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Position analysis of slider crank mechanism

Position analysis of slider crank mechanism

Theory

Learning objectives
After completing this simulation experiment one should be able to

Determine the location of the piston of a reciprocating engine or compressor at


any given crank angle, for a given crank and connecting rod length
Determine the swing angle of connecting rod of a slider crank mechanism

Determine the minimum bore diameter required for a given

Explain the effect of

ratio

ratio

Basic theory is given under different subsections in the same document.


Slider crank mechanism
analysis
Inversions
Fourth inversion

Position analysis
First inversion

Velocity analysis
Second inversion

Acceleration
Third inversion

Slider Crank Mechanism


The slider-crank mechanism is one of the most useful mechanisms in modern technology since it
appears in most of the internal combustion engines including automobiles, trucks and small engines.
The slider-crank kinematic chain consists of four bodies linked with three cylindrical joints and one
sliding or prismatic joint. It is used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into
circular motion.

Figure 1: Slider Crank

The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm attached to it. Attached to the end of
the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a connecting rod. The end of the rod attached to the
crank moves in a circular motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear
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sliding motion, in and out.

Position Analysis

Figure 2: Slider Crank system with offset

Figure 1 shows a slider-crank mechanism in which the stroke-line of the slider doesnt pass
through the axis of rotation of the crank. 3 in clockwise direction from x-axis is taken as
negative.
Then,

And

Where,

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Position analysis of slider crank mechanism

Velocity Analysis

Let be the velocity of the slider, and 3 be the angular velocity of the coupler link. Then,
from the data gleaned from the position analysis and the crank velocity, 2, we have

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Acceleration Analysis

Differentiating the earlier equations from velocity analysis, we end up with the acceleration
data of the slider crank. With the prior knowledge of the angular acceleration of the crank, 2,
the parameters such as the linear acceleration of the slider, , and the angular acceleration of
the coupler, 3.

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Inversions

Figure 3: Inversions

Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions.
A slidercrank chain has the following inversions: 1. First inversion (i.e., Reciprocating engine and compressor)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted lever mechanism)
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump)
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First Inversion
In this type of inversion CE is held fixed and A rotates around C along a circle and B slides back and
forth along CE.

Figure 4: First Inversion

Figure 5: Reciprocating Engine

This is the most common type of inversion. It is used in reciprocating engine and compressor.
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Second Inversion
In this type of inversion C and A are both held fixed and the link CE rotates in a circle
around C. The slider B slides back and forth along the rotating CE.

Figure 6: Second Inversion

Whitworth Quick-Return Mechanism


In this inversion of the slider-crank the slider guide link is made to rotate. This is called a quick-return
mechanism. This linkage also converts rotary motion of the crank into oscillatory angular motion of
the slider guide link. This mechanism is used in shaper machine tools for cutting metals. Joseph
Whitworth was a 19th century British engineer and inventor.

Figure 7: Whitworth Quick-Return Mechanism

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Third Inversion
In this type of inversion A and B are both held fixed but the slider is allowed to swivel.

Figure 8: Third Inversion

Figure 9: Oscillating Cylinder

The oscillating cylinder engine is a form of a slider-crank mechanism. This mechanism is used often in door
damper mechanisms. In the 19th century the oscillating cylinder was used on steam locomotives.

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Fourth Inversion
In this type of inversion the slider B is held fixed and CE slides back and forth through the slider.

Figure 10: Fourth Inversion

Example: Hand pump


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