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MAKERERE

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ART, DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY


SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
FINAL YEAR ENGINEERING PROJECT REPORT

TOPIC: INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES IN COFFEE


PROCESSING PLANTS
NAME OF STUDENT:

AKAMPURIRA ARTHUR

REGISTRATION NUMBER:

12/U/3177/PS

STUDENT NUMBER:

212010496

MAIN SUPERVISOR

CO-SUPERVISOR

Mr. KACONCO JAMES

Dr. W.OLUPOT

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

APPROVAL
The work in this report has been approved by the following supervisors and it meets their
minimum requirements

Mr. KACONCO JAMES

Dr. W.OLUPOT

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

DECLARATION
I Artthur Akampurira declare that the information in this report has been researched and
compiled by me.
This information has never been submitted for any program in any institute or University. This
work is submitted as a partial fulfillment of the final year project.

AKAMPURIRA ARTHUR

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am sincerely very indebted to the almighty God for ultimately making all things work together
for my good.
My deepest gratitude goes to my project supervisor Mr. James Kaconco for the assistance in the
conception of the project idea, his willingness to supervise my research and his guidance and
useful comments amidst the tight schedule.
I would also love to appreciate the efforts of my parents who aided me financially morally
throughout my research period.

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE.................................................................................................... 1

1.0.

1.1

INRODUCTION................................................................................................. 1

1.2

Back ground...................................................................................................... 1

1.3

Problem statement............................................................................................... 2

1.4

Main Objective................................................................................................... 3

1.5

Specific objectives............................................................................................... 3

1.6

Justification....................................................................................................... 3

1.7

Significance....................................................................................................... 3

1.8

Project scope...................................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER TWO:...................................................................................................... 4

COFFEE WASTES UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT.......................................................4


2.1

Introduction....................................................................................................... 4

2.1.1
2.2

Waste management........................................................................................ 4

Major types of waste in the coffee processing plants.....................................................4

2.2.1

Coffee pulp................................................................................................. 8

2.2.2

Coffee husks................................................................................................ 8

2.2.3

Coffee sliver skin chaff................................................................................... 8

2.2.4

Spent coffee ground....................................................................................... 8

2.3

Coffee by-products disposal, environment and its demerits.............................................9

2.3.1

Biological detoxification of coffee pulp and husk by microbes................................10

2.3.2

Post harvest handling practices.......................................................................10

2.3.3

The Dry Coffee Post harvest handling Technology...............................................11

2.3.4

The Wet Coffee Post harvest handling Technology...............................................11

2.4

Utilization of coffee by-products for value addition....................................................12

2.4.1

Production of mushrooms.............................................................................. 12

2.4.2

Vermin composting...................................................................................... 13

2.4.3

Enzymes and secondary metabolites.................................................................14

2.4.4

Production of ethanol...................................................................................15

2.4.5

Production of Biogas.................................................................................... 15

2.4.6

Production of Compost................................................................................. 15
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2.4.7

Food products and aroma compounds...............................................................16

2.4.8

Fuels (chaff).............................................................................................. 16

2.4.9

Animal feed............................................................................................... 16

2.4.10 Activated carbon and biosorbents....................................................................17


3

CHAPTHER THREE: METHODOLOGY....................................................................18


3.1

Introduction..................................................................................................... 18

3.2

Research design................................................................................................ 18

3.3

Context of the research methodology......................................................................18

3.3.1

Population and sampling...............................................................................18

3.3.2

Research procedure and methodology...............................................................19

3.3.3

Selection of a case study............................................................................... 19

3.3.4

Study tour to the selected industry...................................................................19

3.3.5

Design of checklist...................................................................................... 19

3.3.6

Pre testing the designed checklist....................................................................20

3.4

Data Collection Techniques..................................................................................20

3.4.1

Survey techniques using interviews and checklists...............................................20

3.4.2

Desk research and use of internet....................................................................20

3.4.3

Interview guide pre-testing............................................................................20

3.5

Data analysis.................................................................................................... 20

3.6

Report writing.................................................................................................. 21

3.7

Report presentation............................................................................................ 21

3.8

Assumptions.................................................................................................... 21

CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................... 22
4.1

Introduction..................................................................................................... 22

4.2

Demographic features......................................................................................... 22

4.2.1

Respondent position in the plant......................................................................22

4.2.2

Gender of the respondent.............................................................................. 23

4.2.3

Relationship of employee with the firm owner....................................................23

4.2.4

Education level of the respondent....................................................................24

4.2.5

Respondent age bracket................................................................................ 24

4.2.6

Respondent work experience..........................................................................25

4.2.7

The relationship between the positions held with the education level was also established
25
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4.2.8 The relationship between the positions held with the gender was also established and a
graph plotted.......................................................................................................... 26
4.1.1
4.3

The relationship between the positions held with the work experience was also established
27
Major sources of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants...........................................27

4.3.1

The coffee wastes consist of mainly coffee husks.................................................28

4.3.2

The coffee wastes consist of mainly spent coffee beans.........................................28

4.3.3

The coffee wastes consist of mainly other by-products..........................................29

4.3.4

The moisture content of the processed coffee known............................................30

4.3.5

The plant has dryers..................................................................................... 31

4.4 Analysis of the different technologies used in management of coffee wastes by coffee
processing plants........................................................................................................ 32
4.4.1

Factory gathers the waste generated.................................................................32

4.4.2

The different forms of waste generated during the processing of coffee are sorted........33

4.4.3

The plant has a waste disposal site...................................................................33

4.4.4

The quantity of coffee wastes generated daily recorded.........................................34

4.4.5

NEMA standards practiced during disposal of the coffee waste................................35

4.4.6

The waste generated is given to customers free of charge.......................................36

4.4.7

Waste generated stored on factory premises........................................................36

4.5

The possible ways of value addition.......................................................................37

4.5.1

Waste used as vermin-compost.......................................................................37

4.5.2

Waste used to grow mushrooms......................................................................38

4.5.3

Waste used to produce biogas.........................................................................39

4.5.4

Waste used as animal feed............................................................................. 39

4.5.5

Waste used as compost manure.......................................................................40

4.5.6

Waste used to produce bio ethanol...................................................................41

4.5.7

Waste used to produce briquettes.....................................................................42

4.4.8

Coffee waste used as chaff.............................................................................42

CHAPTER FIVE.................................................................................................. 44

5.0
5.1.

Introduction..................................................................................................... 44

5.2.

Conclusions..................................................................................................... 44

5.3.

Recommendations............................................................................................. 45

4.5.8

References................................................................................................ 48

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APPENDICES........................................................................................................ 50
1.1

APPENDEX A................................................................................................. 50

A.1 Activity work plan.............................................................................................. 50


A.2 Research Budget............................................................................................... 50
1.2

Survey checklist of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants in Uganda..........................51

1.2.1

DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS..........................................................................51

1.2.2

Identification of the major sources of waste in coffee processing plants:....................52

1.2.3

Identification of current waste management practices...........................................53

1.2.4

Possible methods of value addition..................................................................54

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. coffee fruit.....................................................................................................................16


Figure 2.Sketch of the production of various by-products from coffee industry..........................17
Figure 3: Mushrooms grown on coffee by-products.....................................................................25
Figure 4: Vermin compost using coffee by-products.....................................................................26

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Chemical composition of coffee by-products.................................................................19


Table 2: Position held....................................................................................................................35
Table 3: Gender..............................................................................................................................36
Table 4: Relationship with firm owner..........................................................................................36
Table 5: Education level................................................................................................................37
Table 6: Age bracket......................................................................................................................37
Table 7: Work experience..............................................................................................................38
Table 8.Ralation between position held and aeducation level.......................................................38
Table 9.Relationship between position held and gender................................................................39
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LIST OF ACRONYMS
GHG.

Green House Gas.

DM.

Dry Matter

UNBS.

Uganda National Bureau of Standards.

ISO.

International Standards Organization.

NEMA

National Environmental Management Authority.

CO2.

Carbondioxide

FAO.

Food and Agriculture Organisation.

UCDA

Uganda Coffee Development Authourity

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

1.0.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INRODUCTION
This chapter contains the background of the project, the problem statement, the main and specific
objectives, the justification and the scope of the project.
1.2 Back ground
Coffee is a universal drink with millions of tonnes consumed throughout the world. In the daily
morning wake ritual of millions of consumers worldwide just a few milligrams are needed of
coffee aroma and taste. Due to the caffeine content of the popular beverage, it has a mild
stimulating and energizing effect.
Coffee is one of the international products and is the second largest traded commodity in the
world next to crude oil. It belongs to Rubuaceae family which contains more than 70 species but
two of them are significant economic importance namely, Arabic and Robusta coffee .according
to the latest estimate of international coffee organisation (ICO) the world coffee production in
2008-2009 was 128.8 million bags (1 bag equals 60 kg), nearly 15 million bags over the previous
year. Brazil, Columbia and Vetienman are the top three coffee producers accounting for more
than 45% of the total world produce, while Uganda is 11th and its contribution is 2.4 % (UCDA)
Today coffee contributes about 40-50% of the annual export revenues of Uganda. It is estimated
that 50% of the rural population earn all or a big of their cash income from coffee. It provides
employment to farmer, traders, and people involved in processing. Coffee is consumed as a
beverage all over the world but local consumption is limited to only 3% of the total production
According to UCDA ,there are two types of coffee grown in Uganda namely Arabic and Robusta
coffee. Arabic coffee is grown mainly around mount Elgon, mountain ranges in West Nile and
mount Muhabura ranges in south west at altitude ranges of 1300m 2300m. It is harvested from
September to December every year and it contributes 15% (UCDA) of the total production.
Coffee pulp also indentified as coffee fruit without seeds, or beans is an abundant agricultural by
product .it represents around 43% f the weight of the coffee fruit on a fresh weight analysis or
approximately 28% (26- 30%) of the coffee fruit on a dry weight basis. The other by products of
the coffee fruit processing are the mucilage about5% of the dry weight of the fruit, coffee hulls
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representing 125 of the weight of the fruit on a dry weight basis and coffee parchment (the
parchment is the thin skin of the bean that is removed after milling, prior to roasting). There are
also other by products such as the coffee grounds .the by products of coffee; the husks are used
as manure, mulch, or litter material in poultry houses.
Environmental management has become more and more important for companies and there is
competition between companies for increasing the sustainability and green image of their
products. The environmental impact of coffee production is complex as there are many factors
accumulating along the coffee production and supply chain [Salomone, 2003]. Factors that
affect the impact are the use of fertilizers and crop protection chemicals, mechanization of
harvest and transportation, energy used for drying and the resources used for packaging. The
residues and emissions that are liberated along the production chain representing in total an
estimated 150 million tons of biomass (roughly calculated from 8 Mt green beans = 5%). In the
context of the expanding bio-based economy it is of interest that these wasted biomass residues
can be minimized and used for production of CO2 neutral energy or other value added products.
There are number of challenges that inhibit the development of the biomass energy. In this
regard , formulation of sustainable energy policy and strategies in addressing these challenges is
of importance for the development and promotion of biomass energy This study is to identify
the best options for enhanced use of these residues from the coffee production.

1.3 Problem statement


On the biggest commercial coffee processing plants fields, say great lakes coffee company
limited, coffee by products have been sold back at very cheap prices and taken by farmers to use
for low value addition purposes like compost manure, mulching in banana plantations and as
litter in poultry house.
It of paramount importance that an investigation be done into other possible commercial uses of
the coffee wastes as well as other types of wastes in order to turn handling of the coffee wastes
from cost incurring to a profit-making venture. This project thus was intended to contribute as a
study, to how waste generated can be profitably managed in the coffee processing plants in
Uganda.

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

1.4 Main Objective.


The goal of this study is to determine and recommend appropriate methods of adding value to
coffee wastes in coffee processing plants.

1.5 Specific objectives


The main objective shall be achieved through the following set of specific objectives.
To identify and analyse the major sources of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants.
To identify and analyze the different methods that are used in coffee waste management
by coffee processing plants.
To determine the possible ways of value addition to coffee wastes in coffee processing
plants
1.6 Justification
Uganda is a developing country with an increased level in industrialization. There is need to
undertake study to understand waste management practices in coffee processing plants in
Uganda with a view to develop ways and guidelines leading to value addition.
The coffee processing industry in Uganda is growing especially with the government
encouraging farmers to grow more coffee and even providing the farmers with free resistant
seeds through programs like NAADS to increase on their incomes. The growth in coffee
processing plants leading to exportation of processed coffee has led to inevitable increase of the
coffee wastes in the industry.
1.7 Significance
Uganda being one the major coffee producing and processing countries, adding value to the
coffee wastes that are generated during processing of coffee will help the plants and farmers in
the country side engaged in coffee processing on a small scale, gain more from the coffee wastes
with a positive social impact as well as help in conservation of the environment

1.8 Project scope

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

The study was conducted within the coffee processing plants operating in Kampala, Mukono and
Mbarara districts this was aimed at including both large and small scale coffee processing plants.
It was conducted only within the university academic year time frame. The study covered
activities from data collection, data analysis and final research recommendations.

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

CHAPTER TWO:
COFFEE WASTES UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

2.1 Introduction
A waste is anything that a person no longer has any use for and intends to either get rid of or
have already discarded.
A waste can also be defined as any material that is not a prime product and its generator has no
further use in terms of his or her own purpose s of production, transformation, consumption, but
intends to dispose it. For example eating the maize and then you remain with a comb, coffee pulp
obtained when processing coffee.
2.1.1
Waste management
Waste management is the sustainable process of reducing the environmental impact of the
disposal of waste material. it involves collecting ,transporting, processing, recycling, disposing
of waste to reduce their effect on human beings, environment and also to maximize production
output in factories.
Waste management is done to achieve the following

To conserve resources of water ,energy and raw materials


To control pollution of land, air and water
To improve occupational, healthy and safety
To enhance business performance and maintain corporate social responsibility

2.2 Major types of waste in the coffee processing plants


Coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world and generates large amount of coffee
by-products/residues during processing from fruit to cup (Nabais et al., 2008 and Mussatto et al.,
2011b). Industrial processing of coffee cherries is done to separate coffee powder by removing
shell and mucilaginous part from the cherries (Fig. 6). Depending upon the method of coffee
cherries processing, i.e. wet or dry process, roasting and brewing solid residues like pulp husk,
silver skin and spent are obtained (Fig. 7a and b). The coffee husks/peel/pulp, comprise of nearly
45% cherry, and are the main by-products of coffee-industry. They are used for various purposes
including extraction of caffeine and polyphenols (Esquivel and Jimnez, in press) because they
are rich in nutrients (Table 2).

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Figure 1. coffee fruit

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Figure 2.Sketch of the production of various by-products from coffee industry

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Table 1: Chemical composition of coffee by-products.


Parameters (%) Coffee pulp

Coffee husk

Silver skin

Coffee spent

Cellulose

63.0 2.5

43.0 8.0

17.8 6.0

8.6 1.8

Hemicellulose

2.3 1.0

7.0 3.0

13.1 9.0

36.7 5.0

Protein

11.5 2.0

8.0 5.0

18.6 4.0

13.6 3.8

Fat

2.0 2.6

0.5 5.0

2.2 1.9

ND

Total fiber

60.5 2.9

24 5.9

62.4 2.5

ND

Total
polyphenols

1.5 1.5

0.8 5.0

1.0 2.0

1.5 1.0

Total sugars

14.4 09

58.0 20.0

6.65 10

8.5 1.2

Pectic substance 6.5 1.0

1.6 1.2

0.02 1.0

0.01 0.005

Lignin

17.5 2.2

9.0 1.6

1.0 2.0

0.05 0.05

Tannins

3.0 5.0

5.0 2.0

0.02 0.1

0.02 0.1

Chlorogenic acid 2.4 1.0

2.5 0.6

3.0 0.5

2.3 1.0

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Parameters (%) Coffee pulp

Coffee husk

Silver skin

Coffee spent

Caffeine

1.0 0.5

0.03 0.6

0.02 0.1

1.5 1.0

Source: Mussatto et al. (2011b), Franca et al. (2009) and Murthy and Madhava Naidu (2010).

2.2.1
Coffee pulp
Coffee pulp is the first by-product obtained during processing and represents 29% dry-weight of
the whole berry. Coffee pulp is obtained during wet processing of coffee and for every 2 tons of
coffee produced 1 ton of coffee pulp is obtained (Roussos et al., 1995). Coffee pulp is essentially
rich in carbohydrates, proteins and minerals (especially potassium) and it also contains
appreciable amounts of tannins, polyphenols and caffeine (Bressani et al., 1972). The organic
components present in coffee pulp (dry weight) includes tannins 1.808.56%, total pectic
substances 6.5%, reducing sugars 12.4%, non-reducing sugars 2.0%, caffeine 1.3%, chlorogenic
acid 2.6%, and total caffeic acid 1.6%.

2.2.2
Coffee husks
Coffee cherry husks are obtained when coffee berries are processed by dry method. Coffee husk
encloses the coffee beans and represents about 12% of the berry on dry-weight basis. About 0.18
ton of husk is produced from 1 ton of coffee fruits (Adams and Dougan, 1981). Coffee husks
compose 15.0% moisture, 5.4% ash, 7.0% protein, 0.3% lipids and 72.3% carbohydrates
(Gouvea et al., 2009). Coffee husk contains 24.5% cellulose, 29.7% hemicelluloses, 23.7% lignin
and 6.2% ash (Bekalo and Reinhardt, 2010).
2.2.3
Coffee sliver skin chaff
Coffee silver skin is an integument of coffee bean obtained as a by-product of the roasting
process. It is a residue with high concentration of soluble dietary fiber (86% of total dietary
fiber) and having high antioxidant capacity, probably due to the concentration of phenolic
compounds, as well as due to the presence of other compounds formed by the Maillard reaction
such as melanoidins during the roasting process (Borrelli et al., 2004). The main components of
these fibrous tissues are cellulose and hemicellulose. Glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and
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arabinose are the monosaccharides present in coffee silver skin along with proteins (Carneiro et
al., 2009 and Mussatto et al., 2011a).
2.2.4
Spent coffee ground
Spent coffee grounds (SCG), the major residue in coffee beverage manufacturing, have been
studied for alternative use and value addition. Currently the most spent grounds are dispersedly
disposed off by consumers and catering or burned where accumulated quantities are sufficiently
available in industries to recover the embedded energy. Some low value added uses have been
identified and reported in patents and open literature, such as mixed composts, soil
improvements, fertilizers, recipes for feeding animals or fermentation feedstock and substrates
for mushroom production.
The gross composition of roasted coffee is given in Table 1 [Spiller 1998]. From this the
insoluble residues in SCG can be derived, which still contain substantial amounts of protein
(7.5%) and lipids (9.5%), but mostly insoluble polysaccharides and browning compounds
including phenolics. Depending on the processing conditions of coffee extraction (temperature/
pressure) different weight percentage of dissolved coffee can be achieved. The composition of
the water insoluble fraction corresponds to SCG.
Component
Protein
Lipids
Terpenes

Total
9
9.5
2

Water soluble
1.5
9.5
trace

Water insoluble
7.5
2

Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides
Sugars
Organic acids
Chlorogenic acids
Alkaloids
Browning
compounds
Ash
Water
Total

30
0.3
0.7
3.8
1.6
35.0

6
0.3
0.7
3.8
1.6
7.5

24
-

27.5

4.0
2.5
100

3.5
2.5
27.5

72.5

2.3 Coffee by-products disposal, environment and its demerits


In coffee producing areas, coffee wastes and by-products constitute a source of severe
contamination and pose serious environmental problem. Coffee processing units that are located
in almost each coffee estate pose threat to the environment because of unsafe disposal of coffee
pulp, husk and effluents leading to pollution of water and land around the processing units.
Coffee pulp is the chief by-product with its high moisture content poses problems of disposal,
due to putrefaction. It causes severe environmental pollution if it is not disposed with appropriate
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pre-treatment (Zuluaga, 1989). Pollution awareness and policies have played a minor role in
finding uses for coffee pulp. Coffee pulp is an agro-waste product which is now becoming an
environmental problem. However, large-scale utilization and management of coffee wastes
around the world still remains a challenge due to its content of caffeine, free phenols and tannins
(polyphenols), which are known to be very toxic to many life processes (Fan et al., 2003).
Previous studies have confirmed that toxic materials can be minimized by hot water
pretreatment, microbial biodegradation and aerobic fermentation (Gaime-Perraud et al., 1993).
To that effect, production of byproducts such as silage, biogas, and worms, animal feed, ethanol,
vinegar, single-cell protein, enzymes, biopesticides, and pro-biotics have been established at
small scale but demonstration of the technology application at pilot scale is yet to be achieved.
Apart from these, tannins are generally considered to be anti-nutritional and restrict coffee pulp
from being used at more than 10% level in animal feeds. Information on coffee pulp tannins is
contradictory and as such present data available are difficult to interpret because of non-specific
analytical methods used (Colmenares et al., 1994). Depending upon the type of cultivar, the
tannin content may vary. The change of paradigm however has come not only from new work on
soluble dietary fiber and antioxidants, but also from the realization of benefits of coffee pulp
when used at less than 10% of the diet. Traditionally, coffee pulp and husk had found only a
limited application as fertilizer, livestock feed, compost, etc. These applications utilize only a
fraction of available quantity as they are not technically very efficient. However, considering the
high amounts of waste generated, there is still a need to find other alternative uses for this solid
residue.
2.3.1
Biological detoxification of coffee pulp and husk by microbes
Due to the presence of some anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp and husk
are not suitable substrates for bioconversion processes. Consequently, most of the pulp and husk
generated during coffee processing remain unutilized or under-utilized. If the toxic constituents
could be removed, or, at least degraded to a reasonably safe level then it would open up new
avenues for their utilization as substrates for bioprocesses. With this in mind, several authors
have worked on detoxification of coffee pulp and husk through various means.
Studies were carried out on detoxification of coffee husk in solid state fermentation using three
different strains of Rhizopus, Phanerochaete, and Aspergillus spp. The results showed good
prospects for using these fungal strains, in particular Aspergillus spp., for the detoxification of
coffee husk ( Brand et al., 2000 and Pandey et al., 2000). SSF was carried out by Aspergillus
niger in glass column fermenter using factorial design experiments and surface response
methodology to optimize bioprocess parameters such as substrate pH, moisture and aeration rate
using coffee husk by Raimbault (1998). Changes in coffee pulp treated with Streptomyces
through the application of analytical pyrolysis revealed that the bacteria can upgrade to useful
level and the pollutant residue can be used for feeding purposes ( Orozco et al., 2008).

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2.3.2
Post harvest handling practices
Robusta and Arabic coffee are handled differently. Robusta coffee is only handled by the DCPT
while Arabica is processed using both the WCPT and the DCPT. The DCPT has been in use since
the colonial times (RFC, 2006) while the WCPT was introduced in Uganda in the early 1970s.
However, WCPT was later abandoned in 1977 due to the political upheavals that escalated
during that time leading to fleeing of the country by WCPT promoters who were mostly British
to their home countries. The WCPT was reintroduced by RFC in 2004 in Kasese and Mbale
Districts where Arabica coffee is predominantly grown. Failure to subject Robusta coffee to
WCPT (like the Arabic type) was linked more to lack of interest on the part of investors.
Apparently, no investor has shown interest, yet, in promoting the WCPT among the Robusta
farmers. WCPT may perhaps in future be applied even on Robusta coffee (UCDA, 2001).

2.3.3

The Dry Coffee Post harvest handling Technology

In the DCPT ripe, semi ripe, dry and berries already fallen on the ground are picked and dried
(Mukiibi, 2001). Harvested cherries are sun dried on coffee yards and tapelines for about 6-8
weeks and hulled by machines which are in most cases located far away from farms in urban
area (ITC, 1992). Like any other technology, the DCPT has advantages and disadvantages that
influence its usage.
The advantages of DCPT include less labor demanding as it only requires picking, drying and
marketing (UCTF, 1999). This creates time that allows farmers to engage in various farm and
off-farm activities to diversify their livelihoods. Owners of coffee huller often reap more from
accumulated seasonal coffee husks. The husks are often sold for mulch and manure generation.
The major disadvantage of the DCPT is reduced quality of coffee. The International Coffee
Council (ICC) has identified dry coffee processing as one of the key ways through which coffee
loses quality easily. ICC put a resolution to the effect of minimizing chances of reduced quality
of coffee. The ICC resolution No.407 on Quality Improvement Program which puts the
minimum export standard at 86 defects per 300g of Arabica and 150 defects per 300g of Robusta
was passed in 2002. If implemented, coffee producer countries would hold an estimated 5-10
million bags of coffee previously deemed exportable and divert it to other uses or destroy it all
together (UCTF, 2003).RFC (2006) describes coffee processed by the DCPT as poor quality, a
reason why its price is lower than that produced by the WCPT. According to FAO (2004), Coffee
produced by the DCPT is said to have a high mycotoxin content, which makes it less safe for
human consumption
2.3.4

The Wet Coffee Post harvest handling Technology

According to Rwenzori Finest Coffee Company, (RFC, 2004) the steps followed during coffee
post harvest handling include; red ripe coffee berries are selectively picked leaving the unripe
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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

and semi ripe coffee berries. These berries are then poured into a basin/source pan or any
container half full of clean water. Quality coffee berries sink while the poor quality coffee berries
float together with other unwanted debris. Floating coffee is then removed together with other
floating materials. The sunken berries are then washed and pulped using a hand driven pulpier.
Coffee berries are put in the pulpier in rations that can be handled depending on the size of the
pulpier dish.
Pulpiers rub off the skin and some of the mesocarps by forcing the berries between a rubber strip
and a perforated rotating drum. The expelt fruit still have mucilaginous pulp adhering to the
endocarp around the seeds. Pulping must be done on the same day of coffee picking to prevent
loss of coffee quality. The pulp is heaped to decompose and then used as manure. The next stage
is fermentation. In the fermentation stage there is enzymatic degradation of pectinaceous
mucilage. Beans are placed in a pile/source pan/basin and clean water added until the beans are
fully covered. This process takes 24-36 hours depending on environmental temperatures. Some
beans float and the biggest percentage of the beans sink.
Floating beans are removed because they are of low value. Sunken beans are then washed 3-4
times after fermentation to prevent staining. Beans are then dumped from wash containers to
wire meshed drying tables in doors for three days while still inside the endocarp/parchment.
Plenty of clean water is needed for washing coffee.

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

The main advantage of WCPT is production of high quality coffee. According to UCTF (2003)
the WCPT produces high quality coffee that meets the International Coffee Council (ICC)
resolution No.47 on Coffee Quality Improvement Program (CQIP) under which minimum
standards for exportable coffee are set. The minimum export standard is 86 defects per 300grams
of Arabica and 150 defects per 300 grams of 0f Robusta coffee. The levels of mycotoxins in wet
processed coffee are low making it the most ideal coffee for human consumption. The benefits of
wet coffee processing are not only to producers who receive higher prices but also to coffee
roasters who will receive high quality beans for their customers. It is a win-win situation.
Wet processed coffee (using hand driven pulpier) generates pulp that is used as mulch by farmers
who generate it. This helps farmers who may not be in position to purchase and transport coffee
husks from hullers that are in most cases located far from farms in urban centers (FAO,
2004).Wet processed coffee takes a shorter period (about two weeks) to dry enabling farmers to
access cash in a short time so as to meet their basic needs. In areas where wet coffee processing
has been impressed like in Kenya, formation of coffee farmers savings and credit co-operative
societies has taken place enabling farmers to access low interest loans and also be able to save
money (FAO, 2004)
Disadvantages of WCPT include; Wet coffee Processing technology is more expensive than the
Dry Coffee Processing Technology. It calls for more attention or concentration and labor right
from harvesting to drying if quality coffee is to be achieved. This situation may lead to gender
exploitation considering the fact that men are controllers of labor in households (Upudhay, 2004)

2.4 Utilization of coffee by-products for value addition


Methods of coffee waste management are outlined to create awareness of the opportunities and
constraints associated with the maximization of coffee by-product utilization and the reduction of
environmental pollution. The application of environmentally sound disposal methods requires an
understanding of the range of waste utilization, treatment and recycling options. Traditionally,
coffee pulp and husk have found only limited applications as fertilizer, livestock feed, compost,
etc. These applications utilized only a fraction of available quantity and the methods were not
technically very efficient. Recent attempts have focused on its application as substrate in
bioprocesses and vermi-composting. Attempts have also been made to detoxify them for
improved application as feed, and to use them as an efficient substrate for producing several
value-added products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavor and aroma compounds, mushrooms,
etc. Since these waste-products contain a substantial amounts of fermentable sugars, these
constitute as an appropriate substrate for the cultivation of moulds and yeasts
2.4.1
Production of mushrooms
The nutritional and organoleptic properties along with therapeutic value of mushrooms have
paved way for improved methods of their cultivation all over the world. First attempt on
mushroom cultivation on coffee industry residues was made by Fan et al. (2001). A systematic
study on cultivation of L. edodes, Pleurotus spp. and Flammulina velutipes using such residues
as coffee husk, leaves and spent ground either, individually or in mixture are reported ( Fig. 8) (
Murthy and Manonmani, 2008). SSF was carried out using coffee husk, coffee spent ground and
14

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

a consortium of the coffee substrates under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The
biological efficiency reached 85.8, 88.6 and 78.4% for treated coffee husk, spent ground and
mixed substrate, respectively and has showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee
spent as substrates without any pre-treatment for cultivation of edible fungus.

Figure 3: Mushrooms grown on coffee by-products.

2.4.2
Vermin composting
Residues from agriculture and the food industry consist of large and varied wastes. Composting
and vermicomposting is a cost effective technology which could be used at industrial level for
recycling the industrial wastes. These recycled products enhance soil nutrients, provide better
growth and possess commercial appreciation. Coffee husks were found suitable for composting
and vermicomposting (Fig. 9). Though, coffee pulp contains higher proportions of cellulose
besides potash and lignin, it has excellent moisture retaining capacity but is slow in
decomposition. The high bacterial growth in the earthworm intestines improves soil fertility and
stimulates plant growth making vermicasts as good organic manure and potting media
(Sathyanarayana and Khan, 2008 and Adi and Noor, 2009).

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Figure 4: Vermin compost using coffee by-products


.
2.4.3
Enzymes and secondary metabolites
Approximately 90% of all industrial enzymes are produced in submerged fermentation,
frequently using specifically optimized and genetically manipulated microorganisms. Most of the
recent research activities on SSF are being done in developing nations as a possible alternative
for conventional SmF, which are the main processes in pharmaceutical and food industries in
industrialized nations. The use agro-industrial residues as substrates for bioprocesses, enzymes
degrading agro-industrial residues, their production and bioconversion of agro-industrial residues
have niched in recent days (Nigam Singh and Pandey, 2009).Coffee pulp and husk offer potential
opportunities to be used as substrates for bioprocesses. Recent studies have shown their
feasibility for the production of enzymes, aroma compounds, mushrooms, etc., thus adding value
to the by-product. One of the earliest approaches on the application of coffee pulp and husk was
for the production of enzymes such as pectinase, tannase and caffeinase. Tannase production by
using coffee husk with P. variotii at optimum conditions were studied by Battestin and Macedo
(2007) who succeeded in getting 8.6-fold more enzyme production. Exploration using coffee byproducts for the production of enzymes like amylase, protease and xylanase was carried out
using fungal organisms such as N.crassa, A.oryzae, Penicillium sp. and A. niger ( Murthy and
Naidu, 2010a and Murthy and Naidu, 2010b). SmF is often viewed disadvantage owing to its
high operation cost ( Viniegra-Gonzlez et al., 2003) therefore enzyme production by SSF using
agro by-products not only brings down the cost of production (both of fermentation and
downstream processing), but also provides an alternative path for the effective and productive
utilization of such nutrient-rich agro residues.
In a recent study, coffee silver skin was proved to be an excellent material for use as support and
nutrient source during fructooligosaccharides and -fructofuranosidase production by Aspergillus
japonicus under SSF conditions. This process was interesting and a promising strategy to
16

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

synthesize both products at the industrial level ( Mussatto and Teixeira, 2010). Chemical
composition of coffee silver skin and spent coffee ground opens up possibilities for application
of these residues in the production of different value-added compounds.
2.4.4
Production of ethanol
Recent studies indicate excellent potential for residue utilization in bio-ethanol production.
Furthermore, it is estimated that ethanol production from agricultural residues could be increased
by 16 times from the current quantum of production (Saha and Cotta, 2008). Machado (2009)
reused spent coffee as raw material for ethanol production. Spent coffee was subjected to acid
hydrolysis process and the obtained hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium by
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ethanol production resulted in 50.1% yield. Similarly, Sampaio
(2010) used spent coffee for the production of a distilled beverage. Gouvea et al. (2009) have
indicated that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production. They
evaluated the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by S. cerevisiae.
Best results were obtained when whole coffee husks were used with, 3 g yeast/l substrate and the
temperature was at 30 C. Under these conditions ethanol production achieved was
8.49 0.29 g/100 g (dry basis) (13.6 0.5 g ethanol/l), a value comparable to literature data for
other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (511 g ethanol/l).
The study by Burton et al. (2010) reported the feasibility of using coffee oil extracted from spent
coffee grounds as raw material to produce ASTM standard biodiesel and 98.5% conversion was
achieved by using enzymatic catalysis, thus demonstrating the feasibility of this approach to
process low quality coffee oil from spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production.
2.4.5
Production of Biogas
Coffee husk, an important agro-industrial waste, cultivated with thermophilic Mycotypha to
enable biomethanation ( Jayachandra et al., 2011). The water drained from coffee cherry extract
is another potential source for biogas production. The biogas produced can best be used to run an
engine to generate electricity, and all the lower grade waste heat from cooling and exhaust can
still be used for drying coffee ( Rathanivelu and Graziosi, 2005).
2.4.6
Production of Compost
Coffee pulp solids are a good source of humus and organic carbon. If coffee pulp is turned over
every few days in a heap as in conventional compost making, it will compost in three weeks. The
by-products of instant coffee production are solid wastes with high organic content. Studies on
the applicability of the forced aeration composting process to a mixture of this coffee waste and
agricultural wastes were satisfactory and the experiments led to the production of high quality
compost having a carbon to nitrogen ratio of the order of 13:1 to 15:1 (Nogueira et al., 1999).
Conversion of 350 thousand tons of coffee pulp would yield approximately 87 thousand tons of
organic manure. These could be used in coffee nurseries, etc.

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

.
2.4.7
Food products and aroma compounds
The use of agro-industrial residues as substrates in biotechnological processes seems to be a
valuable alternative to overcome the high manufacturing cost of industrial fermentations. Fresh
coffee pulp can be easily processed into various food commodities like jam, juice, concentrate,
jelly, and flavoring (Madahava Naidu et al., 2004). Spent coffee after defatting and extract
lyophilization allowed to obtain spent coffee extract powder with high antioxidant capacity that
can be used as an ingredient or additive in food industry with potential preservation and
functional properties (Bravo et al., in press). Soares et al., 2000a and Soares et al., 2000b studied
fruity flavor production by Ceratocystis fimbriata grown on steam-treated coffee husk
supplemented with glucose. The results elucidated strong pineapple and banana aroma
compounds formed during fermentation, when different concentrations of glucose (2046%)
were used. While leucine was enhanced in the medium, the total volatiles were evident,
especially ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate, resulting in a strong banana odor. Other aldehydes,
alcohols and esters were also identified in the headspace of the cultures. Adriane et al. (2003)
have reported that there is great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to
microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation using two different strains of C.
fimbriata.
2.4.8
Fuels (chaff)
Production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the
conventional agricultural by-products. Spent coffee ground is used as fuel in industrial boilers of
the same industry due to its high calorific power of approximately 5000 kcal/kg, which is
comparable with other agro-industrial residues (Silva et al., 1998). An attempt to extract oil from
spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel has
been made by Kondamudi et al. (2008). This process yields 1015% oil depending on the coffee
species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion
of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. They
project 340 million gallons of biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds produced
around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials as garden fertilizer,
feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets ( Sendzikiene et al., 2004 and Kondamudi et al., 2008).
In this direction, further feasibility of using supercritical fluid extraction processes to obtain lipid
fraction from spent coffee has also been explored ( Couto et al., 2009).
2.4.9
Animal feed
Coffee husks and pulp have been reported to be used to feed farm animals (Mazzafera, 2002).
The possibility of spent coffee use as animal feed for ruminants, pigs, chickens, and rabbits have
also been demonstrated by Claude (1979) and Givens and Barber (1986). Ambiguously, the high
lignin content (25%) is considered as a limiting factor for its application (Cruz, 1983). The pulp
has 12% protein content and its incorporation up to 20% in cattle diet, 5% in poultry feed, 3% in
18

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

bird and 16% in pig feed has been recommended. Nurfeta (2010) has reported that the use of
poultry litter as a component of a diet with coffee pulp could play beneficial role in neutralizing
the anti-nutritional factors in coffee pulp and also help in increasing its utilization as feed.
2.4.10
Activated carbon and biosorbents
Pyrolysis of coffee pulp impregnated with phosphoric acid produces materials with a well
developed pore structure with high adsorption capacity. The impregnation ratio has a strong
influence on the pore structure. Irawaty et al. (2004) have reported, soaking of pulp with
phosphoric acid produced high adsorption capacity. An alternative use of coffee husk is as
untreated sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions as reported by
Oliveira et al. (2008) who established coffee husks as suitable candidate for use as biosorbent in
the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Defective coffee press cake, a residue from
coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as raw material for production of an adsorbent for
removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Studies carried out by Anne et al.
(2009) indicate that coffee press cake is suitable candidate for removal of cationic dyes. Thomas
et al. (2008) have highlighted the potential to utilize waste biomass to produce electrode
materials for cost-effective energy storage systems. Activated carbon was produced from waste
coffee grounds by treatment with ZnCl2 (Namane et al., 2005). Supercapacitor electrodes
prepared from coffee grounds carbon exhibited excellent stability with high chargedischarge
rates (Thomas et al., 2008). In a two-electrode cell a specific capacitance as high as 368 F g1
was observed, with rectangular cyclic voltammetry curves and stable performance over 10,000
cycles at a cell potential of 1.2 V and current load of 5 A g1. The good electrochemical
performance of coffee grounds carbon is attributed to develop porosity, with distribution of
micropores and mesopores of 24 nm wide, and the presence of electrochemically active quinone
oxygen groups and nitrogen functional groups. From the purview of food and bioprocess
industry, possibility to fractionate coffee by-products using appropriate processes represent an
exciting opportunity to attain new functional ingredients with high nutritional value

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CHAPTHER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
This chapter covers the different methods and different activities carried out to obtain data,
analyze the data so as to help achieve the specific objectives. The study was based on both
quantitative and qualitative information.
It gives account of the tools that were employed to collect and analyze the data that was useful to
this research.
3.2 Research design
The research was systematically planned and conducted within Kampala, Mbarara and Mukono
districts. A carefully designed time frame stipulating the period in which the different research
activities were undertaken was drawn up as shown in the appendix.
An observation checklist was used to carry out waste management assessment of the companys
operations. The purpose of undertaking such assessment was to examine:
Companys background
Inputs and outputs so as to identify opportunities for value addition
Using the observation checklist shown in the appendix, value addition methods were assessed at
thirty processing plants.
3.3 Context of the research methodology
3.3.1
Population and sampling.
Depending on the information obtained from the review pertaining the items in the checklist
shown in the appendix, data was collected from the respective departments (production, human
resource, maintenance, procurement and others ) analyzed and recommendations made.
The following criteria was used to choose the persons to interview

Expertise or knowledge in the respective area


Hierarchical position in the company or department
Most involved people like machine operators and coffee sorters
Waste management team member at the company

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3.3.2
Research procedure and methodology
In order to achieve the objectives of the research study, a number of methods were employed. It
is noted that researchers should not only consider the most method for the study of their chosen
topic or problem but also a combination of research methods that will produced a better of
it(Hansan et al 1998) . in this sense the research was carried out based on the case study
methodology which uses a combination of methods to collect data. The following methodology
was adapted in order to achieve the objectives of the project.
Search and review the necessary literature
Selection of the case study
Survey study of waste utilization and management practices at different coffee processing
plants and related stakers holders
Analysis of collected data
Report writing and prese3ntation of results
3.3.3
Selection of a case study
This research employed the case study method because of its suitability in attending to a wide
spectrum of evidence such as documents and its particularistic abilities in studying limitations to
value addition methods at the coffee processing plants. The case study was selected according to
the purposes set out by Patton (1990).from the above thirty processing plants were selected from
Kanpla, Mbarara and Mukono.the include among others Great Lakes Coffee Company Limited,
Kawacom coffee importers and exporters limited ,Banyakole Kwetarena Coffee Processors
Limited and Nyeihanga Coffee Processors Limited.
3.3.4
Study tour to the selected industry
The aim of the study tour was to obtain a general overview of the industry. Information regarding
the value and waste management operations was obtained. The tour also gave ideas about what
was asked in the checklist
3.3.5
Design of checklist
The check list that was used to gather information from different stake holders in the coffee
processing plants was designed. The emphasis was put on the sources of the coffee wastes, the

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coffee waste management methods and the possible value addition techniques that were being
employed as shown in the appendix.

3.3.6
Pre testing the designed checklist
This was achieved by selecting a few people to fill the checklist and they assessed whether the
designed checklist was easy to understand. Required changes were then made to make more
understandable by the stake holders
3.4 Data Collection Techniques
The data collection methods that were used include the following
3.4.1
Survey techniques using interviews and checklists.
This involved formally or informally meeting people at the coffee processing plants and related
stake holders to obtain relevant information about the coffee processing , coffee wastes and
coffee waste management in particular. The research interview was mainly social structured,
social interaction between the researcher and the subject who was indentified as potential source
of the information. The researcher initiated and controlled the exchange of information in order
to obtain quantifiable and comparable information relevant to previously stated study objectives

3.4.2
Desk research and use of internet
This involved gathering data that already exists from the internal sources of the industry,
publications of NEMA, UCDA, coffee production and processing textbooks and other journals
about coffee. This provided background knowledge to the research. Use of internet involved
getting relevant information from relevant websites that are concerned with the coffee processing
industry. T he websites mainly had information about coffee production and processing, the
different coffee wastes generated and how they could be utilized to add value to the coffee
wastes.
3.4.3
Interview guide pre-testing
The interview guide was tested by giving it to fellow student to assess whether the set objectives
would be achieved by the questions on the interview guide
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3.5 Data analysis.


All data collected was examined and analyzed to identify the major sources of coffee wastes,
identification of the waste management practices and identification of the possible ways of value
addition. Each part of the observation checklist was coded based on the nature of the factor
statement. The codes were selected and assigned to each response of the question as shown in the
appendix table
The coded data was then exported to SPSS and analyzed accordingly. Tables and graphs were
drawn using SPSS and then exported to Microsoft word. Microsoft excel was also used to draw
some of the graphs using data analyzed by SPSS.
Qualitative data was also considered and researcher gave objective opinion to majority view and
it was used to draw some of the conclusions.

3.6 Report writing


The documentation included any communicable material such as text used to explain some
attributes of the project. The project documentation involved critically compiling the different
information obtained right from start of the research project to the findings and outcomes.

3.7 Report presentation


Finally the report was presented to the panel of lecturers from Mechanical Engineering
Department.
3.8 Assumptions
The following assumptions were made during the data collection
The observation checklist exhausted all the information required to complete the project
The information that was obtained from the checklist was un biased representation of the
coffee processing plants in Uganda.
The sample that was selected was the representation of the entire population involved.

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CHAPTER FOUR
FINDINGS AND PRESENTATION

4.1 Introduction
This chapter highlights how the collected data was edited, coded, tabulated and represented. The
data collected was compared to standard practices of waste management aimed at attaining value
addition to the coffee wastes in the coffee processing plants.
4.2 Demographic features
This part of the questionnaire comprised of the respondents personal details such as gender,
education level, position at work, age, and relationship with firm owner and work experience
4.2.1
Respondent position in the plant
Table 2: Position held
POSITION HELD

Frequency

Percent

DIRECTOR (OWNER)

20.0

MARKETING MANAGER

13.3

PRODUCTION MANAGER

20.0

TECHNICIAN

13.3

OTHERS

10

33.3

Total

30

100.0

From the table, it can be observed that 20 percent of the respondents were directors and or
owners, 13.3 percent were marketing managers, 20 percent were production managers, 13.3
percent were technicians and 33.3 percent represents other like logistics, coffee sorters. It was
noted during the research that most of the small scale plants had their owners serving all the top
duties like marketing and production.

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4.2.2
Gender of the respondent
Respondents were asked to select which gender they belonged to. The responses were as shown
in the table below
Table 3: Gender
GENDER

Frequency

Percent

FEMALE

20.0

MALE

24

80.0

Total

30

100.0

It was noted that 20 percent of the respondents were female and 80 percent were males. From the
table it can be noted that most of the employees in coffee plants are males.
4.2.3
Relationship of employee with the firm owner
Respondents were asked to select their relationship with firm owner. The responses were as
shown in the table below
Table 4: Relationship with firm owner
RELATION SHIP WITH OWNER

Frequency

Percent

YES

15

50.0

NO

15

50.0

Total

30

100.0

Fifty percent of the respondents agreed that they are related to the firm owners. It was noted that
most of the respondents from small scale plants were related with the firm owner as compared to
those from large scale plants this inhibits the level of innovation and creativity in terms of value
addition to the coffee wastes since workers are not recruited based on technical knowhow.

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4.2.4
Education level of the respondent
Respondents were also requested to select their education level attained. The responses are
summarized in the table below.
Table 5: Education level
EDUCATION LEVEL

Frequency

Percent

ELEMENTARY

3.3

SECONDARY

11

36.7

POST SECONDARY

18

60.0

Total

30

100.0

It can be noted from the table that most of the employees in coffee processing plants are educated
to the level of post secondary representing 60 percent of the total respondants.36.7 percent of the
respondents had achieved secondary level and 3.3 percent had achieved elementary level.
4.2.5
Respondent age bracket
Respondents were also requested to select their age bracket. The responses are summarized in the
table below.
Table 6: Age bracket
AGE BRACKET

Frequency

Percent

21-30

26.7

31-40

11

36.7

41-50

11

36.7

Total

30

100.0

From the table, few people below the age of 30 years were employed in the plants. These
represented 26.7 percent of the respondents compared to the 36.7 percent of the respondents
between 31- 40 and 41- 50. This is due to the high experience required when hiring employees

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4.2.6
Respondent work experience
Respondents were also requested to select their work experience. The responses are summarized
in the table below.
Table 7: Work experience
WORK

Frequency

Percent

0 -5

18

60.0

6 10

30.0

10+

10.0

Total

30

100.0

EXPERIENCE

From the table, it was observed that most of the employees in the coffee processing plants had
little experience. These totaled to 60 percent of the total respondents.
4.2.7

The relationship between the positions held with the education level was also established

Table 8.Ralation between position held and aeducation level


EDUCATION LEVEL
ELEMENT

SECONDA

POST

ARY

RY

SECONDARY

TECHNICIAN

OTHERS

11

18

POSITION HELD
DIRECTOR
(OWNER)
MARKETING
MANAGER
PRODUCTION
MANAGER

Total

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

It can be noted that most the respondents went past secondary level representing 60 percent of
the total respondents. It was noted that the level of education didnt matter for someone to start
up a coffee processing plant. (Owners), while it was considered mostly for the position of
technician and production manager.
4.2.8
The relationship between the positions held with the gender was also established and a
graph plotted.
Table 9.Relationship between position held and gender

POSITION HELD
GENDER

FEMAL
E
MALE
Total

DIRECTOR

MARKETIN PRODUCTI

TECHNICI

OTHER

(OWNER)

ON

AN

MANAGER

MANAGER

10

It was noted that the gender also influenced the position held in the plant. The
position of director had 16.7 percent (1) of the respondents as females compared to
the 83.3 percent (5) males. 33.3 percent (2) of the 20 percent (6) females that were
interviewed served as director and the marketing manager. There was no female who
served as technicians and production manager.
4.1.1

The relationship between the positions held with the work experience was
also established
WORK EXPERIENCE
POSITION HELD

0 -5

6 - 10

10+

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Total

DIRECTOR (OWNER) 2

TECHNICIAN

OTHERS

10

18

30

MARKETING
MANAGER
PRODUCTION
MANAGER

Total

From the table, it was observed that most of the employees in the coffee processing plants had
little experience. These totaled to 60 percent of the total respondents. The directors had more
experience than other employees.
4.3 Major sources of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants
This part of the questionnaire comprised of a closed-ended coffee wastes factor statements
whereby the respondents were requested to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree,
neither agree nor strongly disagree, or disagree for each of the statements.

4.3.1

The coffee wastes consist of mainly coffee husks

Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

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waste mainly coffee husk

7%
33%
60%

Sixty percent (60%) strongly agreed that that the coffee wastes mainly consists of the coffee
husks, thirty three percent (10 respondents) agreed, seven percent (2 respondents)not sure, none
strongly disagreed and none disagreed as shown in the graph in figure;

4.3.2
The coffee wastes consist of mainly spent coffee beans
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

mainly of spent coffee beans

7% 7%
33%
53%

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Seven percent (2) strongly agreed that the coffee wastes consist of mainly spent coffee beans,
fifty three percent (16 respondents) agreed, seven percent (2 respondents)not sure, seven
percent(2respondents) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure;

4.3.3
The coffee wastes consist of mainly other by-products
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

consists of other by-products

7% 3%
33%

57%

Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree. Thirty three percent (10) strongly agreed with this statement, fifty seven
percent (17 respondents) agreed, seven percent (2 respondents)not sure, three percent(1
respondent) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure;

4.3.4

The moisture content of the processed coffee known

Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree.

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moisture content known

23%

27%

17%
33%

Twenty seven percent (8) strongly agreed that the moisture content of the processed coffee was
known, thirty three percent (10 respondents) agreed, seventeen percent (2 respondents)not sure,
twenty three percent(7 respondents) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph
in figure;
The results indicated that forty percent of the processing plants still process coffee without
knowing its moisture content.

4.3.5
The plant has dryers
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

32

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

plant has dryers

20%

30%

10%

40%

Thirty percent (9) strongly agreed that the processing plants have dryers to dry the coffee to the
desired moisture content, forty percent (12 respondents) agreed, ten percent (3 respondents)not
sure, twenty percent (6 respondents) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the
graph in figure;
The results showed that the biggest percentage (70%) of the processing plants had dryers .some
processing plants still use traditional methods to dry the coffee which increases o the wastes
generated particularly the spent coffee beans.
From the results attained from the open ended statements, the respondents also listed the
following as causes of the coffee wastes in coffee processing plants.

Un ripe coffee beans which are mixed with ripe beans thus increasing the quantity of

spent coffee beans


Coffee beans which are not well dried (high moisture content)
Low quality coffee beans caused by farmers drying their coffee beans on bare grounds
with a lot of dust

The main sources the coffee wastes include the coffee husks and spent coffee beans. The
respondents also indentified some other coffee wastes which include the

Choke beans
Spent coffee grounds
33

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

4.4 Analysis of the different technologies used in management of coffee wastes by coffee
processing plants.
This part of the questionnaire comprised of a closed-ended coffee wastes management factor
statements whereby the respondents were requested to select one of five options: strongly agree,
agree, neither agree nor strongly disagree, or disagree for each of the statements.

4.4.1

Factory gathers the waste generated


Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure,
strongly disagree or disagree

factory gathers the waste generated

3%3%

48%
45%

Forty nine percent (15) strongly agreed that the processing plants gather the coffee wastes
generated, forty five percent (14 respondents) agreed, three percent (1 respondent) not sure, three
percent (1 respondent) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure;
4.4.2

The different forms of waste generated during the processing of coffee are sorted

Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

34

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

the different forms of coffee waste sorted

13%

3%
27%

57%

Twenty seven percent (8 respondents) strongly agreed that the different forms of coffee wastes
are sorted, fifty seven percent (17 respondents) agreed, thirteen percent (4 respondents) not sure,
three percent (1 respondent) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in
figure
4.4.3
The plant has a waste disposal site
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

plant has a waste disposal site

34%

24%

41%

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Twenty four percent (7 respondents) strongly agreed that the coffee processing plants have a
waste disposal site, forty one percent (12 respondents) agreed, thirty five percent (10
respondents)not sure, none disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure
From the graph it was noted thirty five percent dont have a waste disposal site. This contributes
to environmental degradation
4.4.4
The quantity of coffee wastes generated daily recorded
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

quantity of waste generated daily recorded

7%
13%

20%
10%

50%

Twenty percent (6 respondents) strongly agreed that the quantity of waste generated daily is
recorded, ten percent (3 respondents) agreed, fifty percent (15 respondents) not sure, thirteen
percent (4 respondents) disagreed and seven percent (2 respondents) strongly disagreed as shown
in the graph in figure
From the graph it was noted that most (70%) of the coffee processing plants didnt know the
amount of waste generated annually. This affects negatively the waste management equipment
selection and collection and management decisions regarding coffee wastes.

36

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

4.4.5
NEMA standards practiced during disposal of the coffee waste
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree
Sixty seven percent (6 respondents) strongly agreed that NEMA standards are followed and
practiced in coffee waste management, ten percent (3 respondents) agreed, fifty percent (15
respondents) not sure, thirteen percent (4 respondents) disagreed and seven percent (2
respondents) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure
From the graph it was observed that most of the coffee processing plants followed the regulations
and policies of NEMA regarding

NEMA standards practiced

10%
23%
67%

4.4.6
The waste generated is given to customers free of charge
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

waste generated given to people free of charge

10%
7%
50%
33%

Ten percent (3 respondents) strongly agreed with this statement, seven percent (3 respondents)
agreed, none was neutral, thirty three percent (10 respondents) disagreed and fifty percent (15
respondents) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph in figure
The respondents reported that the coffee wastes are given to them in exchange for good quality
coffee: for every one sack of good coffee; they were given a sack of the coffee wastes.
4.4.7
Waste generated stored on factory premises
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste stored on factory premises

3% 3%
3%
50%
40%

38

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Fifty percent (15 respondents) strongly agreed with this statement, forty percent (12
respondents) agreed, four percent (1 respondent) was neutral, three percent (1 respondent)
disagreed and three percent (1 respondent) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
This showed that the coffee processing plants are applying well the waste management practices.

4.5 The possible ways of value addition


This part of the questionnaire comprised of closed-ended coffee value addition factor statements
whereby the respondents were requested to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree,
neither agree nor strongly disagree, or disagree for each of the statements.

4.5.1
Waste used as vermin-compost
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste used as vermin-compost

17%

3%
37%

43%

Thirty seven percent (15 respondents) strongly agreed that the coffee wastes can be used as
vermin-compost, forty three percent (12 respondents) agreed, seventeen percent (4 respondents)
were neutral, three percent (1 respondent) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the
graph in figure
39

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

From the table it can be seen that most the respondents (80%) were aware that the coffee wastes
can be used as vermin compost.
4.5.2
Waste used to grow mushrooms
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste used to grow mushrooms

10%

3% 10%

30%
47%

Ten percent (3 respondents) strongly agreed with this statement, forty seven percent (14
respondents) agreed, thirty percent (9 respondents) were neutral, ten percent (3 respondents)
disagreed and three percent (1 respondent) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
It can be seen that fifty seven percent of the respondents were aware that the coffee wastes can
be used to grow mushrooms.
4.5.3
Waste used to produce biogas
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

waste used to produce biogas

7% 17%

43%

33%

Seventeen percent (5 respondents) strongly agreed with this statement, thirty three percent (10
respondents) agreed, forty three percent (13 respondents) were neutral, seven percent (2
respondents) disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
It can be seen from the graph that fifty percent of the respondents were aware that the coffee
wastes can be used in the production of biogas.
4.5.4
Waste used as animal feed
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste used as animal feed

7% 3%
23%

30%

37%

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Three percent (1 respondent) strongly agreed with this statement, thirty percent (9 respondents)
agreed, thirty seven percent (11 respondents) were neutral, twenty three percent (7 respondent7)
disagreed and seven percent (2 respondents) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
It was observed that the majority of the respondents (67%) were not aware that the coffee wastes
can be used as animal feed
4.5.5
Waste used as compost manure
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste used as compost manure

3%

40%
57%

Fifty seven percent (17 respondents) strongly agreed that the coffee waste can be used as
compost manure, forty percent (12 respondents) agreed, four percent (1 respondent) was neutral,
none disagreed and none strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
It was observed that (97%) of the respondents are aware that coffee wastes can be used as
compost manure
4.5.6
Waste used to produce bio ethanol
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

42

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Three percent (1 respondent) strongly agreed that the coffee waste are used to produce bioethanol, seven percent (2 respondents) agreed, forty percent (12 respondents) were neutral, thirty
seven percent (11 respondents) disagreed and thirteen percent (4 respondents) strongly disagreed
as shown in the graph in figure
In was noted that most of the respondents were not aware of the use of coffee wastes to produce
bio ethanol

waste used to produce bioethanol

13% 3% 7%

37%

40%

4.5.7
Waste used to produce briquettes
Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

43

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

waste used to produce briquettes

17%

30%

13%

40%

None strongly agreed that the coffee wastes are used to produce briquettes, forty percent (12
respondents) agreed, thirty percent (9 respondents) were neutral, seventeen percent (5
respondent5) disagreed and thirteen percent (1 respondent) strongly disagreed as shown in the
graph.
4.4.8

Coffee waste used as chaff

Respondents were required to select one of five options: strongly agree, agree, not sure, strongly
disagree or disagree

waste used as chaff

20%

53%
27%

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Fifty percent (15 respondents) strongly agreed that the coffee wastes are used as chaff, forty
percent (12 respondents) agreed, four percent (1 respondent) was neutral, three percent (1
respondent) disagreed and three percent (1 respondent) strongly disagreed as shown in the graph.
.

5.0

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1.

Introduction

The purpose of the study was to determine and recommend appropriate methods of adding value
to the coffee wastes in coffee processing plants. The population of the study included all small
scale and large scale coffee processing plants in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative
data was collected using a survey check list and by oral interviews.

45

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Coffee is one of the important products, its subsequent processes such as cultivation, processing,
trading, transportation, and marketing, provide employment and is a huge business worldwide.
With the high crop production projected in the future, there is a vital need to counterpart this
production with proper utilization and industrial application of coffee by-products. Valorization
of these by-products could be value addition from environmental point of view.

5.2.

Conclusions

The coffee sector as one of the most ecologically conscious and social responsible industries
may be ready to adopt a responsibility for the residue recovery and value addition. In the
production chain of coffee most of the biomass residues i.e. coffee husks, and spent coffee beans
are produced in the coffee processing areas, it was observed that the major causes of coffee
wastes in the coffee processing plants included

The high moisture content of the beans that are processed.


Unripe coffee beans which are mixed with ripe beans thus increasing the quantity of

spent coffee beans after sorting.


Low quality coffee beans caused by farmers drying their coffee beans on bare grounds
with a lot of dust

Analysis of the different technologies used in management of coffee wastes by coffee processing
plants showed that most of the coffee processing plants have adapted best practices in waste
management aimed at achieving value addition. Integration of coffee by-products and use of
efficient microorganisms to metabolize can serve dual purpose of value addition as well as waste
management with environmental conservation. However, much remains to be done in these areas
to develop commercial processes with techno-economic feasibility.
It was noted that most the techniques used in value addition are low value addition methods.
The cost and availability of substrates are important in the development of any efficient value
addition process in food and pharmaceutical industries. Limited value addition of the coffee
wastes is obtained in mulching, poultry rearing, fuel use (burning it to produce heat), and
vermin compost and as raw manure. However few respondents have adapted to the higher value
addition methods like briquetting making and mushroom growing using coffee wastes.
46

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

5.3.

Recommendations

In this study the current knowledge of the coffee residues, their composition and the current
state of the art of coffee residue utilisation are described. Many of the uses that are described in
the open literature and patents are low value compost, mulching or fermentation feedstock and
raw burning as chaff. Other patents are seeking value addition of residues for the energy content
(briquettes, biodiesel) and manufacturing of activated carbon. Many patents for higher value
added use are addressing food additives, medical and pharmaceutical or cosmetic uses of
selected fractions. From the open literature records it cannot be concluded which applications
actually have been implemented successfully. Further investigation of the commercialisation
potential is recommended.
Based on the literature survey and information obtained with the use of checklist, a number of
options were identified and recommended for value addition as;
Sustainable utilization of agro-industrial wastes through integration of bio-energy and
mushroom production proposes to integrate mushroom cultivation from coffee processing for
more value addition. The techno-economic feasibility of the integrated technologies benefit agro
processing industries, diversify their products through utilization of coffee wastes to produce bio
products with high economic value with competitive advantage. Utilization of coffee wastes for
oyster mushroom cultivation is still in its infancy in some parts of the country.
Growing oyster mushrooms by utilizing coffee wastes holistically help in obtaining high
mushroom yields, making the venture technically realistic and feasible at large scale.
One of the easy approaches is the use of coffee pulp and husk for production of mushrooms in
the coffee estates and curing works itself where the material is readily obtained and also could
be seasonal occupation developing value addition. This process if commercially established and
valorized would be interesting from environmental and economic standpoints and will be a
sustainable measure for coffee industry in terms of value addition

47

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Bio refinery and stepwise extraction of valuable components from coffee residues (SCG, chaff)
needs to be investigated for its technical and economic feasibility. The cascading of lipid
extraction, followed by extraction of polymeric carbohydrates (mannan) as integrated process in
coffee waste recovery may prove to be profitable and reduce the environmental impact of coffee
production and thus enhance the sustainability of the coffee consumption.

Extraction and value addition of lipid fractions remaining in the SCG after brewing process may
yield economic value as pharmaceutical preparation and/or biodiesel feedstock. The waste water
from coffee brewing industries is currently disposed off at high costs. Its lipid content and
possibly other relevant organic constituents may provide value for water pre-cleaning and
economic recovery of green chemicals from this fraction.

The perspective of value addition of fractionated coffee residues seems worthwhile for further
exploration. Especially the lipids fraction may find value in the non-sponifyable fraction, e.g.
diterpenes and saponins. These bioactive compounds may find high value by use in
pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The triglyceride fraction composition contains valuable
long chain omega fatty acids, known for their promoted use in health foods.

The use of polymeric linear mannans in bio plastics production should be explored. Its intrinsic
properties known from other sources invites for investigation of this option to convert this
residue into disposable bio plastics that can be thermoformed and is heat stable. Disposable
coffee cups based on coffee residues would make a strong marketing. Another use of this
component may be found as bioplastic or coating in packaging films.

The use of coffee chaff should be explored for its content of waxy material containing potential
high value precursors for serotonin manufacturing, which is well known for its importance as
neurotransmitter in medical literature.
The production Biogas from coffee waste water
48

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Appropriate fermentation and other procedures lower the pH and further neutralization process
gives rise to CO2 foam [mainly acetate salts and raise the pH from 3.8 tom 6.1] so formed will
float out more solids, principally dark coloured tannins and poly-phenolics. Evolution of CO 2 at
this point enables the later production of a highly methane-enriched biogas with only half of the
usual level of inert CO2. The clear acetate solution can then be passed through a UASB digester
to make biogas, or, dripped over a suspended curtain as in the aerobic Fungal Gulp process to
make Single Cell Protein for animal feedstuff. The biogas produced can best be used by running
an engine on it tom generate electricity, and all the lower grade waste heat from cooling and
exhaust can still be used for drying coffee.
A study of the same project in other parts of the country should be done to compare the results
obatained. This will help to indentify the validity of the results.
Most of the coffee processing plants were reluctant to release information about waste
management. Sensitisation of the industry about the importance of the projects is also
recommended .

4.5.8
References
B. Ajayi Cement bonded particle boards manufactured from coffee chaff J. Appl Trop
Agric. 10 (2005) 63-66

M. Akiyama, K. Murakami, N. Ohtani, K. Iwatsuki, K. Sotoyama, A. Wada, K. Tokuno, H.


Iwabuchi, K. Tanaka Analysis of volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted
coffee beans using SolidPhase microextraction. J. Agric Food Chem, 51 (2003) 1961-1969

K.F. Allred, K.M. Yackley, J. Vanamala, C.D. Allred Trigonelline is a novel phytoestrogen
in cofffe beans. J. Nutr 139 (2009) 1833-1838

49

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

S. Anduaeza, L. Manzocco, M. Paz de Pea, C. Cid, C. Nicoli Caffeic acid decomposition


products: antioxidants or pro-oxidants? Food Res Internat 42 (2009) 51-55

E. Aranda and I. Barois Coffee pulp vermicomposting treatment. In: Coffee Biotechnology
and quality, Kluwer Acad Publ. Dordrecht, 2000 pp 489-506.

IC Arts, B. van de Putte, P.C. Holman Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in
The
Netherlands. 2 Tea, wine. Fruit juices and chocolate milk. J Agric Food Chem 48 (2000)
1752-1757

Asano, K. Hamaguchi, S. Fuji, H. Iino In vitro digestibility and fermentation of


mannoologosaccharides from coffee mannan. Food Sci technol 9 (2003) 62-66

J.R. Barone Lignocellulose Fibre-reinforces keratin polymer composites J. Polym &


Environm 17 (2009) 143-151

M. Becidan, . Skreiberg, J.E. Hustad Products distribution and gas release in pyrolysis of
thermally thick biomass residues samples. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 78 (2007)207-213

E. K. Bekedam, E. Roos, H.A. Schols, M.A.J.S. van Boekel, G. Smit Low molecular weight
melanoidins in coffee brew. J. Agric Food Chem 56 (2008a) 4060-4067.

E. K. Bekedam, H.A. Schols, B. Cmmerer, L.W. Kroh, M.A.J.S. van Boekel, G. Smit
Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on the formation of Roasting-indiuced antioxidative
structures in coffee brew mat different degrees of roast. J. Agric Food Chem 56 (2008b) 45974604.

E. K. Bekedam, M.J. Loots, H.A. Schols, M.A.J.S. van Boekel, G. Smit Roasting effects on
formation mechanisms of coffee brew melanoidins. J. Agric Food Chem 56 (2008c) 71387145.

R.S. Benjankiwar, K.S. Lokesh, T.P. Halappa Gowda Colour and organic removal of
biologically treated coffee curing waste water by electrochemical oxidation method. J.
Environm. Sci. 125 (2003) 323-327.

C.P. Bicchi, O.M. Panero, G.M. Pellegrino and A.C. Vanni, Characterization of roasted coffee
and coffe beverages by solid phase microextrcation-gass chromatography and principal
component analysis. J. Agric Food Chem 45 (1997) 4680-4686

E.T.N. Bisanda, W.O. Ogola, J.V. Tesha Characterization of tannin rsin blends for particle
board applications. Cement & concrete composite 25 (2003) 593-598

M. Blanc, A. Pittet, R.Mooz-Box, R Viani Behavior of ochratoxin A during green coffee


roasting and soluble coffee manufacture. J Agric Food Chem 46 (1998) 673-675

50

INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

F. Boccas, S. Roussos, M. Gutierrez, L. Serrano, G.G. Viniegra, - Production of pectinase


from coffee pulp in solid state fermantion system: selection of wild fungal isolate of high
potency by a simple three-step screening technique. J. Food Sci Technol. 31 (1994) 299-30

APPENDICES.

4.6 APPENDEX A

A.1 Research Budget.


no.
Item

unit cost(ug.shs)

total cost(ug.shs)

Printing and binding a proposal

100 per paper

5, 000

Printing questionnaires

100 per paper

20, 000

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Printing and binding reports

100 per paper

20,000

Transport

60000 per day

120,000

Launch

7000 per day

40,000

Others expenditures

30,000

TOTAL

256,000

A.2. Survey checklist of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants in Uganda


The Faculty of Techenology, Makerere University is conducting a survey to ascertain the
generation of coffee wastes in coffee processing plants. The major goal is to develop appropriate
and best practices guidelines of waste management and value addition suitable for the coffee
processing industry in Uganda. The outcome of this survey will supplement a parallel research
undertaken by the faculty to add value to the coffee wastes from the coffee processing plants in
Uganda. You have been identified as a stake holder in this undertaking. Please feel free to
express your views with our interviewer. Information provided will be treated with utmost
confidentiality and used for research objectives only

A.2.1 demographic details.


POSITION HELD

PRODUCTION

MARKETING

MANAGER

MANAGER

TECHNICIAN

OTHERS

()

RELATED TO FIRM OWNER ()

YES

RESPONDENT GENDER ()

NO

FEMALE

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

MALE

EDUCATION

NONE

ELEMENTARY

SECONDARY

LEVEL ()

AGE BRACKET
()

POST
SECONDARY

20-30

31-40

41-50

51-60

60+

WORK EXPERIENCE

A.2.2. Identification of the major sources of waste in coffee processing plants:


Strongly
WASTE GENERATION

Agree neutra

agree

disagree

The waste generated mainly consist of coffee


husks(coffee pulp)
Waste generated mainly consists of spent coffee beans
The waste generated also consists of other by products
The company knows the moisture content of the coffee
they process
The company has dryers to dry coffee to the required
moisture content
Please give your personnel view about the causes of the coffee wastes generated during the
processing of coffee in your company

Please mention other types of coffee wastes not mentioned above


.
.

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Strongly
Disagree

A.2.3 Identification of current waste management practices


Strongly
waste management methods

Agree neutra

agree

disagree

the factory gathers the wastes generated during


processing of coffee
The factory sorts the different forms of waste generated.
The factory has a waste disposal site
The waste generated is given to people free of charge
The company practices NEMA standards on waste
management
The factory stores waste on the premises.
Please give your personal suggestion on how waste management can be best practiced in coffee
processing plants.

.
.

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

Strongly
Disagree

A.2.4 Possible methods of value addition


Strongly
Value addition techniques

Agree neutra

agree

The waste can be used as vermin compost


The waste can be used to grow mushrooms
The waste can be used to produce biogas
The waste can be used to produce compost manure
The waste can be used as animal feed
The waste can be used to produce bio-ethanol
The waste can be used to produce briquettes
The waste can be used as chaff
Please give your personal suggestion on how to add value to the coffee wastes.
..
..

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CORPERATION AND TIME !!!!

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INVESTIGATING VALUE ADDITION TO COFFEE WASTES

disagree

Strongly
Disagree