You are on page 1of 5

Science 20

Units C and D Midterm


Multiple Choice Key
1. B

13.

2. B

14.

3. D

15.

B*

4. A

16.

B**

5. B

17.

6. C

18.

7. C

19.

8. D

20.

9. C

21.

10. B

22.

11. A

23.

12. C

24.

Links:
*If MC14 is A, then MC15 is A
B, then MC15 is B
C, then MC15 is C
D, then MC15 is D

**If MC15 is A, then MC16 is C


B, then MC16 is B
C, then MC16 is A
D, then MC16 is A

Numerical Response Key


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

3214
24 (any order)
1245 (any order)
2315
145 (any order)
1236 (any order)

Science 20 2006 Alberta Education (www.education.gov.ab.ca)

Science 20: Midterm

Units C and D: Answer Key

Use the following information to answer the next question.


The extinction of the dinosaurs occurred at the end of the Cretaceous Period.
Circumstances Believed to Have Caused the Extinction of Dinosaurs
Climate Change
Disease
Competition
Short Answer4 marks
1. Define extinction. Describe how an extinction of a species appears within the
fossil record. Select one of the circumstances listed above and briefly explain,
using scientific principles, how it could have contributed to the extinction of the
dinosaurs.
Sample Response
Extinction the termination or death of all members of a species.
In the fossil record there is evidence of many extinctions. The presence of fossils of a
species in lower layers of strata, followed by an absence of its fossils in higher layers
(younger) indicates that the organism no longer existed during the time that layer of
strata was deposited.
Circumstance
Climate
change

Disease

Competition

How it could have contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs.


A change to an abiotic factor, such as climate, would affect biotic
components of the ecosystem, including plants and other species. As
dinosaurs were part of a food chain, any factor that affected a component
of the food chain would affect their population size.
Responses may indicate that climate change may also select for other
populations, including species that competed for the same resource as the
dinosaurs. Due to pressure, the dinosaurs may not have been able to
successfully compete.
Responses may indicate that climate change can result in the occurrence of
certain diseases previously unfamiliar to the area or populations. The
disease may sufficiently stress the population resulting in their extinction.
The occurrence of disease among a population may have caused
considerable stress to effect the ability of the population to maintain its
present size. If reduced in size, the population of dinosaurs may have not
been able to remain competitive within their niche and were further
diminished.
The emergence of other populations into the same niche as the dinosaur
populations may have resulted in severe competition for limited resources.
In the event that the dinosaur populations were not able to compete,
outcompete, or adapt to make use of other resources, an extinction is a
likely result.
Science 20 2006 Alberta Education (www.education.gov.ab.ca)

Science 20: Midterm

Units C and D: Answer Key

Score
4
Standard
of
Excellence

2
Acceptable
Standard

1
0

Scoring Description
The response is well organized and addresses all the major points of the question.
Relevant scientific concepts and examples are identified and interrelationships are
explicit. The descriptions and/or explanations of these concepts are correct, well
organized, and reflect thorough understanding and logical consistency of thought.
The student uses complete sentences that make effective use of scientific vocabulary.
When appropriate, suitable metaphors, similes, diagrams, and/or sketches are used to
illustrate descriptions and/or explanations.
The response is organized and addresses most of the major points of the question.
Relevant scientific concepts and examples are identified and interrelationships are
evident. The descriptions and/or explanations of these concepts are organized and
reflect correct understanding. The student uses complete sentences that employ
correct scientific vocabulary. When appropriate, suitable diagrams or sketches are
used.
The response addresses most major points. Relevant scientific concepts and examples
are identified, and interrelationships are shown. The descriptions and/or explanations
of concepts may be disorganized but demonstrate correct understanding. The
student uses complete sentences but is inconsistent in the use of appropriate scientific
vocabulary, diagrams and sketches.
The response addresses few major points. Concepts are identified, but
interrelationships are not evident. The student superficially describes concepts in
sentences but organizational skills, scientific vocabulary, diagrams and sketches are
minimal.
The response does not address any of the major points of the question at an
appropriate level for a 20-level course.

Science 20 2006 Alberta Education (www.education.gov.ab.ca)

Science 20: Midterm

Units C and D: Answer Key

Use the following information to answer the next question.


A tsunami is a large ocean wave that is created by an undersea earthquake.
The large amount of water that moves in a tsunami, in addition to the large
populations that live near coastlines, results in a very high potential for
destruction and loss of life. To prevent wide-scale destruction, many countries
have a tsunami warning system.
Long Answer8 marks
1. a. Describe the tectonic events that lead to a tsunami.
As the earthquake occurs in the ocean, the response should indicate that is occurs due to
a translation of plates or a subduction, as spreading plates do not result in large
earthquakes. The response may indicate this using specific terminology by description,
or by diagram. The movement of the crust that occurs in the undersea earthquakes and
deforms its structure pushes the water lying above it, resulting in the formation of the
tsunami.
b. Describe the process used by scientists to identify the location and magnitude
of an undersea earthquake.
Data from a minimum of three seismic stations is used. The seismic traces from these
stations are analyzed to determine the time when both P- and S-waves are detected, and
the lag time between the arrival of the two waves. As both these waves travel with
distinct, but different speeds, the lag time is used to determine the distance the seismic
station is from the location of the earthquake. Using three seismic stations, provides the
ability to triangulate the distances and determine a location where the three distances
intersect, the point of intersection being the epicentre. The magnitude of the S-wave, in
combination with the distance from the epicentre, can be used to determine the
magnitude of the earthquake.
c. Explain the importance of knowing both the location and the magnitude of an
undersea earthquake to the development of a tsunami warning system.
Knowing the location of an undersea earthquake, provides a means to determine in which
direction a tsunami may travel and what areas may be affected. As part of a warning
system, this provides information about who should be notified and possibly evacuated.
Knowing the magnitude would provide information as to how large the tsunami wave
may be, and the expected level of flooding and area to be affected. As part of a warning
system, it would assist in determining the number of people that should be notified and
evacuated and to where they should be evacuated.

Science 20 2006 Alberta Education (www.education.gov.ab.ca)

Science 20: Midterm

Units C and D: Answer Key

d. List some advantages and some disadvantages of a warning system for


tsunamis. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages listed, and state your
opinion as to whether countries that are positioned beside oceans should invest
in tsunami warning systems.
Advantages
Ability to warn and evacuate people to save
lives
Time to activate safety measures to prevent
flooding (if developed)
Economic benefits resulting from
development, construction, and maintenance
of the systems
Scientific research would continue into
learning more about these events, and possible
prediction of the timing of the events
Continued development of technology based
on scientific findings

Disadvantages
May create high levels of panic that may harm
more people than the tsunami would have.
Flood prevention/evacuation measures may
have an adverse effect on the environment.
Equity who will be warned? Will they all
have the same opportunity to access safe
areas?
Cost for development of the system is high,
given these are rare events
Even if the warning system works, will there
be adequate time and organization to enable
anyone to access safe areas?

Responses should demonstrate an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages listed,


and make a supported conclusion consistent with the evaluation.
Score
4
Standard
of
Excellence

2
Acceptable
Standard

Scoring Description
The response is well organized and addresses all the major points of the question.
Relevant scientific, technological, and/or societal concepts and examples are identified
and interrelationships are explicit. The descriptions and/or explanations of these
concepts are correct, well organized, and reflect thorough understanding and
logical consistency of thought. Advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly
evaluated. Insightful and convincing arguments are used to support a decision or
judgment, and a range of viewpoints is considered.
The response is organized and addresses most of the major points of the question.
Relevant scientific, technological, and/or societal concepts and examples are
identified and interrelationships are evident. The descriptions and/or explanations of
these concepts are organized and reflect correct understanding. Advantages and
disadvantages are evaluated. Clear and logical arguments are used to support a
decision or judgment, and alternative points of view are considered.
The response addresses most major points. Relevant scientific, technological, and/or
societal concepts and examples are identified, and interrelationships are shown. The
descriptions and/or explanations of concepts may be disorganized but demonstrate
correct understanding. Advantages and disadvantages are listed. Logical arguments
are used to support a decision or judgment, and polar points of view are considered
The response addresses few major points. Concepts are identified, but
interrelationships are not evident. Few Advantages and disadvantages are listed.
Poorly formed arguments are used to support a decision or judgment, and only one
point of view is considered.
The response does not address any of the major points of the question at an
appropriate level for a 20-level course.

Science 20 2006 Alberta Education (www.education.gov.ab.ca)

Science 20: Midterm

Units C and D: Answer Key