.19 kN/m2 per m ; -3.28 kN/m2 per m]

5- A vertical shaft passes through a bearing and is lubricated with an oil ( = 0.2 Pa.s) as

shown in figure. Estimate the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the

shaft is turning at 80 rpm. (Hint: The flow between the shaft and bearing can be treated as

laminar flow between two flat plates with zero pressure gradient).

[0.355 N.m]

6- Determine the force on the piston of the figure due to shear, and the leakage from the

pressure chamber for U = 0.

[295.1 N ; 1.63610 -8 m3/s]

7- A layer of viscous liquid of thickness b flows steadily down an inclined plane. Show

that, by using the Navier-Stokes equations that velocity distribution is:

u=

3

(

2by y 2 )sin and that the discharge per unit width is: Q =

b sin

2

3

8- A wide moving belt passes through a container of a viscous liquid. The belt moving

vertically upward with a constant velocity Vo, as illustrated in figure. Because of viscous

forces the belt picks up a film of fluid of thickness h. Gravity tends to make the fluid drain

down the belt. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to determine an expression for the average

velocity vav of the fluid film as it is dragged up the belt. Assume the flow is laminar,

steady, and uniform.

[ vav = Vo

h 2

]

3

9- Determine the formulas for shear stress on each plate and for the velocity distribution

for flow in the figure when an adverse pressure gradient exists such that Q = 0.

[ y =0 =

y2

y

2 U

4U

; y =b =

; u = 3U 2 2U ]

b

b

b

b

10- A plate 2 mm thick and 1 m wide is pulled between the walls shown in figure at speed

of 0.4 m/s. The space over and below the plate is filled with glycerin ( = 0.62 N.s/m2).

The plate is positioned midway between the walls. Using the Navier-Stokes equations,

determine the force required to pull the plate at the speed given for zero pressure gradient;

and the pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate.

[496 N ; 372 kN/m2.m]

11- A slider plate 0.5 m wide constitutes a bearing as shown in figure. Estimate:

a- the load carrying capacity.

b- the drag.

c- the power lost in the bearing.

d- the maximum pressure in the oil and its location.

[739.6 kN ; 348.6 N ; 348.6 W ; 12500 kN/m2 ; 150 mm]

12- Consider a shaft that turns inside a stationary cylinder, with a lubricating fluid in the

annular region. Using the Navier-Stokes equation in -direction, show that the torque per

unit length acting on the shaft is given by:

Where: = angular velocity of the shaft.

R1 = radius of the shaft.

R2 = radius of the cylinder.

T=

4R12

R1

R2

Problem No. 2

Problem No. 5

Problem No. 8

Problem No. 10

Problem No. 4

Problem No. 6

Problem No. 9

Problem No. 11

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