You are on page 1of 41

1.

Create a SAP 1 Code of the following operation


100 + 16 10 + 42 125
Use 0x0B to 0x0F for the Data
Solution:
LDA
ADD
SUB
ADD
SUB
OUT
HLT

0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0F

2. Create a machine code of the code in (1).


Addres
s
00H

Data in
Hex
0BH

01H

1CH

02H

2DH

03H

1EH

04H

2FH

05H

EXH

06H

FXH

07H

XXH

08H

XXH

09H

XXH

0AH

XXH

0BH

64H

0CH

10H

0DH

0AH

0EH

2AH

0FH

7DH

3. Trace the contents of the SAP-1 Peripherals from LDA to HLT instruction in (1).
Details must be in binary and hex.

Instruction:

LDA 0BH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

00H
00H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
00H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM

01H
00H
0BH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

IR

0BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
0BH
0BH
0BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
0BH
64H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H

0BH

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
0

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

ADD 0CH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
01H
64H
0BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
01H
64H
0BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA
R

RA
M

IR

ACC

A/S

Cp
1

Ep
0

EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
01H
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
0cH
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

At t5 state:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
0CH
10H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

64H
10H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
0CH
10H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
10H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1
SUB 0DH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM

02H
02H
10H

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
1

IR

1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
10H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
02H
10H
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
10H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
02H
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
10H

2DH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0DH
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
10H

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0DH
0AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

74H
0AH

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA
R

RA
M

IR

ACC

A/S

Cp
0

Ep
0

EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0DH
0AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

6AH
0AH

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
1

Eu
1

ADD 0EH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
03H
0AH
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

6AH
0AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

At t2 state:

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
03H
0AH
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

6AH
0AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
03H
1EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

6AH
0AH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0EH
1EH

ACC
B-Reg.

6AH
0AH

1EH

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0EH
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

6AH
2AH

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0EH
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
2AH

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
1

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

SUB 0FH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
04H
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
2AH

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
04H
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
2AH

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
04H
2FH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
2AH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
0FH
2FH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
2AH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

At t5 state:
PC

05H

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

0FH
7DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

94H
7DH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
0FH
7DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1
OUT

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
05H
7DH
2FH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
1

Eu
1

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

EA
0

B
Reg

A/S
Su
0

Eu
0

OR
1

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
05H
7DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
05H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH

EFH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
05H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH
17H

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
1

Su
0

Eu
0

HLT

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
06H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH
17H

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA

RA

IR

ACC

A/S

Cp
0

Ep
1

Reg
1

EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
06H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH
17H

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
06H
FFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

17H
7DH
17H

FFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
0

ACC
1

4. Create a SAP1 Code of the following operation

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

120 65 99 + 1 5 + 69 14
Use 0x09 to 0x0F for the Data
Solution:
LDA
SUB
SUB
ADD
SUB
ADD
SUB
OUT
HLT

0x09
0x0A
0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0F

5. Create a machine code of the code in (4).


Addres
s
00H

Data in
Hex
09H

01H

2AH

02H

2BH

03H

1CH

04H

2DH

05H

1EH

06H

2FH

07H

EXH

08H

FXH

09H

78H

0AH

41H

0BH

63H

0CH

01H

0DH

05H

0EH

45H

0FH

0EH

6. Trace the contents of the SAP-1 Peripherals from LDA to HLT instruction in (4).
Details must be in binary and hex.

Instruction:
At t1 state:

LDA 09H

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

00H
00H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
00H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
00H
09H
09H

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
09H
09H
09H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR
CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR
ACC
B-Reg.
OR

01H
09H
78H
09H
78H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
0

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

SUB 0AH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

01H
01H
78H
09H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

78H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
01H
78H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

78H

09H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
01H
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

78H

2AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
0AH
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

78H

2AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

At t5 state:
PC

02H

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

0AH
41H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

78H
41H

2AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

02H
0AH
41H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
41H

2AH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

SUB 0BH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM

02H
02H
41H

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
1

Eu
1

IR

2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
41H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
Ep
0
1
At t2 state:

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

03H
02H
41H
2AH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
41H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
02H
2BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
41H

2BH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0BH
2BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
41H

2BH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0BH
63H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

37H
63H

2BH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp

Ep

RA
M

IR

ACC

A/S
EA

Su

Eu

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
0BH
63H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D4H
63H

2BH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
1

Eu
1

ADD 0CH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

03H
03H
63H
2BH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D4H
63H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA
R

RA
M

Cp
Ep
0
1
At t2 state:

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
03H
2BH
D4H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

63H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
03H
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D4H
63H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0CH
1CH
1CH

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D4H
63H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0CH
01H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D4H
01H

1CH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
0CH
01H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
01H

1CH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
1

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

SUB 0DH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

04H
04H
01H
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
01H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
04H
01H
1CH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
01H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA
R

RA
M

IR

ACC

A/S

Cp
1

Ep
0

EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
04H
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
01H

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
0DH
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
01H

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

At t5 state:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
0DH
05H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D5H
05H

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

05H
0DH
05H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
05H

2DH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

ADD 0EH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8

05H
05H
05H

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
1

Eu
1

RAM
IR

2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
05H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
Ep
0
1
At t2 state:

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

06H
05H
05H
2DH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
05H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
05H
1EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
05H

1EH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
0EH
1EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
05H

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
0EH
45H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

D0H
45H

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC

MA
R

RA
M

IR

ACC

A/S

Cp
0

Ep
0

EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
0EH
45H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
45H

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
1

SUB 0FH

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

06H
06H
45H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
45H

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

MA
R

RA
M

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
06H
45H

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
45H

1EH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
06H
2FH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
45H

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM

07H
0FH
2FH

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

IR

2FH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
45H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
0

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t5 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
0FH
0EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

15H
0EH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

At t6 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
0FH
0EH

ACC

07H

2FH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B-Reg.
OR

0EH

Instruction:

OUT

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

07H
07H
0EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

EA
0

B
Reg

A/S
Su
0

Eu
0

OR
1

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

08H
07H
0EH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH

2FH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

At t3 state:

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

08H
07H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

MA
R

RA
M

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t4 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

08H
07H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH
07H

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

Instruction:

RA
M
1
HLT

At t1 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM

08H
08H
EFH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
1

Su
0

Eu
0

IR

EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH
07H

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
1

RA
M
1

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR

B
Reg

OR

At t2 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

09H
08H
EFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH
07H

EFH

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
1

Ep
0

RA
M
1

At t3 state:
PC
MAR
16 x 8
RAM
IR

09H
08H
FFH

ACC
B-Reg.
OR

07H
0EH
07H

FFH

IR
1

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

CONTROLLER SEQUENCER:
MA
R

PC
Cp
0

Ep
0

RA
M
0

IR
0

ACC
1

A/S
EA
0

Su
0

Eu
0

B
Reg

OR