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The Zero Conditional

We can make a zero conditional sentence with two present simple verbs (one in the 'if
clause' and one in the 'main clause'):

If + present simple, .... present simple.

This conditional is used when the result will always happen. So, if water reaches 100
degrees, it always boils. It's a fact. I'm talking in general, not about one particular
situation. The result of the 'if clause' is always the main clause.
The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the
meaning.
For example: If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils. (It is always true, there can't be a
different result sometimes). If I eat peanuts, I am sick. (This is true only for me, maybe,
not for everyone, but it's still true that I'm sick every time I eat peanuts)
Here are some more examples:

If people eat too much, they get fat.

If you touch a fire, you get burned.

People die if they don't eat.

You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.

Snakes bite if they are scared

If babies are hungry, they cry

See this page about the first conditional to learn about the difference between the
first and the zero conditionals. The first conditional is about a specific situation, but the
zero is talking in general.

The First Conditional


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The first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the future simple in the
other clause:

if + present simple, ... will + infinitive

It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know
what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily
come true.

If it rains, I won't go to the park.

If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight.

If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes.

She'll be late if the train is delayed.

She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.

If I see her, I'll tell her.

First vs. Zero Conditional:


The first conditional describes a particular situation, whereas the zero
conditional describes what happens in general.
For example (zero conditional): if you sit in the sun, you get burned (here I'm talking
about every time a person sits in the sun - the burning is a natural consequence of the
sitting)
But (first conditional): if you sit in the sun, you'll get burned (here I'm talking about
what will happen today, another day might be different)
First vs. Second Conditional:
The first conditional describes things that I think are likely to happen in the future,
whereas the second conditional talks about things that I don't think will really happen.
It's subjective; it depends on my point of view.
For example (first conditional): If she studies harder, she'll pass the exam (I think it's
possible she will study harder and so she'll pass)
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But (second conditional): If she studied harder, she would pass the exam (I think that
she won't study harder, or it's very unlikely, and so she won't pass)

The Second Conditional


The second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the infinitive:

if + past simple, ...would + infinitive

(We can use 'were' instead of 'was' with 'I' and 'he/she/it'. This is mostly done in formal
writing).
It has two uses.
First, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be
true. Maybe I'm imagining some dream for example.

If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won't win the lottery)

If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.

She would travel all over the world if she were rich.

She would pass the exam if she ever studied.(She never studies, so this won't
happen)

Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible,
because it's not true. Is that clear? Have a look at the examples:

If I had his number, I would call him. (I don't have his number now, so it's
impossible for me to call him).
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If I were you, I wouldn't go out with that man.

How is this different from the first conditional?


This kind of conditional sentence is different from the first conditional because this is a
lot more unlikely.
For example (second conditional): If I had enough money I would buy a house with
twenty bedrooms and a swimming pool (I'm probably not going to have this much
money, it's just a dream, not very real)
But (first conditional): If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes (It's much more
likely that I'll have enough money to buy some shoes)

The Third Conditional


We make the third conditional by using the past perfect after 'if' and then 'would have'
and the past participle in the second part of the sentence:

if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle

It talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to
imagine the result of this situation.

If she had studied, she would have passed the exam (but, really we know she
didn't study and so she didn't pass)

If I hadn't eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt sick (but I did eat a lot, and so
I did feel sick).

If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the plane

She wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier

She would have become a teacher if she had gone to university

He would have been on time for the interview if he had left the house at nine
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Participle Adjectives

Download a list of common -ed and -ing adjectives in PDF here

Download my much longer full list (no examples) in PDF here

Some participles (like 'bored' or 'boring') can be used as adjectives. These are used in a
slightly different way from normal adjectives. We usually use the past participle (ending
in -ed) to talk about how someone feels:

I was really bored during the flight (NOT: I was really boring during the flight).

She's interested in history (NOT: She's really interesting in history).

John's frightened of spiders (NOT: John's frightening of spiders).

We usually use the present participle (ending in -ing) to talk about the person, thing, or
situation which has caused the feeling:

It was such a long, boring flight (so I was bored).

I read a really interesting book about history (so I was interested).


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Many people find spiders frightening (so they're frightened when they see
spiders).

Be careful! 'I'm boring' is very different from 'I'm bored'! 'I'm boring' means I cause
other people to be bored. This is not good! Here are some examples of when one person
causes a feeling in another person:

I was talking to such a boring guy at the party. He talked about himself for an
hour!

She's a really interesting woman. She's lived all over the world and speaks five
languages.

My maths teacher at school was really frightening! He was always shouting at


the students.

These participle adjectives make their comparative by using 'more' (not -er) and their
superlative by using 'most' (not -est):

I was more frightened of dogs than spiders when I was a child.

That book is more boring than this one.

I think Dr Smith's lesson was more interesting than Dr Brown's.

For 24 hours on the flight to Australia, I was the most bored I've ever been.

I think this is the most interesting talk we've heard today.

It was the most frightening film that he'd ever seen.

Relative clauses

What is a relative clause?


(See a list of all the exercises about relative clauses here).
We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information
about something.

I bought a new car. It is very fast.


I bought a new car that is very fast.
She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
She lives in New York, which she likes.

Defining and Non-defining


A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:

I like the woman who lives next door.


(If I don't say 'who lives next door', then we don't know which woman I mean).

A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We


don't need this information to understand the sentence.

I live in London, which has some fantastic parks.


(Everybody knows where London is, so 'which has some fantastic parks' is extra
information).

Defining relative clauses:


1: The relative pronoun is the subject:
First, let's consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause.
We can use 'who', 'which' or 'that'. We use 'who' for people and 'which' for things. We
can use 'that' for people or things.
The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. We can't
drop the relative pronoun.
For example (clause after the object of the sentence):

I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.

She has a son who / that is a doctor.

We bought a house which / that is 200 years old.

I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later.

More examples (clause after the subject of the sentence):

The people who / that live on the island are very friendly.

The man who / that phoned is my brother.

The camera which / that costs 100 is over there.

The house which / that belongs to Julie is in London.

Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the subject here.


2: The relative pronoun is the object:
Next, let's talk about when the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. In this case
we can drop the relative pronoun if we want to. Again, the clause can come after the
subject or the object of the sentence. Here are some examples:
(Clause after the object)

She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought.

We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended.

John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with.

The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with.

(Clause after the subject)

The bike (which / that) I loved was stolen.

The university (which / that) she likes is famous.

The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico.

The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York.

Try an exercise where the relative pronoun is the object here

Try an exercise about defining relative clauses, both subject and object here

Try another exercise about defining relative clauses, both subject and object
here

Non-defining relative clauses:


We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the
pronoun refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person. We can't drop the relative
pronoun in this kind of clause, even if the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
(Clause comes after the subject)

My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.

My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.

My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart.

My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small.

(Clause comes after the object)

Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York.

The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed.

Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now.

I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night.

Prepositions and relative clauses


If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we put it at the end of the clause:
For example:

listen to

The music is good. Julie listens to the music.


The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good.

work with
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My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman.


My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with.

go to

The country is very hot. He went to the country.


The country (which / that) he went to is very hot.

come from

I visited the city. John comes from the city.


I visited the city (that / which) John comes from.

apply for

The job is well paid. She applied for the job.


The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid.

Whose
'Whose' is always the subject of the relative clause and can't be left out. It replaces a
possessive. It can be used for people and things.
The dog is over there. The dog's / its owner lives next door.
The dog whose owner lives next door is over there.
The little girl is sad. The little girl's / her doll was lost.
The little girl whose doll was lost is sad.
The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW.
The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight.
The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old.
The house whose roof is old belongs to me.

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Where / when / why


We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and
prepositions.
I live in a city. I study in the city.
I live in the city where I study.
I live in the city that / which I study in.
I live in the city in which I study.
The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar.
The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.
The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there.
The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there.
The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.
The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.
The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot.
The summer in which I graduated was long and hot.

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S.No. Verbs

Nouns

Adjectives

accept

acceptance

acceptable

achieve

achievement

achievable

act

action

active

actively

act

activity

active

actively

act

activeness

active

actively

add

addition

additional

adjust

adjustment

adjustable

admire

admiration

admirable

advise

advice

advisable

10

amass

mass

massive

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amazed

amazement

amazing

12

amuse

amusement

amusing

13

annoy

annoyance

annoying

14

approach

approach

approachable

15

attend

attention

attentive

16

attract

attraction

attractive

17

avoid

avoidance

avoidable

18

believe

belief

believable

19

blacken

blackness

black

20

bleed

blood

bloody

21

bore

boredom

boring

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Adverbs

massively

22

bother

botheration

bothering

23

breathe

breath

breathing

24

bury

burial

buried

25

care

care

careful

26

challenge

challenge

challenging

27

chase

chase

chasing

28

cheer

cheerfulness

cheerful

29

choose

choice

chosen

30

clear

clarity

clear

clearly

31

collect

collection

collective

collectively

32

comfort

comfort

comfortable

comfortably

33

complex

complexity

complex

34

confuse

confusion

confused

35

consider

consideration

considerable

36

console

consolation

consoled

37

continue

continuity

continuous

continuously

38

craze

craze

crazy

crazily

39

create

creation

creative

creatively

40

credit

credit

creditable

creditably

41

cure

cure

curable

42

curse

curse

cursed

43

damage

damage

damaged

44

deafen

deafness

deaf

45

decide

decision

decisive

46

decorate

decoration

decorative

47

delight

delight

delightful

48

demand

demand

demanding

49

derive

derivation

derivative

50

deserve

deserve

deserving

51

destroy

destruction

destructive

52

develop

development

developing

53

die

death

dead

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carefully

cheerfully

considerably

delightfully

destructively

54

differ

difference

different

55

disturb

disturbance

disturbing

56

dust

dust

dusty

57

educate

education

educative

58

embarrass

embarrassment

embarrassing

59

empower

power

powerful

60

empty

emptiness

empty

61

encircle

circle

circular

circularly

62

encourage

courage

courageous

courageously

63

endanger

danger

dangerous

dangerously

64

enthuse

enthusiasm

enthusiastic

65

enumerate

number

numerable

66

envy

envy

envious

67

evaporate

evaporation

evaporating

68

expect

expectation

expected

69

explain

explanation

explainable

70

explore

exploration

exploring

71

fascinate

fascination

fascinating

72

feed

food

73

firm

firmness

firm

74

fly

flight

flying

75

force

force

forceful

forcefully

76

glorify

glory

glorious

gloriously

77

grow

growth

growing

growingly

78

harm

harm

harmful

harmfully

79

hate

hatred

hateful

hatefully

80

heal

health

healthy

healthily

81

hope

hope

hopeful

hopefully

82

identify

identification

indentified

83

identify

identity

indentifying

84

imitate

imitation

imitative

imitatively

85

impress

impression

impressive

impressively

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differently

powerfully

enviously

expectedly

firmly

86

include

inclusion

inclusive

inclusively

87

indicate

indication

indicative

indicatively

88

inform

information

informative

89

inhabit

habitat

inhabitant

90

injure

injury

injurious

91

inquire

inquiry

inquiring

92

instruct

instruction

instructive

93

insult

insult

insulting

insultingly

94

intent

intention

intentional

intentionally

95

interfere

interference

interfering

96

introduce

introduction

introductory

97

invent

invention

inventive

98

irritate

irritation

irritating

irritatingly

99

lead

leadership

leading

leadingly

100

live

life

lively

livingly

101

live

life

alive

livingly

102

live

liveliness

lively

livingly

103

lose

loss

lost

104

madden

madness

mad

105

migrate

migration

migrating

106

modernise

modernity

modern

107

moisten

moisture

moistures

108

monotonies

monotony

monotonous

monotonously

109

move

movement

movable

movingly

110

narrow

narrowness

narrow

111

nationalise

nationality

national

112

observe

observation

observatory

113

own

ownership

own

114

perform

performance

performing

115

permit

permission

permissible

116

persuade

persuasion

persuasive

117

please

pleasure

pleasant

15

injuriously

madly

nationwide

118

popularise

popularity

popular

119

quicken

quickness

quick

120

redden

redness

red

121

sadden

sadness

sad

sadly

122

secure

security

secured

securely

123

see

scene

scenic

124

see

sight

seen

125

speed

speed

speedy

126

whiten

whiteness

white

badness

bad

127

quickly

speedily

badly

In a sentence or text you have to change the form of a word, e.g. from a noun to an adjective, or from a verb to a
noun. For example:

The _____ was very nervous. (sing)


You have to complete the sentence with the person noun (singer). You change the verb (sing) into the person noun
(singer).
Look at the word you have to change. Which words do you know that are in the same word family?
The beginning of the word is often the same and the end of the word changes.
What form is the new word? A verb? A noun? An adjective? An adverb?
Nouns often end: -ment, -ion, -ness, -ity.
People nouns often end: -er, -or, -ist, -ian.
Adjectives often end: -able, -ible, -ive, -al, -ic, -ed, -ing.
Some verbs end: -ise, -ate, -en.
Adverbs often end: -ly.
Is the new word negative? If so, you may need a prefix, e.g. un- (unhappy), im- (impolite), in(inexperienced), dis- (dishonest), etc.
If you dont know the new word, guess. You may be right!
Check your answers carefully when you finish.

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