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ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE (X7Q)

No.
1.

NAME
Syavira A. Alatas

NPM
- 201212579049

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM


FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ART
UNIVERSITY OF INDRAPRASTA PGRI
2016

A. The Origins of ESP


ESP was not a planned and coherent movement, but rather a phenomenon that grew out of a number of
converging trends.
1. The demands of a Brave New World
Since the end of the Second World War in 1945 English was the key to the international currencies
of technology and commerce. It created a new generation of learners who knew specifically why
they were learning a language. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now
became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language-teacher.
2. A revolution in linguistics
Traditionally the aim of linguistics had been to describe the rules of English usage, that is, the
grammar. The language we speak and write varies considerably, and in a number of different ways,
from one context to another and it should be possible to determine the features of specific situation
and then make these features the basis of the learners course. In short, The English needed by a
particular group of learners could be identified by analyzing the linguistic characteristics of their
specialist are of work and study.
3. Focus on the learner
Learners were seen to have different needs and interest. The clear relevance of the English course
to their needs would improve the learners motivation and thereby make learning better and faster.
The growth of WSP then was brought about by a combination of three important factors:
1) The expansion of demand for English to suit particular needs.
2) Developments in the fields of linguistics.
3) Educational psychology.

B. ESP: Approach not product


In the time-honored manner of linguistics, we shall represent the relationship between ESP and ELT in
the form of a tree (see Figure 1). The tree represents some of the common divisions that are made in
ELT. As we can see that ESP is just one branch of EFL which is the main branch of ELT. But, of course
there is more to a tree than is visible above ground: a tree cannot survive without roots.
The Analogy of a tree can help us to get a bit closer to a definition of ESP not so much by showing what
ESP is, but rather by showing what ESP isnt,
a) ESP is not a matter of teaching specialized varieties of English.
b) ESP is not just a matter of Science words and grammar for scientists.
c) ESP is not different in kind from any other form of language teaching in that is should be based in
the first instance on principles of effective and efficient learning.

Figure 1

C. Course Design
From previous section we can say that ESP is an approach to language teaching which aims to meet the
needs of particular learners. ESP teacher will concerned with designing appropriate courses for various
group of learners, and course design is often a substantial and important part of the workload. We shall
investigate more thoroughly by considering them under three main questions:
1. WHAT? Language description,
1) Classical or traditional grammar
2) Structural linguistics
3) Transformational Generative (TG) grammar
4) Language variation and register analysis
5) Functional/Notional Grammar
6) Discourse (Rhetorical analysis)
All communication has a structural level, a functional level and a discoursal level. They are not mutually
exclusive, but complementary, and each may have its place in the ESP course.
2. HOW? Theories of learning,
1) Behaviorism: learning as habit formation
2) Mentalism: thinking as rule governed activity
3) Cognitive code: learners as thinking beings
4) The affective factor: learners as emotional beings
5) Learning and acquisition
6) A model for learning
It is wise to take an eclectic approach, taking what is useful from each theory. It is probable that there
are cognitive, affective and behaviorist aspects to learning and each can be a resource to the ESP
practitioner. For example; we can use cognitive approach to teaching of grammar.
3. WHO? WHY? WHERE? WHEN? Need analysis.
1) What are target needs?
2) A target situation analysis framework
3) Learning Needs
4) Analyzing learning needs
Most of all, we have tried to stress that both target situation needs and learning needs must be
language use. But we also need to know about language learning. Analysis of the target situation can tell
us what people do with language. And what we also need to know is how people learn to do what they
do with language. The data of a needs analysis can be used to design an effective ESP course and as a
teacher we need a learning-centered approach to do the needs analysis. A learning-centered approach is
an approach with the avowed aim of maximizing the potential of the learning situation but we shall look
at how the approach can be applied to the construction of a syllabus and to the evaluation, design and
teaching of materials.

D. Syllabus
The teaching/learning process is a complex and dynamic process, with all the various factors influencing
each other. A syllabus is a document which says what will (or at least what should) be learnt. There are
several different ways in which a syllabus can be defined.
1. The evaluation syllabus; it states what the successful learner will know by the end of the course.
2. The organizational syllabus; is an implicit statement about the nature of language and of learning.
3. The materials syllabus; a straight forward statement of what is to be learnt with some indication of
the order in which the items should be learnt.
4. The teacher syllabus; an interpretation that comes through the teacher.
5. The classroom syllabus: it is a dynamic, interactive, environment, which affects the nature both of
what is thought and what is learnt. The classroom can generate its own syllabus.
6. The learner syllabus; it is a retrospective record of what has been learnt rather than a prospective
plan of that will be learnt.
Syllabus is an important document but we also need to know that a syllabus can never be more than a
statement of a an ideal teaching, it cannot express the intangible factors that are so crucial like
emotions, personalities, motivation, etc., and the syllabus cannot take account of individual differences.
Material evaluation is one way of exploiting a course design. Even if you decide to write your own
materials, the evaluation of existing materials can provide a good source of ideas and techniques. There
is no absolute good or bad in evaluation, only degrees of fitness for the require purpose and the
materials writers can learn a lot from this. ESP teachers may well be taken up in writing materials for
many reasons such as a teacher or institution may wish to provide teaching materials that will fit the
specific subject area of particular learners.

E. Methodology
Method is described as an overall plan for systematic presentation of
language based upon a selected approach. Meanwhile Approach itself is a
set of correlative assumption dealing with nature of language teaching and
learning. And technique is implementation, which must be consistent along
with a method.
There is a view technique which can help to make the ESP classroom a
livelier, more enjoyable and thus more effective environment for both
learner and teacher. There are a number of simple techniques which can be applied to almost any lesson
in teaching ESP; Gaps, Variety, Prediction, Enjoyment, An Integrated Methodology, Coherence,
Preparation, Involvement, Creativity. But still that we must know that there is nothing specific about ESP
methodology and the activities in the classroom should feedback to all the other stages in the course
design, so if you can create a useful activity by changing a text, change it.

F. Evaluation
Evaluation can fulfill two functions assessment and feedback. Assessment
is a matter of measuring what the learners already know. But any
assessment should also provide positive feedback to inform teachers and
learners about what is still not known, thus providing important input to the
content and methods of future work. Evaluation will also help us to assess
how well the needs that have created the demand for a course are being
served.
A demand was generated as a result for courses which would equip particular learners with the
necessary skills to carry out particular tasks in English (or any other specified language). Two levels of
evaluation have thus been brought into prominence:
1. Learner assessment; it helps to asses student performance at strategic points in the course, for
example at the beginning and at the end.
1) Placement tests / measurement
2) Achievement tests / measurement
3) Proficiency tests / measurement
2. Course evaluation; it helps to assess whether the course objectives are being met-whether the
course, in other words, is doing what was designed to do. Four main aspects of ESP course
evaluation to be considered are;
1) What should be evaluated? The syllabus, the materials, the techniques, etc.
2) How can ESP courses be evaluated? Test results, questionnaires, discussions, interviews, etc.
3) Who should be involved in the evaluation? Teacher, learners, the course sponsors.
4) When (and how often) should evaluation take place? In the first week, at regular intervals,
at the end of the course, etc.
Evaluation of the learners is unlikely to indicate exactly where a fault lies, but it will at least indicate the
existence of a fault somewhere. Course and learner evaluation have a similar function in providing
feedback on the ESP course. However, each type of evaluation also has other purpose and procedures.

G. The Role of The ESP Teacher


There are important practical ways in which the work of the GE teacher and the ESP teacher differ. First,
the ESP teacher will have to deal with need analysis, syllabus design, material writing or adaptation and
evaluation. Second, the great majority of ESP teachers have not been trained as such. They need,
therefore to orientate themselves to a new environment for which they have generally been illprepared.

Quiz of ESP
1. Draw the ESP tree diagram

2. What do you know about ESP


ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the
learners reason for learning.
3. What is language description
Language description is a brief outline of the various ideas about language that have influenenced ESP in some
way.
4. There are some theories of learning, mention and explain briefly
Theories of learning:
1) Behaviorism: learning as habit formation means is a mechanical process of habit which is informed on the
stimulus response sequence
2) Mentalism: thinking as rule governed activity means the mind doesnt just respond to a stimulus but to find
the underlying pattern or system.
3) Cognitive code: learners as thinking beings means in learning ESP the learners thinking about and trying to
make sense of what they see, feel, and hear.
4) The affective factor: learners as emotional beings means in affective factor it has thinking and feeling. The
learning of a language is an emotional experience.
5) Learning and acquisition means learning is a conscious process.
6) A model for learning means besides to acquire knowledge we need to enjoy the process of acquisition.
5. Explain briefly about needs analysis
Analysis of the target situation can tell us what people do with language. And what we also need to know is how
people learn to do what they do with language. The data of a needs analysis can be used to design an effective
ESP course
6. Mention and explain about the stage of material evaluation
Material evaluation is one way of exploiting a course design. And we can divide the evaluation process into four
major steps;
1. Defining criteria, on what bases will you judge materials? And which criteria will be more important?
2. Subjective analysis, what realizations of the criteria do you want in your course?
3. Objective analysis, how does the material being evaluated realize the criteria?
4. Matching, how far does the material match your needs

ESP 2016/2017 Executive Class


1. The purpose of learning ESP is because English become the accepted international language of technology and
commerce, it created a new generation of learners why they were learning language; businessman who want to
sell their products, mechanics who had to read instruction manuals, doctors who needed to keep up with the
development in their field, they knew why they needed it.
2. GE vs. ESP
There are important practical ways in which the work of the GE teacher and the ESP teacher differ. The differ
significantly from more traditional humanities-based General English. First, the ESP teacher will have to deal with
need analysis, syllabus design, material writing or adaptation and evaluation. Second, the great majority of ESP
teachers have not been trained as such. They need, therefore to orientate themselves to a new environment for
which they have generally been ill-prepared.
3. The six Kiplings Honest Men Theory
1) Behaviorism: learning as habit formation means is a mechanical process of habit which is informed on the
stimulus response sequence
2) Mentalism: thinking as rule governed activity means the mind doesnt just respond to a stimulus but to find
the underlying pattern or system.
3) Cognitive code: learners as thinking beings means in learning ESP the learners thinking about and trying to
make sense of what they see, feel, and hear.
4) The affective factor: learners as emotional beings means in affective factor it has thinking and feeling. The
learning of a language is an emotional experience.
5) Learning and acquisition means learning is a conscious process.
6) A model for learning means besides to acquire knowledge we need to enjoy the process of acquisition.
4. Syntagmatic structures in structural linguistics
In structural description, the grammar of the language is description in terms of syntagmatic structure which
carry the fundamental proposition (statement, interrogative, negative, imperative) and notions (time, number,
gender).
5. Performance vs. competence
We need to make a distinction between the performance and the competence. Noam Chomsky made a
distinction between performance (surface structure) and competence (the deep level rules).
6. Behaviorism vs. cognitive code
Behaviorism means the techniques of learning by drill and making a pattern because as we know practice makes
perfect meanwhile the cognitive code teaching technique is based on theory of the language learning problem
solving task, it concentrated on making students aware of their reading strategies so that they can consciously
apply them to understand texts in a foreign language.
7. Lacks, Needs, & Wants (need analysis)
Necessities is the type of need determined by the demand of target situation. What the learner have to
know in order to function effectively in the target situation. (For Ex: a businessmen might need to
understand business letters so she need to know linguistic feature.
Lack is what the learner know already, it might the lack of reading, vocabulary, etc.
Wants is what the learner will do with the language learnt

8. Kinds of motivation according to Gardner & Lambert


Gardner & Lambert identified two forms of motivation:
Instrumental motivation is the reflection of an external need. The learners are not learning a language
because they want to but rather because they need to.
Integrative motivation is derives from the desire on the part of the learners to be members of the speech
community that uses a particular language.
9. Skill Centered Approach & Learning-centered approach
A skill-centered approach aims to get away from the surface performance data and look at the competence that
underlies the performance. It approaches the learner as user of language rather than as a learner of language.
Learning centered approach is based on the principle that learning is totally determined by the learner. Teacher
can influence but what learners learn is determined by the learners alone.
10. Kinds of Syllabus Evaluation and Teacher syllabus
1. The evaluation syllabus; it states what the successful learner will know by the end of the course. It would be
impossible to produce an evaluation syllabus without having a view of what language is and thus how it can
be broken down.
2. The teacher syllabus; an interpretation that comes through the teacher. The teacher can influence the
clarity, intensity, and frequency of any item, and thereby affect the image that the learners receive.