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The Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and Reading

Comprehension Achievement of the Third Grade Students of

Senior High School Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang

A Research Proposal
Nabella Dwi Meilinda



The Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and Reading

Comprehension Achievement of the Third Grade Students of
Senior High School Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang
A Research Proposal
Nabella Dwi Meilinda (13250054)

1.1. Background
English as a foreign language in Indonesia is considered to be the most important
language among other foreign language. It has been used by people around the world (Retno,
Wiwiek, Sugeng, 2013). English has become more important for all aspects, for example in
business, science, technology, and surely education. This fact leads Indonesian people to
learn English, and even the government has put English as a compulsory subject included in
the curriculum.
According to the school based (KTSP) curriculum, the aim of learning English for
senior high school students is to develop their ability to communicate in English in oral and
written form which includes speaking, reading, listening and writing. Based on Kustaryo (as
cited in Sinambela, Manik, Pagaribuan, 2015), reading is one of the most important skills in
learning a language besides listening, writing and speaking. skill. Nowadays, reading is the
most important skill that every language learner and most people need to know. People read
texts for different purposes from getting information to pleasure. It helps students of English
as a foreign or second language to become acquainted with the subject area of their field of
study and also improve their knowledge of the language (Salehi, Lari & Rezanejad, 2014).

The fundamental goal for any reading activity is knowing enough science concepts and
knowing the language. To Indonesia students this is a bridge to understand scientific books
that they read.
Based on the GBPP, the purpose teach and learn English for senior high school in
Indonesia are 1) understanding the text and 2) understanding with speaking (Departemen
Pendidikan Nasioanl Republik Indonesia 2006). Beside that, the main point of learn English
is passing grade in nasional examination (UN). In nasional examination the students should
answer 35 questions about reading and 15 questions about listening.
Reading with comprehension means understanding what has been read. Comprehension
involves understanding the vocabulary seeing the relationship among words and concepts,
organizing idea, recognizing authors purpose, making judgment and evaluating. Word
important factor in determining the degree of comprehension (Sinambela, Manik, Pagaribuan,
2015). According to Alfassi (as cited in Zare & Othman, 2013), research studies on reading
comprehension have revealed that reading is a complex cognitive activity that is crucial for
adequate functioning and for obtaining information in current society and requires an
integration of memory and meaning construction. Reading with comprehension means
understanding what has been read. Comprehension involves understanding the vocabulary
seeing the relationship among words and concepts, organizing idea, recognizing authors
purpose, making judgment and evaluating. Word important factor in determining the degree
of comprehension. Reading is one of the important aspects in the process of learning a
language because when students read, they can add out knowledge and information from the
reading text. But students in some countries around the world still have problem in reading.
Based on World Data on Education, 7th edt, 2010/11, Indonesia students still rank low
on international standardized tests. In 2007, Indonesia ranked 48 out of 56 countries in
reading. According to Program for International Assessment (PISA) in 2009, Indonesian

students score was below the OECD average which was on the 57 th ranks out of 65 countries.
In the next 3 years, the result is worse than 2009, the percentage of 15-years-old student
performing at PISA reading literacy proficiency levels 5 and above and below level 2 of
Indonesia in 2012 is in 64th out of 65thcountries. Many factors cause the phenomenon problem
of this students poor reading achievement. Based on observation by Hasanah (2013) she
noticed that the eighth graders of SMP N 1 Alian, Kebumen had difficulties to comprehend
and understand the content of the reading text. When their understanding were checked by the
teacher after reading time, the students could not answer because they did not get the point of
what they read in advance, even the particular information from the text. Based on the
interview by Hervin (2015) when he did an interview with the English teacher of SMAN 8
Palembang and he found that there were various scores for the 11 th grade students English
achievement, including reading as one of the aspects, there were about 20% of students had
scores above standard (KKM), 40% had scores on standard and 40% had scores below the
Todays ideas of education focus on learner autonomy. Students are supposed to be
responsible for their own learning and should be aware to their strengths and weaknesses.
Multiple Intelligences theory is one of the theories in the field of education nowadays
introduced by Gardner. In the theory, Gardner in Hasanah (2013) rejects the notion of single
intelligence; there are a lot of human abilities called Human Intelligences. Gardners ideas
show us that students may learn in different way. Therefore it is necessary to have a variety
approach and activities. Therefore, the writer is interested in knowing whether or not their
multiple intelligences are one of the reasons which made it happen.
According to Gardner (as cited in Sayed, 2008), each of these multiple intelligences is
linked to an independent system in the brain. All human beings possess different intelligences
in varying degrees and each individual manifests varying levels of these different in-

telligences and thus each person has a unique cognitive profile; that is, a) all human possess
all different intelligences in varying amounts; b) each individual has a different composition
of intelligences; c) different intelligences are located in different areas of the brain; d) by
applying Multiple Intelligences we can improve education; and e) these intelligences may
define human species. Moreover, although the eight basic types of intelligence are presented
individually, Gardner suggests that these separate intelligences do not operate in isolation.
Normally, any activity encompasses several kinds of intelligence together.
A summary of Gardners eight intelligences is as follows: Linguistic/ verbal






Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal

Intelligence, Naturalistic Intelligence. Multiple intelligence is a theory that was developed to
show a fact that human beings have very different kinds of intelligences and that these are
very important in learning and expressing things in their minds. A former study had been
conducted related to multiple intelligence.
Based on observation by Hervin (2015), the relationship between multiple
intelligences and reading achievement of the eleventh grade students of Sma Negeri 8
palembang. His finding was that first, the tendency of students multiple intelligence was
mostly on intrapersonal intelligence and reading skill of students as whole is low consulted
to the reading comprehension achievement result. Second, there was no significant
correlation between the multiple intelligences and reading comprehension achievement and it
had very weak correlation according to the degree of correlation coefficient from the
interpretation. Third, there was contribution of the multiple intelligences to the students
reading comprehension achievement. Although the contribution was relatively small which
was 19.2% and the most significant intelligence was Logical-Mathematics which was 8.7%,
the multiple intelligences could be considered to determine the students reading

comprehension achievement. Other determinations may come from other factors such as
students reading habit, reading skill, reading strategies, vocabulary knowledge, and
background knowledge.
According to Himayana (2006), correlated the senior high school students multiple
intelligence and their English achievement. Her finding was that from 48 students who have
logical-mathematical intelligence, 9 of them got lower score, 18 got average score, 16 of
them got good score, and 5 of them got excellent score. It can be seen that the students who
got better good score are the ones having logical-mathematical Intelligence. Besides, Saputri
(2008) also correlated the multiple intelligence to the sixth grader students at an elementary
school. Her finding was that there were five intelligences that mostly appear. They were
linguistics, logical, spatial, musical, and interpersonal intelligences. Furthermore, she also
found that the students who have logical-mathematical intelligence tend to have a good
English achievement.
Based on all the descriptions above the writer would like to conduct a research entitled
The Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and Reading Achievement of the Third
Grade Students of SMA Muhammadyah 1 Palembang. The reason for the writer to choose
this title because the writer would like to figure out whether there was any relationship
between multiple intelligences and reading comprehension achievement of the third grade
students at SMA Muhammadyah 1 Palembang. It is essential to obtain and correlate the
information in order to solve the problem in students reading achievement later on.


Research Problem
1 Is there any significant correlation between multiple intelligences and reading
achievement of the third grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang?

How much do multiple intelligences contribute to reading achievement of the third

grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang?

Which type of multiple intelligences significantly influences reading achievement of

the third grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang?


Research Objectives
If there is any significant correlation between multiple intelligences and reading

achievement of the third grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang.

If there is the contribution of multiple intelligences to reading achievement of the

third grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang.

Which type of intelligences of the third grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1
Palembang which singnificantly influences their reading achviement.


The Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the students especially for the third grade students of SMA

Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang will develop their reading comprehension achievement by

knowing their multiple intelligences. Then, this result will be give positive impact for the
teachers and the teachers will find the others strategy to improve students reading
comprehension achievement . Moreover, for the reseacher will know how important multiple
intellegence for students. Finally, this study can be one of the sources of information for
further study.

The Concepts of Reading
Reading is one of four skills in language. Reading is an activity to comprehend some
information in written language. According to Pang ( as cited on Hasanah, 2013), reading
consists of two related processes, word recognition and comprehension. Word comprehension
refers to the process of perceiving how written symbols correspond to spoken language and
comprehension refers to the process of making sense of words, sentences, and connected text.
When we read, we must understand the implicit and explicit meaning from the text. Misa
(2014) states that reading is a complex, interactive process, using basic skills and advanced
strategies to make meaning. It is obvious that in reading activities, we make a communication
with the writer by activating our prior knowledge and drawing a conclusion of the writers
ideas into our own so that it will help us understand what the writer meant.
When we begin to read, we actually have a number of initial decisions to make, and we
usually make these decisions very quickly, almost unconsciously in most cases. Most of
people read for general comprehension. Here we might read a novel, short story, a newspaper
article or a report of some type to understand the information in the text, to be entertained and
to use the information for a particular purpose. Cadlin and Hall (as cited in Sinambela,
Manik, Pagaribuan, 2015) state that there are purposes of reading, they are:


Reading to search for simple information and reading to skim.

Reading to learn to texts.
Reading to integrated information, write and critique texts.
Reading for general information.

The concepts of Reading Comprehension

According to Sinambela, Manik, Pagaribuan (2015), reading with comprehension

means understanding what has been read. Comprehension involves understanding the
vocabulary seeing the relationship among words and concepts, organizing idea, recognizing
authors purpose, making judgment and evaluating. Word important factor in determining the
degree of comprehension. According to Heilman (as cited in Sinambela, Manik, Pagaribuan,
2015), reading is a process of making sense of written ideas through meaningful
interpretation interaction with language. A good reader is one who understands what he reads,
and the faster he able to get meaning from his reading the more efficient he is. The rate of
comprehension needs to be adjusted to the purpose of reading skills, and like skill
development in any area, reading rate can be improved with training and with practice.
From the statement, it is clearly stated that comprehension or understanding in every
reading activity is an important part of skill learning. The student must be able to read a text
consisting of many sentences and select the main idea to which all the sentences refer. After
the reader is able to comprehend what the most important thought is, he needs to be able to
identify the details that support the main idea. He must think about what he reads in order to
interpret meaning as well as to get the factual information given.
There are four levels of reading comprehension by Burns. The following levels of
comprehension can tell us about how far the students understand about reading material and
which level has been achieved.

Literal Comprehension
Literal comprehension involves acquiring information that is directly stated, the basic

of literal comprehension is recognizing stated the main idea, detailed caused effect and
sequence. It is also prerequisite for higher-level understanding. The important in this level is
understanding of vocabulary, sentence meaning, and paragraph meaning.

Interpretative Comprehension

Interpretative comprehension involves reading between the lines or making inferences.

It is the process of deriving ideas that are implied rather than directly stated. Skills for
interpretative reading include:
1. Inferring main ideas of passages in which the main ideas are not directly stated
2. Inferring cause-effect relationships when they are not directly stated
3. Inferring referents of pronouns
4. Inferring referent of adverbs
5. Inferring omitted words
6. Detecting mood
7. Detecting the authors purpose in writing
8. Drawing conclusion.

Critical Comprehension
Critical comprehension is evaluating written material comparing the ideas discovered in

the material with known standards and drawing conclusion about their accuracy,
appropriateness, and timeliness. The critical reader must be an active reader, questioning,
searching for facts, and suspending judgment until he or she has considered all of the
material. Critical reading depends upon literal comprehension, and grasping implied ideas is
especially important.

Creative Comprehension
Creative comprehension involves going beyond the material presented by the author. It

requires reader to think as they read, just as critical reading does and it also requires them to
use their imaginations. Through creative reading the reader creates something new idea, the
solution to a problem, a new way of looking at something from the ideas gleaned from the


The Concepts of Multiple Intelligences

According to Gardner, an intelligence is an ability to solve the problems, to create

products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. The theory of Multiple
Intelligences, first was introduced by Gardner, explains the concept of intelligence that there
is no general intelligence, but rather that each person has at least eight distinct intelligences
which can be developed throughout his/her lifetime.
Gardner in Armstrong (2009, p. 32) defines intelligence as an ability to solve the
problems and create the product with the culture value. After researching some kind of
abilities, competencies, and skills used in the whole world, Gardner advocates that there are
at least eight intelligences that need to be considered:
1. Linguistic Intelligence
It is the capacity to use words effectively, whether orally (e.g., as a story teller,
orator, or politician) or in writing (e.g., as a poet, playwright, editor, or journalist).
This intelligence includes the ability to manipulate the syntax or structure of
language, the phonology or sounds of language, the semantics or meanings of
language, and the pragmatic dimensions or practical uses of language. Some of these
uses include rhetoric (using language to convince others to take a specific course of
action), mnemonics (using language to remember information), explanation (using
language to inform), and meta-language (using language to talk about itself).
2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
It is the capacity to use numbers effectively (e.g., a mathematician, tax
accountant, or statistician) and to reason well (e.g., as a scientist, computer
programmer, or logician). This intelligence includes sensitivity to logical patterns or
relationships, statements and propositions (cause-effect), functions and other related
abstractions. The kinds of processes used in the service of logical-mathematical








calculation and hypothesis testing.

3. Spatial Intelligence
It is the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (e.g., as a hunter,
scout, or guide) and to perform transformations upon those perceptions (e.g., as an
interior decorator, architect, artist, or inventor). This intelligence involves sensitivity
to color, line, shape, form, space, and the relationships that exist between these
elements. It includes the capacity to visualize, to graphically represent visual or
spatial ideas and to orient oneself appropriately in a spatial matrix.
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
It is expertise in using ones whole body to express ideas and feelings (e.g., as
an actor, a mime, an athlete, or a dancer) and facility in using ones hands to produce
or transform things (e.g., as a craftsperson, sculpture, mechanic, or surgeon). This
intelligence includes specific physical skills such as coordination, balance, dexterity,
strength, flexibility, and speed, as well as proprioceptive, tactile and haptic capacities.
5. Musical Intelligence
It is the capacity to perceive (e.g., as a musical aficionado), discriminate (e.g.
as a music critic), transform (e.g., as a composer), and express (e.g., as a performer)
musical forms. This intelligence includes the sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch or
melody, and timbre or tone color of a musical piece. One can have a figural or top
down understanding of music (intuitive), a formal or bottom up understanding
(technical), or both.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
It is the ability to perceive or make distinctions in the moods, intentions,
motivations, and feelings of other people. This can include sensitivity to facial


expressions, voice, and gestures; the capacity for discriminating among many
different kinds of interpersonal cues; and the ability to respond effectively to those
cues in some pragmatic way (e.g., to influence a group of people to follow a certain
line of action).
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
It is self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that
knowledge. This intelligence includes having an accurate picture of oneself (ones
strengths and limitations); awareness of inner moods, intentions, motivations,
temperaments, and desires; and the capacity for self-discipline, self-understanding and
8. Naturalist Intelligence
It is the expertise in the recognition and classification of the numerous species
the flora and faunaof an individuals environment. This also includes sensitivity
to other natural phenomena (e.g., cloud formations, mountains, etc) and, in the case of
those growing up in an urban environment, the capacity to discriminate among
inanimate objects such as cars, sneakers and CD covers.


Table 1. Summary of the Eight Intelligences




Learns best through:


Verbal /


Write, read, tell

Hearing and seeing

Books, tapes,



stories, talk,

words, speaking,

paper diaries,


memorize, work

reading, writing,

writing tools,

dates, thinking

at solving

discussing and debating


in words,



telling stories

debated, stories,


Math, logic,

Question, work

Working with

Things to think


with numbers,

relationships and

about and




patterns, classifying,

explore, science


solve problems

categorizing, working


with the abstract



trips to the
planetarium and
Visual /

Maps, reading

Draw, build,

Working with pictures

museum, etc.
Video, movies,


charts, drawing,

design, create,

and colors, visualizing,

slides, art,

mazes, puzzles,


using the mind's eye,



look at pictures


games, mazes,




illustrated book,
trips to art
museums, etc.

Bodily /


Move around,

Touching, moving,




touch and talk,

knowledge through

drama, things to

crafts, using

body language



sensations, processing



and physical
games, tactile


Picking up

Sing, play an

Rhythm, singing,

learning, etc.
Sing-along time,



melody, listening to

trips to concerts,


listen to

music and melodies

music playing at


music, hum

home and

rhythms, singing


school, musical


Talk to people,

Comparing, relating,

instruments, etc.
Friends, group


have friends,

sharing, interviewing,

games, social


join groups






events, clubs,






Work alone,

Working alone, having

Secret places,

strengths and


space, reflecting, doing

time alone,


pursue interests

self-paced projects



setting goals,



choices, etc.


Be involved

Working in nature,


nature, making


exploring living



nature, make

things, learning about

connections to

identifying flora


plants and natural events

real life and

and fauna

science issues,


Previous Related Study

Armstrong (2003) prioritized MI-theory and paved the path towards efficient reading

comprehension through the eight gates of intelligences. In fact, he approached reading

comprehension beyond the single scope of intelligence endorsed by Howard Gardner (1983)
and his advocates.
A lot of investigations were conducted on the effect of multiple intelligences on
different aspects of language learning, especially reading comprehension.
Based on research by Zarei and Afshar (2014), multiple intelligences as predicators of
reading comprehension and vocabulary knowlegde. They found that the findings indicate that
musical intelligence is the best predictor of both vocabulary and reading comprehension.
Hervin (2015) investigated the relationship between multiple intelligences and reading
achievement of the eleventh grade students of Sma Negeri 8 palembang. His finding that
there was no significant correlation between the multiple intelligences and reading
comprehension achievement and it had very weak correlation according to the degree of
correlation coefficient from the interpretation.


In addition, Mordirkhemane and Azhiri (2012) investigated the effect of multiple

intelligences-based reading task on EFL learners reading comprehension. They found that
the effects of MI-based reading tasks on EFL learners reading comprehension have grand


Hypotheses of the Study

The hypotheses of this study are formulated into the following statements.


: There is no significant relationship between multiple intelligences and


achievement of the third grade students at SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang.


: There is a significant relationship between the multiple intelligences and reading

achievement of the third grade students at SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang.


: There is no type of intelligences of t the third grade students at SMA

Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang which significantly influences their reading


: There is type of intelligences of the third grade students at SMA Muhammadiyah 1

Palembang which significantly influences their reading achievement.



Research Design
In conducting this study, the researcher will use correlation research. According to Mc.
Millan and schumacher (2010, p. 22) correlation design is concerned with assessing
relationship between two or more phenomena. This type of study usually involves a statitical
measure of degree of relationship, called correlation. The relationship measured is a
statement about the degree of association between the variable of interest.
This study has two variables. The two variables in this study are multiple intelligences
and reading achievement. Pearsons Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient will use to find
out the correlation between variable X (Multiple Intelligences) and variable Y (Reading
Achievement). The correlation will measure the relationship between the two variables.

Research Variables
According to Fraenkel et al. (2012, p. 80), a common and useful way to think about

variables is to classify them as independent or dependent. Independent variable is what the

researcher chooses to study in order to assess their possible effect(s) on one or more other
variables. The variable that the independent variable is presumed to affect is called a
dependent variable. In commonsense terms, the dependent variable depends on what the
independent variable does to it, how it affects it. It is possible to investigate more than one
independent (and also more than one dependent) variable in a study. In this study, the
independent variable is the undergraduate EFL students multiple intelligences at SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang, while the dependent variable is their reading comprehension


Operational Definitions


The title of this study is The Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and Reading
Achievement of the Third Grade Students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang.
Correlation refers to a coefficient that describes the degree of relationship between two
variables in this study which are multiple intelligences and reading achievement of the third
grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang in academic year 2016/2017. The
correlation will measure by Pearson Product-Moment Correlation.
Multiple Intelligences refers to theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific
(primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single
general ability. This intelligence will measure by multiple intelligences questionnaire.
Reading achievement refers to the scores that show the students reading
comprehension. Reading achievement in this study will measure by reading test.
Population and Sample
3.4.1. Population
McMillan and Schumacher (2010, p. 489) state Population is a group of individuals or
events from which a sample is drawn and to which results can be generalized. Table 1 below
presents the population of the study consisting of the third grade students of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang in academic year of 2016/2017.
Table 1
Population of Study


Number of students

3.4.2. Sample
Sample refers to groups of individuals from whom data are collected. McMillan and
Schumacher (2010, p. 129) state that in quantitative studies, the selection of the group of
subjects or participants from the population is called sample. Purposive sampling will use in
this study because the writer would like to decide who the sample is. Arikunto (2010, p, 183)
states that this sampling is done by taking the subjects not from the startification, random, or
cluster but based on the specific purpose. It is usually done by some considerations such as
limited time, energy, and fund so that the reseacher does not need to take bigger and wider
In this study, the total number of population was 399 students. The researcher will take
4 classes as the sample. The total number of the sample was 157 students. The students are
representative and informative to be the sample about the topic of writers interest in this
study. Table 2 below shows the sample of the study.
Table 2
Sample of Study



Number of students

Data Collection
This study will use a multiple intelligences questionnaire and a reading comprehension

test as the instruments for collecting the data.

3.5.1. Test


The purpose of the test will find out the reading achievement of the sample in this
study. The students will do the reading comprehension test, the test will try out to non-sample
students with the same characteristics as the sample students. For the time allocation are 60
minutes. They are the third grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang of science classes
(IPA) 4, (IPA) 5 and social class (IPS) 3 with the total number of the participants was 121
students. The reading comprehension test can be seen in Appendix A.
3.5.2. Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a written set of questions or statements that are used to assess attitudes,
opinions, beliefs, and biographical information (McMillan and Schumacher, 2010, p. 489).
Types of items in questionnaire are open and closed forms. In this study, the writer used the
closed form.
McMillan and Schumacher (2010, p. 197) say that closed form items are best for
obtaining demographic information and data that can be categorized easily. The writer uses
the close questionnaire because it is easier to analyze. The writer hopes the respondents can
give their real answers. The writer uses close questionnaire which is a ready-made
questionnaire by Rogers (2011) because it had same context as what the writer measured and
it was already tested in the Asian country (Oman) using English as a foreign language. The
instrument consisted of 56 items, 7 items for each of the eight intelligences. Each item is a
description of one of the multiple intelligences that is manifested in their behaviors, feelings
and attitudes. For each item, the participants will be instructed to choose from 5-level Likert
scale. He had used this scale to indicate their level of agreement with the item concerned. The
questionnaire can be seen in Appendix B.
In this study, the writer will be modified the questionnaire into 4-level Likert scale to
avoid an unknown response which would probably be given by the students and to make an
easy computation for the total score. Furthermore, the statements of the questionnaire will be


translated into Bahasa Indonesia in order to make the students easily give a response to the
statements by making a check list () on the answer sheet.
Validity and Reliability
3.6.1. Validity
To find out the validity of the multiple intelligences questionnaire, the researcher will
be tried out the questionnaire in the others school who have same level as the same samples.
Validity is used to see whether the test measures what it claims to measure. The validity of
the test will be measured with SPSS software version 22.0 using Corrected-Item Total
3.6.2. Reability
The writer will apply Cronbach Alfa formula to obtain the reliability of test. The test
will be tried out by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 22.0. The
total items of the test were 45 items. Johnson and Christensen (2012, p. 340) state that when
used to check reliability of scores, the coefficient should be at least 0.70, preferably higher.
Therefore, the questionnaire will be reliable if the coefficient is 0.70 or higher. Further, to get
the reliability of the reading test, inter-rater reliability will be used. By using Pearson Product
Moment Correlation Coefficient, the reliability of the test can be obtained since the results
from each rater will be correlated.

Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the statistical procedures will be carried out in this study: (1)

Descriptive statistics including minimum and maximum scores, means and standard deviation
was computed to summarize the students responses of the multiple intelligences
questionnaire and reading comprehension test. (2) Pearson correlation will be conducted to
examine the relationship between multiple intelligences and the reading achievements of the
students. (3) Multiple regression analysis will use to see the contribution of each type of
multiple intelligences to reading achievement of the third grade students. The correlation will

be measured the relationship between two variables. The correlation analysis will calculate
with SPSS software version 22.0.


Appendix A
Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire
1. Pilihlah salah satu jawaban yang menurut Anda paling sesuai dengan diri anda dengan
memberi tanda ( ) pada salah satu kolom di bawah ini :
Jarang = 1, Kadang-Kadang = 2, Biasanya = 3, Hampir Selalu = 4.
2. Jika salah melakukan pengisian coretlah jawaban yang salah dan kemudian gantilah dengan
jawaban yang baru dengan cara memberi tanda ( ) pada pilihan anda.
3. Jawablah dengan sejujurnya dan yakinlah tidak ada jawaban yang terlewatkan.









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Saya memiliki perasaan yang baik
untuk menentukan arah utara, selatan
dan sebagainya
Saya memiliki keterampilan dalam
menggunakan sesuatu seperti gunting,
palu, kuas cat, jarum rajut, pisau
bedah, tang, mainan dan sebagainya
Pemahaman diri saya membantu
dalam membuat keputusan yang bijak
dalam hidup
Saya dapat mempengaruhi orang lain
untuk mempercayai, melakukan, atau
kepercayaan saya
Saya dilahirkan sebagai naturalis, dan
selalu memiliki ketertarikan yang
tinggi pada alam, dimanapun dan
kapanpun saya bisa.
Saya akurat secara gramatikal dan
Saya senang menggubah atau
membuat musik atau ritme
Saya teliti dan ragu-ragu dalam
menerima fakta, argumentasi, alasan
dan prinsip
Saya handal dalam menyatuan puzzle
dan membaca instruksi, pola atau
Saya ahli dalam aktivitas fisik seperti
memanjat, dan lainnya.
Kemampuan saya untuk memahami
emosi diri membantu saya baik dalam
menghadapi berbagai situasi
Saya sangat ingin terlibat dalam
profesi yang sangat membantu seperti
mengajar, therapis, atau konseling
atau untuk terlibat dalam politik atau
ke-pemimpinan keagamaan.
Saya sangat tertarik pada segala hal
mengenai peternakan, berkebun,
menangkapikan, dan berkebun
Saya dapat menggunakan kata-kata
lisan dan tulisan untuk mempengaruhi













orang lain secara efektif

Saya senang menampilkan musik
seperti menyanyi atau memainkan
instrumen pada khalayak
Saya membutuhkan penjelasan saintis
dari suatu realita fisik
Saya dapat menggunakan grafik dan
peta dengan mudah dan akurat
Saya terampil layaknya seorang ahli
tukang kayu, dan perakit
Saya sadar mengenai kompleksitas
perasaan saya sendiri, emosi, dan
keyakinan pada berbagai keadaan
dapat berperan menjadi
perantara efektif dalam membantu
penyelesaian masalah orang lain
Saya tertarik pada pelajaran yang
berkaitan dengan oseanografi,botani,
entomologi, herpetologi, ornitologi,
dan zoologi
Saya sensitif terhadap suara, ritme,
perubahan nada, dan rima, khususnya
yang ditemukan dalam puisi
Saya memiliki rasa yang kuat
terhadap ritme musik
Saya sangat ingin menjadi ahli kimia,
engineer, ahli fisika, astronom atau
ahli matematika
Saya dapat menghasilkan gambaran
visual yang jelas dalam gambar,
lukisan, pahatan, sketsa, atau peta.
Saya mengurangi stres atau mencari
hiburan dengan aktivitas fisik seperti
hiking, bermain kano, berjalan santai,
berolahraga, atau bersepeda
Jiwa saya dalah sumber utama
kekuatan, perbaikan dan motivasi.
memotivasi orang lain bahkan ketika
mereka mencoba me-nyembunyikan
Sebagai seorang anak, saya kagum
pada serangga, tanaman, burung,
daun, cicak, kumbang, siput dan
sebagianya di alam sekitar
Saya senang membaca dimanapun
dan kapanpun













Saya memiliki rasa yang kuat

terhadap nada musikal
Saya menemukan kepuasan personal
terhadap sesuatu yang berhubungan
dengan angka
Saya dapat melihat pola dan
hubungan dengan pikiran. Saya dapat
mengingat, mem-bayangkan dan
terlihat atau kemungkinannya pada
Saya memiliki reflek fisik yang cepat
dan akurat serta merespon dengan
hiburan, permainan, tarian dan
Saya percaya terhadap pendapat
sendiri dan tidak dapat dengan mudah
terpengaruh oleh orang lain
Saya nyaman dan yakin bergaul
dengan kelompok orang dalam
berbagai keadaan
Saya memiliki keahlian dalam
berkebun dan sering menjadi
narasumber bagi orang lain yang
peduli terhadap lingkungan
Bahasa tubuh saya merupakan
Saya terpengaruh secara emosional
dan intelektual oleh berbegai jenis
musik pada waktu yang berbeda
Saya lebih menyukai pertanyaan
dengan jawaban benar dan salah
yang pasti
Saya dapat memperkirakan jarak dan
ukuran secara akurat
Saya dapat membidik dengan tepat
ketika melempar bola, bola voli, tenis
dan sebagainya
Perasaan, keyakinan, sikap, dan
emosi saya adalah tanggung jawab
Saya memiliki lingkaran besar
hubungan Dekat
Saya telah atau ingin menjadi ahli
mengklasifikasikan flora serta fauna


Diadaptasi dari The Rogers Indicator of Multiple Intelligences (RIMI) Test

Appendix B
Reading Test
Nama :
Elephants are the largest animals on the earth. They have the largest
brains of any mammals. Elephants talk to each other. Researchers have
discovered more than 50 different types of cells that they use to communicate
with each other. Their trunks are going to pick up trees that sensitive enough to
pick up flowers. They use them as tools to sweep paths, to scratch themselves to
swat flies, and to draw in the dirt. They are good swimmers and use their trunks
like snorkels. They live together to care for and rescue their young.
Taken from Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083
1. The elephants part of the body that is described in the text is..
a. Head
b. Ears
c. Tusk
d. Trunks
2. Researchers have discovered more than
The underlined word has the same meaning as
a. Looked for
b. Destroyed
c. Searched
d. Found
3. Which of the following descriptions is not correct
a. Elephants can dance around the wood
b. They can communicate well with other elephants
c. They can swim
d. Elephants join together to rescue their young
4. They use them as tools to sweep paths
Them refers to
a. Elephants
b. Flowers
c. Trunks
d. Researcher
5. to care and rescue their..

The closest meaning synonyms of the word rescue is

a. Bring
b. Feed
c. Save
d. Eat
Ice ages, those periods when ice covered extensive areas of the Earth, are
known to have occurred at least six times. Past ice can be recognized from rock
strata that show the evidence of foreign materials deposited by moving walls of
ice or melting glaciers. Ice ages can also be recognized from the land formation
that have been produced from moving walls of ice, such as U-shaped valleys,
sculptured landscapes, and polished rock faces.
Taken from Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083
6. According to the passage, what happens during an ice age?
a. Rock strata are recognized by geologist
b. Evidence of foreign materials is found
c. Ice covers a large portion of the Earths surface
d. Ice melts six times
7. The passage covers how many different methods of recognizing past ice
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
8. According to the passage, what in the rock strata is a clue to geologist of a
past ice age?
a. Ice
b. Melting glacier
c. U-shaped valleys
d. Substances from other areas
A kangaroo is an animal found only in Australia, although it has a smaller
relative, called a wallaby, which lives on the Australian island of Tasmania and
also in New Guinea.
Kangaroos eat grass and plants. They have short front legs, but very long,
and very strong back legs and a tail. These are used for sitting up and for
jumping. Kangaroos have been known to make forward jumps of over eight
meters, and leap across fences more than three meters high. They can also run
at speeds of over 45 kilometers per hour. The largest kangaroos are the Great
Grey Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo. Adult grow to a length of 1.60 meter and
weigh over 90 kilos.
Kangaroos are marsupials. This means that the female kangaroo has an
external pouch on the front of her body. A baby kangaroo is very tiny when it is
born, and it crawls at once into this pouch where it spends its first five months of
Taken from Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083
9. What is the main idea of the first paragraph 1?
a. Kangaroo has strong back
b. Kangaroo is an animal from Australia

c. Kangaroo are marsupials

d. Kangaroo has a home
10.A baby kangaroo is very tiny when its born.
The word tiny means..
a. Big
b. Large
c. Huge
d. Small
11.Which of the statements is correct?
a. Kangaroo can make a long forward jump because its front legs
b. Kangaroo eats grass because it is a marsupial
c. Baby kangaroo lives in its mother pouch for about five months
d. Kangaroo can be found in tropical forest in the world
12.What does the word these in paragraph 2 refer to?
a. Legs and a tail
b. Hands
c. Pockets
d. Babies
13.What do people call the largest kangaroos?
a. The Rock Kangaroo and The H Kangaroo
b. The Great Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo
c. The Best Kangaroos
d. The Tazmania
14.Where do you find the pouch of the female kangaroo?
a. On her shirt
b. On her suit
c. On her babys tail
d. On the front of her body
15.What does the word it in sentence in last line it crawls at once refer
a. The baby
b. A baby kangaroo
c. An adult kangaroo
d. The king
Lightning is a sudden, violent flash of electricity between a cloud and the
ground, or from cloud to cloud. A lightning flash, or bolt, can be several miles
long. It is so hot, with an average temperature of 34,000 Centigrade, that the
air around it suddenly expands with a loud blast. This is the thunder we hear.
Lightning occurs in hot, wet storms. Moist air is driven up to a great
height. It forms a type of cloud called cumulonimbus. When the cloud rises high
enough, the moisture freezes and ice crystals and snowflakes are formed. These
begin to fall, turning to rain on the way down. This rain meets more moist air
rising, and it is the friction between them which produces static electricity. When
a cloud is fully charged with this electricity, it discharges it as a lightning flash.
Taken from Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083


16.What is meant by lighting?

a. Lighting is a sudden, violent flash of electricity between a cloud and
the ground, or from cloud to cloud
b. Lighting is the cool shine which makes flash of storm between the sun
and a cloud
c. Lighting is the extraordinary event
d. Lighting is an electrical line which makes an amazing sound
17.When does the lighting happen?
a. It occurs in the night
b. It occurs when some animals run
c. It occurs in hot, wet storm
d. It occurs when the sun rises
18.What does the word this in the last sentence of paragraph 1 refer to?
a. Strange sound
b. A loud blast
c. A musical blast
d. A fishy blast
19.What does the word it in paragraph 2 refer to?
a. Lighting
b. Moist air
c. Rain
d. Storms
Gorillas are the largest of all the primates. A male gorilla can be 180
centimeters tall and can weigh 200 kilograms. Gorillas are very strong but they
do not often fight. In fact they were peaceful animals. Gorillas live in small family
groups of about 15. In a group there are one strong, older male, some young
males, and few females with their babies. They move slowly around a large area
of jungle eating leaves and bushes.
In some ways gorillas are very like humans. When they are happy, they
laugh and wave their arms. When they are angry, they beat their chest. When
they are sad, they cry. But they cry quietly, without any tears, unfortunately,
people hunt and kill gorillas. They also cut down and burn their tress. There are
now only about 10.000 gorillas left in the world.
Taken from Peter Haddock Ltd., Ref.083
20.Based on the story above, gorillas are..
a. The biggest of all the primates
b. The best of all primates
c. The wildest of all the primates
d. The kindest of all the primates
21.How tall can gorilla be?
a. One hundred and eighteen cm
b. One hundred eighty cm
c. Eighteen hundred cm
d. Two hundred cm
22.What is the purpose of the text above?
a. To retell about gorillas
b. To explain gorillas

c. To entertain the gorillas

d. To describe the gorillas
23.The main idea of the second paragraph is..
a. There are only about 10.000 gorillas in the world
b. People hunt and kill gorillas
c. Gorillas are like human
d. When gorillas sad, they cry
Around Bali
Bali, the fabled "Island of the Gods", has been enchanting visitors for
centuries with its rich cultural traditions and spectacular panoramas. From lofty,
misty enshrouded volcanoes and cool mountain lakes down through terraced rice
fields to a golden strand lapped by azure waters, every square inch of Bali offers
a fresh and unforgettable image.
No less enchanting are its people, some 2.7 million souls whose artistry
and piety are recognized throughout the world. Balinese Hinduism, a complex
fusion of Indian cosmology, Tantric Buddism and home grown mythology is the
primary faith of Bali's inhabitants, and so deeply woven into the fabric of
their daily lives that the line between the spiritual and the material is blurry at
The shoppers among you will find Bali a treasure house of handicrafts and
fine works of art. The Balinese are incredibly gifted artists and crafts men and
their material creations are imbued with the same sense of wonderment with
which they regard their universe. Stone and wood carvings, traditional and
modern paintings and intricately designed jewelry in gold and silver are readily
available in shops and galleries throughout the island.
As for recreation, there is no shortage of options. Nature walks, horseback
riding, diving, surfing, bungy jumping and white water rafting await the
adventurous here.
Taken from Hello Bali, 2000
24.The topic of the text above is
a. Balinese life
b. Scenery in Bali
c. Tourism in Bali
d. Bali for recreation
25.The main idea of paragraph 2 is...
a. Population of Bali
b. Balis inhabitants
c. Balinese religion
d. Daily lives of Balinese
26.The synonym of the word azure in paragraph 1 is .
a. Bright blue
b. Bright green
c. Dark green
d. Dark blue
27.The word they in paragraph 3 refers to
a. Craftsmen
b. Fine works

c. The Balinese
d. Gifted artists
28.Below is recreational activities you can find in Bali, except .
a. Horseback riding
b. Nature walks
c. Surfing
d. Skiing
Why does the cock eat the millipede?
Long ago the cock had a pair of beautiful horns on his head. But at that
time there was a dragon which was prevented from ascending into heaven
because he lacked a pair of horns. And so he offered the millipede as a
guarantor, and borrowed the horns from the cock!
When the millipede came for the horns, he said to the cock: "When you
want your horns back, you must call out at dawn: 'Give me back my horns!' and
they will be returned to you at once. You need have no occasion to be concerned
in the least."
The kind cock knew how difficult it was to ascend to heaven, so, reassured
by the good security the millipede offered, he loaned his horns without
hesitation, just twisting them right off his head. He also thought to himself that
when the dragon returned form his visit to heaven, they could sit down and have
a good conversation; he would ask the dragon to tell him how things were in
heaven, and if it really was beautiful there, as he had always heard. If it was true,
he might consider going there himself someday, he thought.
So, next morning at daybreak (for the dragon's visit was scheduled to be
brief), the cock called out loudly:"Give me back my horns!" But, even though he
repeated this demand ten times over, there was no sign at all of either the
dragon or the horns. Worried, the cock promptly went off to complain to the
millipede, who soothed him, saying: "If the dragon has not returned the horns
this morning, then he will certainly do so tomorrow. At the very latest, the day
after that. Just learn to be a little patient and your horns will soon be back on
your head, just as before."
The cock did wait several days, but although he called out every morning
at sunrise: "Give me back my horns!" They never did reappear. The cock was
extremely annoyed at this deception and loss, as you can well imagine, therefore
he ordered all the members of his family to eat millipedes on sight.
Even so, the cock has not yet given up hope of getting his horns returned.
He ordered his descendants always to call out at the break of day: "Give me back
my horns!" He still hopes that the dragon may hear him!
Taken from The Asian Animal Zodiac, 1998
29.Why didnt the cock have horns on his head?
a. Because he sold them to dragons
b. Because he lost them when he was flying
c. Because he lent the horns to the dragon
d. Because he thought that the horns are not good
30.Why did then cock loan his horns without hesitation?
a. Because he knew how difficult it was to ascend to heaven
b. Because he just didnt know what he should do
c. Because the horns were stolen by dragon
d. Because the horns were sad to see the dragon

31.What was a pair of cocks beautiful horns asked for?

a. To help a dragon ascend into heaven
b. Going to jungle to become a king
c. To punish every dragon
d. To throw the crown away from the earth
32.Why did the cock give his horns to the millipede?
a. Because he trusted to the millipede
b. Because the millipede saved the cocks mother
c. Because the millipede had pay the cock for his horns
d. Because he didnt like his horns anymore
33.What did the cock call out when every time he wanted the horns back?
a. Give me back my horns!
b. Go back! Dragon! Go back!
c. O Dragon, your time is up!
d. Where are you dragon!
34.Based on the story, when did the cock call out of getting his horns
a. After he ate rice
b. Before he flied
c. Every morning at sunrise
d. Every night before sleeping
New York
New York (city), the largest city in the United States, the home of the
United Nations, and the center of global finance, communications, and business.
New York City is unusual among cities because of its high residential density, its
extraordinarily diverse population, its hundreds of tall office and apartment
buildings, its thriving central business district, its extensive public transportation
system, and its more than 400 distinct neighborhoods. The citys concert houses,
museums, galleries, and theaters constitute an ensemble of cultural richness
rivaled by few cities. In 2000 the population of the city of New York was
8,008,278; the population of the metropolitan region was 21,199,865. New York
City consists of fiveboroughs they are Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island, The
Bronx, and Manhattan.
There are so many attractive places in the city. One of its most popular
landmarks is the statue of liberty. It is a symbol of freedom for many, was one of
the first sights to welcome Immigrants arriving in the United States. The statue
stands 93 m (305 ft) tall on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. It was designed by
French sculptor Frdric-Auguste Bartholdi and is a gift from France
commemorating the first centennial of U.S. independence from Britain.
New Yorks 250 museums cater to every specialty and every taste. It has
museums in such fields as natural history, broadcasting, fire-fighting, crafts, and
ethnic cultures. As the worlds greatest art center, New York City has more than
400 galleries and is a mecca for artists, art dealers, and collectors. Madison
Avenue between 57th and 86th Streets is the most important locale for galleries,
but dozens of others are located in SoHo (south of Houston Street) and adjoining
New York also has a famous botanical garden. It is called Brooklyn Botanic
Garden, 21- hectare (52-acre) botanic garden, located in the borough of

Brooklyn, in New York City. The garden includes such attractions as the Childrens
Garden, the first of its kind in the world.
Taken from: Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights reserved.
35.What is the text about?
a. Washington D.C.
b. The statue of Liberty
c. The culture of New York
d. New York City
36.The following is true about New York, except ....
a. It have a botanical garden.
b. It is the home of the statue of Liberty.
c. It has 250 museums.
d. It consists of four boroughs.
37.Where is the statue of liberty located?
a. Liberty Island
b. Brooklyn
c. SoHo
d. Manhattan
38.What does the word it in the last paragraph refers to?
a. New York
b. Brooklyn
c. Childrens garden
d. Botanical garden
39.How many galleries are there in New York?
a. 400
b. More than 400
c.. Not more than 500
d. More less than 350
40.SoHo is the acronym of ..
a. South of Honolulu
b. South of Hillside
c. South of Hoboken
d. South of Houston

Should Americans be Forced to Use Public Transportation?

by Jack Davis
First, let me define what the question is and isnt asking. It isnt asking if
we should we all abandon cars right now, nor is it asking if we should abandon
them completely, nor is it asking if every American should do so. It is asking
whether some Americans should have to take public transit some of the time,
and I would say yes.

Oil use and pollution aside, in some cities like Los Angeles and New York
there just isnt room for any more roads, so in order for large cities to grow, they
need more people to take public transit or risk permanent traffic jam. One bus
can safely hold 40 people, so even at half capacity thats nearly 20 cars worth of
space in traffic cleared up, and nearly20 parking spaces that dont need to be
There are a lot of people that can take public transit with little
inconvenience butsimply dont because they never have in the past. If residents
in areas with plenty of transit had to buy transit passes as part of their property
taxes then they would have little excuse not to bus occasionally. A number of
universities already bundle a U-Pass with their tuition fees, forcing their
students to take the bus. When given the chance the majority of those students
have voted to keep these programs.
A similar system in apartments where a portion of the tenants are not
issued parking spaces in exchange for a discount on their rent would also be
forcing people to use public transit. This is already being done with the
assignment of one community car to several apartment tenants that arrange a
schedule for the car, and this program gets many positive reviews.
So yes, I would say that Americans should be forced to use public transit,
as Americans whom are already forced to do so find that it works well for them.
Taken from:
41.The following is one of the writers suggestions in forcing people to use
public transportations..
a. Make people buy transit passes as part of their property taxes.
b. Banning the use of cars.
c. Stop automobiles productions.
d. Fine people who do not use public transportations.
42.What is the purpose of the article?
a. Defining the functions of public transportations.
b. Arguing that American should not use public transportations.
c. Suggesting American the ways to use public transportation.
d. Suggesting that American should be forced to use public
43.What is the function of the first paragraph?
a. Repeating the thesis or proposal
b. Stating the proposal
c. Stating the reasons behind the thesis
d. Describing the problem
44.In the article you find the word transit a few times. What does it means?
a. Stop
b. Transportation
c. Exit
d. Entrance
45.What is the function of the last paragraph?
a. Describing the problem
b. Stating the reasons behind the thesis
c. Giving arguments
d. Repeating the thesis or proposal


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