PEDAGOGY - the art, science, or profession of Teaching. - Study that deals with principles and methods in formal Education. PHILOSOPHY – comes from the Greek word “philo” and “sophio”, which together means love and wisdom. It is a set of ideas formulated to understand the basic truth about the nature of being and thinking. EDUCATION – is the sum of the qualities acquired through individual maturation and social training. Is the integration of different forces such as interests, ideas, and experiences. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION – is a system of rationally supported assumptions and beliefs about Education. It uses traditional philosophical concepts and methods to show how children’s experiences, if organized in accordance with certain assumptions, will result in the achievement of what may be considered the good life.

1. Idealism
 A philosophical approach that has as its central tenet that ideas are the only true reality,

the only thing worth knowing.

 A theory that affirms that mind or the spiritual and ideal is of central importance in reality.

 Focus: Mind

 Plato, father of Idealism, espoused this view about 400 years BC, in his famous book,

The Republic. Plato believed that there are two worlds. The first is the spiritual or mental world, which is eternal, permanent, orderly, regular, and universal. There is also the world of appearance, the world experienced through sight, touch, smell, taste, and sound, that is changing, imperfect, and disorderly.  In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society. The curricular emphasis is subject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, and religion.

 Character is developed through imitating examples and heroes. 2. Naturalism  the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations

 believed that a child was to be educated in accordance with the natural laws of human development, free from all that was artificial.

 Educational Aims:

*Preservation of Natural goodness of man and virtue: “Man is by nature good and virtuous."

*Individual Freedom: “To be free was a Right.”

*Create new society: “Individual attains his fullest fulfillment as a Natural Man.” 3. Pragmatism  the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value

 Practical treatment of things or a practical, matter-of-fact way of approaching or

assessing situations or of solving problems.

 Focus: Experience

 Universe is dynamic, evolving. Purpose of thought is action. It asserts that man and

nature are always interdependent. Man is naturalized within nature. Nature is not something merely to be accepted and enjoyed by man, it is something to be modified and experimentally controlled.

 Curricular emphasis: Subject matter of social experience. Creation of new social order

 Teaching Method : Problem solving: Project method

4. Progressivism  Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher.

 This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world.

 It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context.

 Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions.

 The Progressive education philosophy was established in America from the mid 1920s through the mid 1950s. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, studentselected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority.

5. Humanism  Humanism was developed as an educational philosophy by Rousseau (1712-1778) and Pestalozzi, who emphasized nature and the basic goodness of humans, understanding

through the senses, and education as a gradual and unhurried process in which the development of human character follows the unfolding of nature.

 Humanists believe that the learner should be in control of his or her own destiny. Since the learner should become a fully autonomous person, personal freedom, choice, and responsibility are the focus.

 The learner is self-motivated to achieve towards the highest level possible. Motivation to learn is intrinsic in humanism.

 A doctrine, attitude or way of life centered on human interests/values. A Philosophy that asserts the dignity and worth of human beings and their capacity of becoming through choices.

 The role of instructor in this learner-centered philosophy is Facilitator; helper; partner; promotes, but does not direct learning, sets mood for learning, acts as a flexible resource for learners. 6. Experimentalism

 A theory advocating experimental/empirical principles and procedures

 The philosophy of John Dewey stresses the importance of experiment in achieving the truth.

 To Dewey, the only philosophical method for knowing the whole reality is scientific method or experimental method.

 Believes that things are constantly changing. It is based on the view that reality is what you experience. It believes that truth is what works right now and that goodness comes from group decisions.

7. Scholasticism

 By St. Thomas Aquinas

 Stresses the idea that man is a national being possessing a body and soul. Each human being has an immortal destiny. Believes in the use of reason in accomplishing truth.

 Religion must be a part of the Curriculum, for it gives direction and point of destination in developing our present and future lives.

8. Existentialism

 The nature of reality for Existentialists is subjective, and lies within the individual. The physical world has no inherent meaning outside of human existence.

 Individual choice and individual standards rather than external standards are central. Existence comes before any definition of what we are. We define ourselves in relationship to that existence by the choices we make. We should not accept anyone else's predetermined philosophical system; rather, we must take responsibility for deciding who we are. The focus is on freedom, the development of authentic individuals, as we make meaning of our lives.

 Focus: Freedom

 There are several different orientations within the existentialist philosophy. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), a Danish minister and philosopher, is considered to be the founder of existentialism.

 Related to education, the subject matter of existentialist classrooms should be a matter of personal choice.

 Existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly.

 The teacher's role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which they may freely choose their own preferred way.


Theory • • creative and systematic way of looking at the world or an aspect of it to describe, explain, predict, or control it. Is a group of related concepts that propose actions that guide practice.

A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables (Kerlinger, 1973).

Theorist • one who formulates or proposes a Theory Nursing Theory • • Is a group of related concepts that derive from the nursing models. Some nursing theories also derive from other disciplines such as Leininger’s work which comes from Anthropology, or Peplau’s work which draws from Psychiatric sources.

Grand Theories • • • • Are the Global paradigms of Nursing. Means theory that covers broad areas of concern within a Discipline. May not be Testable. They are formal, highly abstract theoretical systems that frame our disciplinary knowledge within the principles of Nursing, and their concepts. Ex. Imogene King: Theory of Goal Attainment Middle Range Theories

Has a narrower focus than theory and specifies such things as the situation or health condition, the patient population or age group, the location or area of practice, and the action of the Nurse or the Intervention. Are substantively specific and encompass a limited number of concepts and a limited aspect of the Real World. Fawcett (2000) states that a Middle Range Theory may be: (1) A description of a particular Phenomenon. (2) An explanation of the relationship between Phenomena, or (3) A prediction of the effects of one phenomenon or another.

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MODEL - Symbolic representation of concept or variables and interrelationship among them

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - A structure showing the basic design of a research process as it relates to the relationship among variables PHILOSOPHY - The search for true knowledge concerning the universe, human existence, perception and behavior persuade by means of reflection, reasoning and argument METAPARADIGM - Merging to finding from several controlled research studies SCIENCE - Systematic observation and classification of natural phenomena; in order to learn about then and formulate laws which can then be verified by further investigation KNOWLEDGE - The fact of knowing; awareness, understanding what one knows; the information one has acquired through learning or experience PHENOMENON - Any fact, circumstances or experience that is apparent to the senses and can be scientifically described or appraised PARADIGM - A kind of model or framework for explaining or describing a theory that includes methods, laws, traditions, other theories ABSTRACT CONCEPTS - a concept that acts as super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field or category. CONCRETE CONCEPTS – reflects to existing objects or classes of object. It maybe relating to group, classes of things, objects and phenomena. Simply, these are objects existing in the material world. THEORETICAL DEFINITION - gives the meaning of a word in terms of the theories of a specific discipline; assumes knowledge and acceptance of the theories that it depends on. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION - Description or actual display of a process, action, or object suggested as single representative example of the term being defined LEXICAL DEFINITION - the meaning of the term in common usage; the type expected from a request for definition, and it is generally expected that such a definition will be stated as simply as possible in order to convey information to the widest audience. ASSUMPTIONS - A statement describing a fact or condition that is accepted as being true on the basis of logic and reason PROPOSITIONS - A plan or suggestion put forward; a statement that is to be proved true, a problem to be solved

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THEORETICAL STATEMENTS – statements derived from a theory, which is a set of principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, as opposed to practice. HYPOTHESIS - The delineation of relationship believed to exist between two phenomena; when substantiated by research the statement moves to the realm of theory or principle RESEARCH - A process of utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods to collect and analyze data for the purpose of prediction and explanation DEDUCTION - The process of reasoning of an individual from general or universal to specific premises INDUCTION - The process of forming or coming to a general conclusion from particular cases RETRODUCTION – mode of interference in which events are explained by postulating and identifying mechanisms which are capable of producing them.

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