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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


PAHANG
LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE

CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS LABORATORY

COURSE CODE

ECS256

LEVEL OF OPENNESS

CATEGORY

FULLY OPEN

DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%)

PERIOD OF ACTIVITY

1 WEEK

TITLE

STEEL TENSILE TEST

1.1 Introduction
The suitability of a material for use is a given application or within a given structure
is determined by analyses of the material behavior under loading conditions. The
deformation of a sample as well as the stresses induced by loading can only be
understood and predicted with accuracy if the standard mechanical characteristics
of the sample are known. Tensile test is a means by which important mechanical
characteristics of a material sample are determined. Principally, tensile tests
involve tensile, axial loading of a sample, and measurements of sample deflection
due to the axial stress induced.
1.2 Objective
The objectives of the test are:
1. To obtain the static and fundamental tensile standard mechanical
properties of material such as the modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus)
E, ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% offset yield strength, ductility, modulus of
resilience, and toughness.

PREAMBLE

2. To conduct tension test on steel rod, and to draw the stress-strain curve
and find its yield stress.

1.3 Learning Outcomes


At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Identify and use the correct apparatus/tools to carry out experiment on
tensile test.
2. Analyse the collected data correctly and present in proper technical format
3. Work in a group to undertake the task and produce the technical report.

FKA, UiTM, PAHANG

Dis 2014

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PAHANG
LABORATORY MANUAL

2.0 Problem Statement


To obtain the static and fundamental tensile standard mechanical properties of
material such as the modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus) E, ultimate tensile
strength, 0.2% offset yield strength, ductility, modulus of resilience, and
toughness. Besides that, you need to conduct tension test on steel rod, and to
draw the stress-strain curve and find its yield stress. You are required to carry out
the tests using the appropriate apparatus in the laboratory.
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

3.1 Apparatus

1. Universal testing machine (UTM) with applicable bending accessories.


2. Deflectormeter (1 inch dial gauge)
3. Beam support to simulate a simply supported beam
4. Mechanical calipers
5. Tape measure.

FKA, UiTM, PAHANG

Dis 2014

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PAHANG
LABORATORY MANUAL

3.2 Procedures
1. measure the diameter of the specimen supplied.
2. Mark the gauge length on the specimen.
3. Fix the specimen in between the upper and the lower cross heads
by using the appropriate grips. The grips are operated by electric
motors attached to cross heads. The length between the grips is
known as gauge length. (L)
4. The programme corresponding to the test is set in the computer.
5. Apply the load by pressing the corresponding button on the control
board.
6. An automatic load-elongation/extension graph and stress-strain
graph are obtained from the computer giving the following details:

WAYS &
MEANS

i.

test date and time

ii.

gauge length of specimen

iii.

modulus of elasticity of material

iv.

data regarding yeild point, ultimate load and


break down point.

7. Note the data from the stress-strain graph and the table below.
8. Keep two broken pieces together.
9. Measure the final gauge length, L1 in mm with the scale.
10.Determine the neck shape and measure the neck diameter, d1 in
mm with Vernier calipers.

3.3 Data Acquisition


All data collected from the tests may be recorded into the following tables.
Table 3.1: Results for Experiment 1
Maximum load
(N)

Extension
at break
(mm)

Modulus
(MPa)

Stress at 2%
yield (MPa)

1
mean

FKA, UiTM, PAHANG

Dis 2014

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PAHANG
LABORATORY MANUAL

4.0 Results, Analysis and Conclusion


The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of
the set-out output to achieve the objective.
i.

Yield stress (N/mm2)

=
2

ii. Breaking stress(N/mm )

iii. Ultimate stress(N/mm2)

iv. Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2)

v. Yield strain (mm)

RESULTS
Calculate the modulus of elasticity, percentage elongation and percentage
reduction in area and check with the data obtained from the computer.
The report must incorporate the followings:
i.

All data recorded must be tabulated in the given form provide and the
graph plotted on the graph.

ii.

Any calculation must be clearly shown.

iii. Discuss on the results and state your conclusion


The report must be submitted 7 days after the completion of the test.

FKA, UiTM, PAHANG

Dis 2014